Kowloon Motor Bus
|Founded||13 April 1933|
|Headquarters||Lai Chi Kok, Kowloon, Hong Kong|
|Service area||Hong Kong|
|Service type||Bus services|
|Alliance||Long Win Bus|
|Fleet||4073 (Oct 2019)|
|Annual ridership||990 million (2016)|
|Kowloon Motor Bus|
The Kowloon Motor Bus Company (1933) Limited (KMB) is a bus company operating franchised services in Hong Kong. It is the largest bus company in Hong Kong by fleet size and number of bus routes. It is a subsidiary of Transport International.
Its slogan is Heartbeat of the City (Chinese: 城市脈搏) from 2017. Before that, it was Moving Forward Every Day (Chinese: 九巴服務 日日進步, literally KMB service improves every day) since 1985.
KMB was founded on 13 April 1933 as a result of the reformation of public transport by the Hong Kong Government. Before the reformation, there were several independent bus operators working on both sides of Victoria Harbour including KMB.
The Hong Kong Government enforces the bus franchises in favour of the franchisees, while it prosecutes the operators of unauthorised private bus services and other types of authorised bus service that pick up or drop off passengers in franchised bus parking zones.
The founding members of KMB were:
- Tang Shiu-kin (鄧肇堅)
- William Louey Sui Tak (雷瑞德)
- Lui Leung (雷亮)
- Tam Woon Tong (譚煥堂)
- Lam Ming Fan (林明勳)
By December 1941, KMB had 140 single-deckers operating on 17 routes. As only a handful of buses survived World War II, some lorries were temporarily converted into buses. By the late 1940s, KMB ridership increased with the huge influx of immigration from Mainland China. In 1949, KMB bought 20 Daimler double-deckers from England, becoming the first operator of double-deckers in Hong Kong.
Following the opening of the Cross-Harbour Tunnel in 1972, KMB operated a number of cross-harbour routes jointly with China Motor Bus, the sole bus operator on Hong Kong Island. This marked the first time KMB buses running on the island. In the same year, KMB began experimenting with buses operating without a fare collector. All passengers would board from the front door and pay the fare by putting money into the collection box next to the driver.
In 1996, KMB launched an advertising campaign to promote modern image. It is the first bus company advertising in Hong Kong.
On 1 June 1997, KMB formed a subsidiary, Long Win Bus, to provide service on the Lantau Link to the new Hong Kong International Airport and Tung Chung. In 1998, KMB extended its business into mainland China with a co-operative joint venture, Dalian Hong Kong Macau Company. In 1999, KMB started to operate some KCR Feeder Bus (now MTR Bus) routes, which are complimentary to passengers of the KCR East Rail and later West Rail (now MTR East Rail line and West Rail line).
As at October 2019, KMB operated 642 routes in Kowloon and the New Territories, and operates cross-harbour tunnel routes in which some are operated in co-operation with the two other bus operators Citybus and New World First Bus, while some are operated by themselves only.
Passengers pay the fare in cash (no change given) or using an Octopus card, a smart card payment system. Discounts apply for Octopus users on specified route interchange combinations. To enable elderly people and eligible persons with disabilities to travel on the general Mass Transit Railway (MTR) lines, franchised buses and ferries are charged concessionary fare of $2 per trip, starting from 2012. The scheme aims to help build a caring and inclusive society by encouraging these groups to participate more in community activities.
In 2018, KMB launched the KMB Monthly Pass. Fares are fixed at HK$780, and are not applicable to MTR Feeder Bus services operated by KMB. Holders are able to take 10 rides on ordinary routes and 2 rides on route B1 per day during the validity month of the pass. Passes can be purchased using an Octopus card at machines installed at major public transport interchanges and bus terminals.
As of October 2019, Kowloon Motor Bus operated a fleet of 4073 buses.
KMB traditionally purchased buses from English manufacturers including AEC, Daimler, Dennis, Guy Motors, Leyland, Metro Cammell Weymann and Seddon, that either were bodied in England or locally.
In 1975, the first air-conditioned bus in Hong Kong was put into service by KMB. Following the testing of double-deck air-conditioned buses Victory and Jubilant in the early 1980s, KMB became the world's first operator of such buses. All purchases after 1995 were for air-conditioned buses. In May 2012, KMB withdrew its last non-air-conditioned buses from service.
