Kreisau Circle

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The von Moltke mansion at Kreisau / Krzyżowa

The Kreisau Circle (German: Kreisauer Kreis) was the name the Nazi Gestapo gave to a group of conservative German dissidents centered on the estate of Helmuth James Graf von Moltke at Kreisau, Silesia. It is regarded as one of the main centers of German opposition to the Nazi regime. The difficulty for all such dissidents was how to reconcile national-conservative attitudes with opposition to the Nazis, when the Nazis had subverted the state to such an extent that the two were almost inextricable.

A German stamp of Stauffenberg and Helmuth James Graf von Moltke in commemoration of their 100th birthdays

The principal members were Helmuth von Moltke, Peter Yorck von Wartenburg and Adam von Trott zu Solz. Most members of the group were conservatives from the traditional German aristocracy and gentry, but the circle also included people from a wide variety of backgrounds. They included two Jesuit priests, two Lutheran pastors, conservatives, liberals, monarchists, landowners, former trade-union leaders and diplomats.

The Kreisau Circle maintained contact with other resistance groups. Members of the circle worked to inform the Western Allies, especially the United Kingdom, about political conditions within the Third Reich and the dangers and weaknesses of Nazism. The circle's main focus was to plan and propose a peacetime government for Germany; they did not ever appear to have made any plans to overthrow the Nazi state. As Moltke wrote to his wife just before his execution, "we are to be hanged for thinking together."

The long meetings and discussions at Kreisau developed a plan for society to be based on Christian values. Some of them also wanted to restore the German monarchy to prevent another dictatorship. Most wanted the regeneration of Germany after the end of Nazism to be based on Christian principles, for basic freedoms to be restored, and envisioned a Germany consisting of a federal state with a weak central government based on small self-governing communities,[1] so as to avoid a manipulation of the whole of society like the one Hitler had achieved.

On 19 January 1944 Moltke was arrested and the Kreisau Circle fell into disarray. The focus of some circle members had been turning towards an active political coup, and some participated in the failed assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler by Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg on 20 July 1944. After the failure of this plot, many members of the Circle were arrested and executed. These included Trott but also members who had not been part of the Plot, such as Moltke, Yorck and Delp.

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Richard J. Evans (2008), The Third Reich at War, 1939-1945, Penguin, pp. 632–, ISBN 978-1-59420-206-3, retrieved 13 January 2013 

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