Coordinates: 49°03′47″N 33°24′14″E / 49.06306°N 33.40389°E / 49.06306; 33.40389
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Top left: Soborna Street, Top right: Dnipro River and Kryukov Bridge, Center: Victory Square, Bottom left: Memorial of Vichno Zhyvym, Bottom right: Saint Nicolas Church
Top left: Soborna Street, Top right: Dnipro River and Kryukov Bridge, Center: Victory Square, Bottom left: Memorial of Vichno Zhyvym, Bottom right: Saint Nicolas Church
Flag of Kremenchuk
Coat of arms of Kremenchuk
Kremenchuk is located in Poltava Oblast
Location in Poltava Oblast
Kremenchuk is located in Ukraine
Location in Ukraine
Coordinates: 49°03′47″N 33°24′14″E / 49.06306°N 33.40389°E / 49.06306; 33.40389
Country Ukraine
OblastPoltava Oblast
RaionKremenchuk Raion
HromadaKrememchuk urban hromada
 • MayorVitalii Maletskyi
 • Total96 km2 (37 sq mi)
80 m (260 ft)
 • Total215,271
 • Density2,200/km2 (5,800/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postcode district(s)
Area code5366[2]
Vehicle registrationBI[3]
The Dnieper River in Kremenchuk, Ukraine

Kremenchuk (/ˌkrɛmənˈk, ˌkrɪmɪnˈ-/; Ukrainian: Кременчук, IPA: [kremenˈtʃuk] ) is an industrial city in central Ukraine which stands on the banks of the Dnieper River. The city serves as the administrative center of Kremenchuk Raion within Poltava Oblast. Kremenchuk also hosts the administration of Kremenchuk urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine.[4] Its population is approximately 215,271 (2022 estimate),[5] ranking 31st in Ukraine. In 2001, the Ukrainian government included the city in the list of historical settlements.[6]

Although not as large as some other oblast centers, Kremenchuk has a large industrial center in Ukraine and Eastern Europe. A KrAZ truck plant, the Kremenchuk Oil Refinery of Ukrtatnafta, the Kriukiv Railway Car Building Works, and Kremenchuk Hydroelectric Power Plant, in nearby Svitlovodsk, are located in or near Kremenchuk. Highway M22 crosses the Dnieper over the dam of the power plant.

Originally established on the left bank, Kremenchuk eventually incorporated the city of Kriukiv [uk] on the right bank. The Kriukiv Railway Car Building Works is one of the oldest railway-repair and rail-car-building factories in Eastern Europe, dating from 1869.[7]

Kremenchuk's Ukrtatnafta oil refinery is the largest in Ukraine and for a while was the only one operating since the beginning of the conflict with Russia that left refineries in the Donbas inactive. Because of Russian attacks during the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the refinery was out of operation in 2022.[8]


Kremenchuk was founded in 1571 as a fortress.[9][10] The name Kremenchuk is explained as deriving from the word "kremen" - flint (a mineral) because the city is located on a giant chert plate. An alternative explanation says that "Kremenchuk" is the Turkish for "small fortress".[citation needed]

In 1625, at Lake Kurukove in Kremenchuk, the Treaty of Kurukove was signed between Cossacks and the Poles. Since the establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate, the city was part of the Chyhyryn Polk (regiment). Following the Russo-Polish War (1654–1667) and Treaty of Andrusovo, the city was secured by the Tsardom of Russia and became part of the Myrhorod Polk (regiment) within the left-bank of the Cossack Hetmanate. The city played a key role in the Russian colonization policy of Ukraine and their striving for the shores of Black Seas as regional administrative center of the early Novorossiya Governorate and Yekaterinoslav Vice-regency (Namestnichestvo).[11] With the creation of Novorossiya Governorate, the Dnieper Pikemen Regiment (Russian: Днепровский пикинёрный полк) was created and coincidentally a few years later (1768–69) in the neighboring regions of Poland began the Koliyivshchyna. Here in 1786 the Russian general Alexander Suvorov started his military career when he was appointed a commander of the local garrison (in preparation of the 1787–1792 Russo-Turkish War).

