Krajina

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Krajina (pronounced [krâjina]) is a Slavic toponym, meaning 'frontier' or 'march'. The term is related with kraj or krai, originally meaning "edge"[1] and today denoting a region or province, usually distant from the metropole.

Etymology[edit]

The Serbo-Croatian word krajina derives from Proto-Slavic *krajina, derived from *krajь, meaning "edge", related to *krojiti, "to cut";[1][2] the original meaning of krajina thus seems to have been "place at an edge, fringe, borderland", as reflected in the meanings of Church Slavonic краина, kraina,[2] and Old East Slavic окраина, okraina.[3]

In some South Slavic languages, including Serbo-Croatian and Slovene, the word krajina or its cognate still refers primarily to a border, fringe, or borderland of a country (sometimes with an established military defense), and secondarily to a region, area, or landscape.[2][4] The word kraj can today mean an end or extremity, or region or area. Archaically extrapolated, it could mean "army" or "war";[4] this meaning developed from the earlier meaning of "borderland" in a manner analogous to the French word campagne.[2] The term is equal to German Mark and French marche.[5] In the Habsburg Empire, a large region in modern Croatia was referred to as a Military Frontier (Militärgrenze; Vojna krajina).

In other Slavic languages (including the Chakavian and Kajkavian dialects of Serbo-Croatian), the term has other meanings, either a territorial name (cf. Krajna in Poland, from Old Polish kraina, meaning region, borderland, extremity[2]) or word with meaning "a land, landscape" (e.g. in Polish, Slovak, Czech or Sorbian). In Slovenian, the word means both "landscape" and march.

Geographical regions[edit]

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia shared[edit]

Croatia[edit]

  • Krayna vu Otoce: medieval Glagolitic name of Gacka valley in Lika highlands.
  • Krajina - medieval name for the region(s) in Central Dalmatia in Croatia, including parts of Lower Neretva and western Herzegovina in today Bosnia and Herzegovina. It spread in the east-west direction, between the lower course of the river Neretva in the east, and the river Cetina, in the west, and in south-north direction, between the rivers Vrljika and Trebižat, mountains Dinara, Mosor and Biokovo, on the north, and Adriatic Sea;
    • a part of peri-littoral area near Makarska in Croatia is called Krajina;
    • Omiška krajina, region in hinterland of city of Omiš, in Croatian south, in Zagora; to east from Cetinska krajina, to west from Cetinska krajina;
    • municipality of Krajina, a municipality in southern Croatia, located between Split and Imotski, existed from 1912–1945;
    • Imotska krajina, area around the city of Imotski, in southern Croatia, in Zagora mostly containing Imotsko polje.
  • Drniška krajina, area around the city of Drniš in southern Croatia, in Zagora, to west from Cetinska krajina to east from Cetinska and Omiška krajina, to west from Vrgoračka krajina;
    • also the name of the soccer club from Imotski.
  • Istarska krajina, historical region in western Croatia, central area of peninsula of Istria.
  • Kninska Krajina, region around Knin in southern Croatia, to north from Drniška krajina and northeast from Cetinska krajina.
  • Sinjska krajina, area in Zagora, in southern Croatia, around the city of Sinj, west from Livanjski kraj, southeast from Vrlička krajina (sometimes considered as part of Cetinska krajina).
  • Krajina is also a Croat surname.

Montenegro[edit]

Poland[edit]

Serbia[edit]

Slovenia[edit]

Political regions[edit]

Subdivisions of Austria-Hungary:

Political units formed by rebel Serbs at the beginning of the Croatian War of Independence (1991–95):

Political unit formed by Serbs in the prelude (1991) of the Bosnian War (1992–95):

Where the term "Serbian Krajina" or "Krajina" alone is used, it most often refers to the former Republic of Serbian Krajina.

In Russia:

In Slovakia:

In Czech Republic:

In Ukraine:

  • In Ukrainian, krajina (країна) means "country, land", while Ukrajina is the country name. See also: Name of Ukraine.

People[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rick Derksen (2008), Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon, Brill: Leiden-Boston, page 244
  2. ^ a b c d e “*krajina” in Oleg Trubačóv (ed.) (1974–), Этимологический словарь славянских языков [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages], Moscow: Nauka, volume 12, pages 87-88
  3. ^ Max Vasmer (1986), Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkogo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language], in 4 vols (second edition), Moscow: Progress — Translated from German and supplemented by O. N. Trubačóv
  4. ^ a b Group of authors (1969). "Кра̏јина". Речник српскохрватскога књижевног језика, vol. 3 (in Serbo-Croatian). Novi Sad/Zagreb: Matica srpska/Matica hrvatska. p. 30.
  5. ^ Group of authors (1972). "Krajina". In colonel-general Nikola Gažević (ed.). Vojna enciklopedija, vol. 4 (in Serbo-Croatian). Belgrade. p. 681.
  6. ^ (in Croatian) Excerpt from the book I. Marinović, B. Šutić, M. Viskić: Baćina: Prošlost Baćine, Udruga Pagania, Ploče, 2005, ISBN 953-95132-0-0
  • Karlo Jurišić, Lepantska pobjeda i makarska Krajina, Adriatica maritima, sv. I, (Lepantska bitka, Udio hrvatskih pomoraca u Lepantskoj bitki 1571. godine), Institut JAZU u Zadru, Zadar, 1974., str. 217., 222., (reference from Morsko prase)