KMB's original liveries were combinations of red and cream. In the early 1990s, a white and grey livery was introduced for air-conditioned buses, followed in 1997 by a champagne livery. In June 2017, a red and silver livery was introduced, as well as a new logo, dropping the character and its Chinese Slogan, retaining only the wordmark, but with a darker shade of red.
KMB operate four depots in Kowloon and the New Territories. The depot of a bus is identified by the letter K, L, S, or U, and the letter is marked on the bottom left of the driver's windscreen or below windscreen. The assignment scheme is as follows:
- K: Kowloon Bay depot
- Subsidiary depot: Tseung Kwan O depot
- L: Lai Chi Kok (Stonecutters Island) depot
- Subsidiary depots: Yuet Lun Street depot, Tsing Yi depot
- S: Sha Tin (Siu Lek Yuen) depot
- U: Formerly Un Long (Yuen Long) depot, currently Tuen Mun depot
- Subsidiary depots: Tuen Mun South depot, Yuen Long depot, Tin Shui Wai depot, Sheung Shui depot (until 2009)
In addition, except from the Kowloon Bay depot, the other depots are also responsible for the maintenance of the fleet owned by Long Win Bus, since they are owned by the same company.
Kowloon Motor Bus also has a Hong Kong football club, Kowloon Motor Bus Co. It was formed in 1947 and joined Hong Kong First Division League in the 1947/48 season. Nicknamed "Atomic Bus", the team obtained the only two league titles in 1953/54 and 1966/67. The team attained its peak in the 1950s and 1960s when the "South China - Kowloon Motor Bus Co. crash" (南巴大戰) was one of the highlighted rival matches in Hong Kong. In 1970/71, the team faced their first relegation, but was able to stay in the First Division as Jardines quit the league in the following season. However, the team were relegated in 1972/73. It made its last First Division League appearance in 1976/77, but was relegated after only one season. The football team quit the league in 1981 and reformed in 2017.
- 2018 Hong Kong bus accident
- The Bus Uncle – a 2006 incident filmed on a KMB bus that became an internet phenomenon
- Transport in Hong Kong
- "Kowloon Motor Bus Co 1993 Ltd/The". Bloomberg. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
- Lai, Lawrence Wai Chung; Davies, Stephen Nicholas Guy; Cheung, Alvin Polycarp Cho Wing (August 2011). "Government Transport Land-use Planning and Development by Implicit Contract for Franchised Buses and Ferries in Hong Kong, 1933–1972" (PDF). Planning Practice and Research. 26 (4): 435–466. doi:10.1080/02697459.2011.582395. hdl:10722/145931. ISSN 0269-7459.
- Milestones Kowloon Motor Bus
- Finer, Jonathan, “King of the road” Far Eastern Economic Review, Feb 7, 2002, Vol.165 (5), pp.36-40
- About LWB Long Win Bus Company
- Company Overview Transport International Holdings
- Grant of new franchise to Kowloon Motor Bus Company (1933) Limited Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 28 March 2017
- Hong Kong bus operator Kowloon Motor Bus company granted new 10-year franchise South China Morning Post 28 March 2017
- Annual report for year ended 31 December 2017 Transport International
- "Bus-Bus Interchange System". Kowloon Motor Bus. 2007. Retrieved 6 December 2007.
- "KMB fares cut on day trains reduce prices". The Standard. 2007. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2007.
- "Launch of KMB monthly pass scheme approved". www.info.gov.hk. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
- Orders & Deliveries Commercial Motor 27 November 1964
- Giant Daimlers for Hong Kong Commercial Motor 18 March 1966
- Twin-steer Big J tractive unit Commercial Motor 9 September 1966
- 100 Seddonn Buses for Hong Kong Commercial Motor 24 May 1957
- Kowloon Coaches Commercial Motor 12 July 1980
- Farewell to KMB Non-Air Conditioned Buses Kowloon Motor Bus 10 May 2012
- Alexander's HK Merc Commercial Motor 12 March 1983
- Ailsa for Kowloon Commercial Motor 17 November 1978
- Red buses coming to a stop near you The Standard 5 May 2017
- KMB's new red and silver buses to greet Hongkongers by end of June South China Morning Post 22 June 2017
- Ko, Tim-keung (2013). 80 Years with KMB (1933-2013). Hong Kong: Joint Publishing. ISBN 9789620434907.