Kremenchuk, XIX

Following defeat in the Crimean War began the installation of a network of railroads in Russia, and in 1869 in Kryukiv were built small railcar repair shops, while in 1872 the city of Kriukiv was connected with Kremenchuk by a railroad bridge over the Dnieper. In 1870 in Kremenchuk a factory was built that produced and maintained agrarian equipment and iron cast products. In 1899 a network of tramway transportation was introduced in Kremenchuk that existed until the complete establishment of Soviet regime in Ukraine in 1921.

During the Russian February Revolution of 1917, power in the city was controlled by a council (soviet) of workers' deputies which was dominated by the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and the head of the city council was the future Ukrainian Communist leader Yuriy Lapchynskyi [uk]. During the Ukrainian–Soviet War, on 26 January 1918, Russian Bolshevik troops secured the city, however already in February of the same year they had to withdraw due to the treaty of Brest-Litovsk and advance of German and Ukrainian armies. Following the World War I hostilities between the Bolshevik Russia and Ukraine renewed and on 1 February 1919 the Russian Red Army once again secured the city. However, in May of the same year Kremechuk was engulfed in the insurgency of Otaman Grigoriev who earlier sided with Bolsheviks and drove the international force of Triple Entante from Odesa. From July to December 1919 the city was occupied by the Russian "White Guard" troops of Anton Denikin. Following their withdrawal, the Denikin's troops blew up the railroad bridge.

In 1920–1922, the city was the administrative center of the short-lived Kremenchuk Governorate [uk] during a peasant insurgency (Kholodnyi Yar) near Chyhyryn (just west of the city). During the 1930s, Kremenchuk's industry was transformed, its Kriukiv railcar repair shops became a railcar manufacturing factory, while its factory in production of agrarian equipment changed to manufacturing road equipment.

During World War II (1939–1945), Kremenchuk suffered heavily under Nazi occupation. It was occupied from September 15, 1941, to September 29, 1943. More than 90% of the city's buildings were leveled over the course of the war.[12] 29 September, the day when the city was liberated from the Nazis in 1943, is celebrated in Kremenchuk as City Day. Despite a remarkable post-war recovery and a healthier economy, Kremenchuk lacks much of the architectural charm and distinctly Ukrainian (rather than Russian) character of its sister city, the oblast capital of Poltava.

During the Cold War, Kremenchuk became the headquarters for the 43rd Rocket Division of the 43rd Army of the Soviet Strategic Rocket Forces.[13] The division was equipped with R-12 Dvina intercontinental ballistic missiles.[dubious ]

In 1975 the city of Kryukiv was merged with Kremenchuk, while Kremenchuk was divided in two raions in city.

In 2014 during the mass demolition of monuments to Vladimir Lenin in Ukraine, in the city were removed two monuments of the Russian Communist leader in the city center and near the Kryukiv Railcar Factory.

Oleh Babayev, the mayor of Kremenchuk was assassinated on July 26, 2014.[14] Oleh Babayev opposed separatism and promoted national unity, prior to becoming mayor he was a member of the Batkivshchyna political party which opposed Victor Yanukovich. His political views and Kremenchuk's large industrial base may have been the motivation for the attack.[citation needed]

During the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine security at the Kremenchuk Reservoir was heightened as it was seen as a possible target for saboteurs.[15]

Until 18 July 2020, Kremenchuk was designated as a city of oblast significance and did not belong to Kremenchuk Raion even though it was the center of the raion. As part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Poltava Oblast to four, the city was merged into Kremenchuk Raion.[16][17]

During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Kremenchuk has been under attack by Russian forces. On April 27 and May 12 an oil refinery was hit by Russian missiles and will be out of operation for months. On June 27 a shopping mall was hit by Russian missiles and caught fire, 16 people died and 59 were injured.[8][18][19] Just after the strike, a nearby factory was hit. Russian authorities claimed that the factory hosted weapons supplied by the US and European countries.[20] In 2014, the factory was known to repair armoured personnel carriers (BTR-70s).[21]

Jewish community and Holocaust[edit]

Jews initially began to settle in the city in 1782, and by 1801, there were 454 registered taxpayers in Kremenchuk. As a result of Jewish emigration from further north in the Pale of Settlement, many Jews from northern provinces settled in the city in the mid-19th century. The community had grown sevenfold within a half decade to 3,475 by 1847.[22] The 1897 All-Russia Census recorded the Jewish population of Kremenchuk at 29,768, or at 47% of the total population.[23] Growth of the city's Jewish population stagnated, still hovering at 28,969 by 1926, around 50% of the population, later heavily falling to 19,880 by 1939.

