|District||Urban districts of Germany|
|• Lord Mayor||Frank Meyer (SPD)|
|• Total||137.68 km2 (53.16 sq mi)|
|Elevation||39 m (128 ft)|
|• Density||1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
Krefeld (German pronunciation: [ˈkʁeːfɛlt] ( listen)), also known as Crefeld until 1929, is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located northwest of Düsseldorf, its centre lying just a few kilometres to the west of the River Rhine; the borough of Uerdingen is situated directly on the Rhine. Krefeld is accessed by the autobahns A57 (Cologne–Nijmegen) and the A44 (Aachen–Düsseldorf–Dortmund–Kassel).
Krefeld is also called the "Velvet and Silk City".
Krefeld's residents speak Hochdeutsch, the standard German taught to all people in Germany. However, the native dialect is a Low German variety, sometimes locally called Krefelder Plattdeutsch, Krieewelsch Platt, Plattdeutsch, or sometimes simply Platt. The Uerdingen line isogloss, separating general dialectical areas in Germany and neighbouring Germanic-speaking countries, runs through and is named after Krefeld's Uerdingen district, originally an independent municipality.
- 1 History
- 2 Points of interest
- 3 Districts
- 4 Incorporations
- 5 Historical population of Krefeld
- 6 Mayors of Krefeld from 1848
- 7 City counsellors 1946 until 1999
- 8 Transport
- 9 Economy
- 10 International relations
- 11 Notable natives
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The town originated in Roman times when the legions founded the military camp of Gelduba (today the borough of Gellep). Records first mention Krefeld itself in 1105 under the name of Krinvelde. Uerdingen, originally an independent town east of Krefeld, founded in 1255, became in medieval times larger and more important than Krefeld.
In February 1598, Walburga, wife of Adolf van Nieuwenaar, and last Countess of Limburg and Moers, gifted the County of Moers, which included Krefeld, to Maurice, Prince of Orange. After her death in 1600, John William of Cleves took possession of these lands, but Maurice successfully defended his heritage in 1601. Krefeld and Moers would remain under the jurisdiction of the House of Orange and the Dutch Republic during the Dutch Golden Age. The growth of the town began in that century, partially because Krefeld was one of few towns spared the horrors of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). The town of Uerdingen, incorporated into Krefeld in the 20th century, was less fortunate, almost ceasing to exist, destroyed at the hands of troops from Hesse during the Thirty Years' War. In 1683 a group of thirteen Mennonite families left Krefeld to re-settle in Pennsylvania in order to enjoy religious freedom. They crossed the Atlantic on the ship Concord, and founded the settlement of Germantown (now incorporated in Philadelphia), thus beginning the Pennsylvania Dutch ethnic identity.
After the death of William III of Orange in 1702, Krefeld passed to the Kingdom of Prussia. The Battle of Krefeld occurred nearby in 1758 during the Seven Years' War. Krefeld and Uerdingen were included within the Prussian Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg in 1815 (after 1822 the Rhine Province). In 1872 Krefeld became an independent city within Rhenish Prussia. In 1918 during the First World Warthe Belgian Army used it as a base during the occupation of the Rhineland.
In 1929 Krefeld and Uerdingen merged to form Krefeld-Uerdingen; in 1940 the name was shortened to simply Krefeld.
On December 11, 1941, during World War II, a detailed report on the transport of Jews from Krefeld and its surroundings listed 1007 Jews from Krefeld and Duisburg, were deported to the Šķirotava Railway Station near Riga, later to become Jungfernhof concentration camp. They were transported in freezing conditions with no drinking-water for more than two days. Almost immediately upon arrival these Jews were shot in the Rumbula forest massacre.
On 21 June 1943 British bombs destroyed large parts of east of the city; a firestorm consumed most of the city center (apart from the central train station, which remained intact apart from minor damage). On 3 March 1945 US troops entered Krefeld, among them the later U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger.
The Jews of Krefeld
Jews were listed as citizens of Krefeld from 1617. In 1764 a synagogue was erected, and by 1812, under French rule, the town included 196 Jewish families, with three Jewish-owned banks. Under Napoleon, the town became the capital for the surrounding Jewish communities including over 5000 Jews, and by 1897 they comprised 1.8% of the population. In 1846 a Jewish representative was voted onto the town's municipal council, while rising antisemitism was noted during these elections. A reform synagogue was built in 1876, arousing opposition from the Orthodox community. A Jewish school existed in the town, with more than 200 students around 1900.
In November 1938 during Kristallnacht, the two synagogues were attacked. In 1941 following an order from Hitler to deport the German Jews to the east, Jews from the town were sent to the area around Riga and murdered there. In 1945, the U.S. Army occupied the city and placed Henry Kissinger, then an Army private and later Secretary of State of the United States, in charge of the city administration.
In 2008 a new synagogue, library and Jewish cultural center were erected on the location of one of the demolished synagogues. Around 1100 Jews were reported to live in and around Krefeld at the time.
Points of interest
- Castle of Linn (German)
- Botanischer Garten Krefeld, a municipal botanical garden
- Lange and Esters Houses, neighbouring houses by early Mies van der Rohe, now serving as local contemporary art museum venues
- Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, contemporary art museum
- Zoo Krefeld
- Galopprennbahn Krefeld, horse racing track
There are a number of districts in Krefeld. Each has a municipal representative, with representatives chosen by local elections. The districts are:
Cities and places that were incorporated into Krefeld:
- 1901: Linn (Stadtrecht since 1314)
- 1907: Bockum, Verberg und Oppum (all mayoralty Bockum)
- Krefeld became an independent city
- Uerdingen, Krefeld (received municipal law in 1255/1344, added Hohenbudberg in today's Duisburg district Friemersheim)
- Fischeln, Krefeld district
- Traar, Krefeld district
- Gellep and Stratum (in Lank), Krefeld district
- Forstwald (Vorst), Krefeld district
- Benrad und Hülserberg (Hüls), Kempen
- 1975: Locality of Hüls from Kempen (since 1970 integrated and belonged since 1929 to the Kempen-Krefeld district; in 1936 Orbroich had been independent)
Historical population of Krefeld
¹ Census data
Largest migrant communities in Krefeld are :
Mayors of Krefeld from 1848
- 1848–1872: Ludwig Heinrich Ondereyck
- 1872–1881: Friedrich Christian Roos
- 1882–1903: Ernst Küper
- 1903–1905: Wilhelm Hammerschmidt
- 1905–1911: Adalbert Oehler
- 1911–1930: Johannes Johansen
- 1945–1946: Johannes Stepkes
- 1946–1947: Wilhelm Warsch
- 1947–1949: Hermann Passen
- 1949–1951: Hanns Müller (FDP)
- 1951–1956: Johannes Hauser (CDU)
- 1956–1961: Josef Hellenbrock (SPD)
- 1961–1968: Herbert van Hüllen (CDU)
- 1968–1982: Hansheinz Hauser (CDU)
- 1982–1989: Dieter Pützhofen, first term in office (CDU)
- 1989–1994: Willi Wahl (SPD)
- 1994–2004: Dieter Pützhofen, second term in office (CDU)
- 2004–2015: Gregor Kathstede (CDU)
- 2015–present: Frank Meyer (SPD)
City counsellors 1946 until 1999
- 1946–1949: Johan Stepkes
- 1949–1964: Bernhard Heun
- 1964–1986: Hermann Steffens
- 1986–1988: Alfred Dahlmann
- 1988–1999: Heinz-Josef Vogt
Krefeld is connected to the Deutsche Bahn network with several stations, including its main station, Krefeld Hauptbahnhof. They are served by Intercity, Regional-Express and Regionalbahn trains. The Düsseldorf-based Rheinbahn operates a Stadtbahn service to the centrally located Rheinstraße stop. This line was the first electric inter-city rail line in Europe, established in 1898, and commonly called the K-Bahn because of the letter "K" used to denote the trains to Krefeld. Nowadays, in the VRR notation, it is called U76, with the morning and afternoon express trains numbered as U70, the line number there coloured red instead of the usual blue used for U-Bahn lines. The term K-Bahn, however, prevails in common usage.
The city of Krefeld itself operates four tramway and several bus lines under the umbrella of SWK MOBIL, a city-owned company. Since 2010, 19 of the oldest trams of the type DUEWAG GT8 were replaced by modern barrier-free trams of the type Bombardier Flexity Outlook. SWK Mobil owns an option to buy another 19 trams of the same type to replace the last 19 DUEWAG M8 trams. The whole tram fleet will then be barrier-free. Next to that the city plans to extend the line 044 in Krefeld-Hüls to connect the northern district of Hüls with the Krefeld downtown area.
The headquarters of Fressnapf, a pet food retailer franchise company, are situated in Krefeld.
Since 1964, the city has hosted an "honors program in foreign language (German) studies" for high school students from Indiana, United States. The program annually places approximately thirty carefully selected high school juniors with families in and around Krefeld for intensive German language training. Since 1973, the fire services of Krefeld and twin city Leicester have played each other in an annual 'friendly' football match.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Krefeld is twinned with:
|United States||Charlotte||North Carolina||1986|
- Charlotte Auerbach (1899–1994), genetic scientist, born here
- Rudi Dornbusch (1 December, 8 June 1942 – 25 July 2002), economist
- Max Zorn (6 June 1906 – 9 March 1993 in Bloomington, Indiana), mathematician
- Leopold Löwenheim, (1878–1957), German logician
Writers, poets and journalists:
- Bernhard Hennen (born in 1966), German best-seller writer of fantasy literature
- Kurt Feltz (14 April 1910 – 3 August 1982 in Majorca), poet
- Werner Ross (1912 in Uerdingen – 2002), German writer
- Otto Brües (1 May 1897 – 18 April 1967), journalist
- Margarethe Schreinemakers (1958), German television presenter and journalist
- Silent Force, prog/classical "epic" rock band
- Blind Guardian, popular German heavy metal band
- Saki Kaskas, video game music composer
- Everon, German progressive metal band
- Ralf Hütter (20 August 1946), lead singer of electronic music pioneers Kraftwerk
- Aquagen, popular German trance and eurodance artists
- Heinrich Band (1821–1860)
- Andrea Berg, (born 1966), popular German singer
- Cosmic Gate, popular German trance duo
- Joseph Beuys (12 May 1921 – 1986), artist
- Heinrich Campendonk (3 November 1889 – 9 May 1957 in Amsterdam)
- Albert Oehlen, artist
- Markus Oehlen, artist
- Marc Margielsky, artist
- Felix Kracht (1912–2002), aerospace engineer, an Airbus pioneer and former Senior Vice President
- Werner Voss (13 April 1897 – 23 September 1917), German World War I aviator
- Emil Schäfer (17 December 1891 – 5 June 1917), German World War I aviator
- Martin Hyun, German and U.S. hockey player
- Frank Schwinghammer, a German and Canadian hockey player
- Philip Hindes, a British sprint cyclist
Knights Cross Holder:
- Carl Josef Kleingrothe (1864–1925), photographer in Medan, Sumatra.
- Thierry Hermès, German-born French businessman and founder of Hermès (1801–1878)
- "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen". Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW (in German). 18 July 2016.
- Ada Peele, Een uitzonderlijke erfgenaam: De verdeling van de nalatenschap van Koning-Stadhouder Willem III, Uitgeverij Verloren, 2013, Germany, pp. 36-39.
- Germantown Historical Society: Founders of Germantown; Jones, Iris Carter: Krefeld Immigrants
- Report on Jewish Deportation to Riga (Hebrew Translation of German document by Yad Vashem) ,
- (German) Gottwald, Fred, and Schulle, Diana: Die „Judendeportationen“ aus dem Deutschen Reich 1941–1945. (The Jewish deportations by the German Empire from 1941 to 1945.) Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-86539-059-5, p.121 I heard that the Jews were evacuated in rows - and as they left the train - they were shot" (Victor Klemperer, diary entry of January 13, 1942)
- Jews of Krefeld Yad Vashem website. Town citizen Isaac Meyer Fuld, a member of the family of Heinrich Heine, was a prominent bank-owner in Germany at the time.
- Walter Isaacson, Kissinger: A Biography, p.48.
- New synagogue opens in Krefeld (English, Deutsche Welle website)
- Kaiser Wilhelm Museum
- Herzlich willkommen im Museumszentrum Burg Linn! Besuchen Sie unser Museum
- Brown, Tom (31 July 2013). "Twin towns: Do we still need them?". BBC East Midlands Today. BBC News. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Crefeld.|