Nazi forces occupied Kremenchuk on September 9, 1941, setting restrictions on Jewish purchases and forcing them to wear the Yellow Star of Jude. On September 27, 1941, they were exiled from the city, and forced to move into the Ghetto in Novo-Ivanovka.[uk][22] Many Jews who hid throughout the city were later caught and forced into the Ghettos as well. Between October 1941 and January 1942, a total of around 8,000 Jews were shot and killed in various instances of execution over the months, although the community was not entirely wiped out. The Ghetto and town were liberated September 29th, 1943 by the Red Army.[24] A Jewish community of over 5,000 remained in the city throughout the 1950s, although dwindled in the 1990s during migration to Israel.[22]

There are a few Jewish cemeteries from different parts of the 20th century in the area, with the last burials having occurred in Jewish Cemetery II in the 1990s.[25]



Distribution of the population by native language according to the 2001 census:[26]

Language Percentage
Ukrainian 75.48%
Russian 23.94%
other/undecided 0.58%


KrAZ automobile plant

Kremenchuk is the economic center of the Poltava Oblast and one of the leading industrial centers of Ukraine. As of 2005, it contributed about 7 percent of the national economy and accounted for more than 50 percent of the industrial output in Poltava Oblast.[citation needed] The city is home to KrAZ, a truck-manufacturing company (one of the largest in Eastern Europe) as well as a major European oil refinery operated by Ukrtatnafta, the road-making machine works, Kremenchuk Automobile Assembly Plant [uk], the Kryukivsky Car Manufacturing Plant, train railway rolling stock wagons, the wheel plant, the carbon black plant, the steel works and others.

The light industries of the city include tobacco (JTI), confectionery (Roshen), a knitting factory as well as milk and meat processing plants.

Kremenchuk is one of the most important railway junctions in Central Ukraine (thanks to its geographical position and a bridge over the Dnieper River) and a major river port on the main river of Ukraine.


Kremin stadium in Kremenchuk

Kremenchuk is home to HK Kremenchuk ice hockey team who compete in the Ukrainian Championship and FC Kremin Kremenchuk football team.[27][28]

Beside FC Kremin, the city was also represented by number of other professional football clubs such as FC Adoms Kremenchuk, FC Naftokhimik Kremenchuk, and FC Vahonobudivnyk Kremenchuk.

The city has several sports schools, about six stadiums including Polytechnic Stadium (main city stadium), Kremin Stadium, and others, as well as couple of swimming pools and couple of athletic halls.


Notable people[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Kremenchuk is twinned with:[31]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Ukrainian Zip Codes".
  2. ^ "Phone Codes for Russia, Ukraine & CIS". Archived from the original on 2016-11-14. Retrieved 2007-06-21.
  3. ^ (in Russian) How new plates are decoded
  4. ^ "Кременчугская городская громада" (in Russian). Портал об'єднаних громад України.
  5. ^ Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2022 [Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2022] (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2022.
  6. ^ "Про затвердження Списку історичних населених місць України". 26 July 2021. Archived from the original on 29 December 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  7. ^ "Kryukov Railway Car Building Works". Kryukov Rail Car Building Works Home Page. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-10-03.
  8. ^ a b "Occupying forces bomb the Kremenchuk Oil Refinery again: four "strikes"", Yahoo News, 12 May 2022
  9. ^ Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. Encyclopedia Britannica, 2 Aug. 2010, Kremenchuk. Accessed 27 June 2022.
  10. ^ Вирський, Д. (2011). "Early history of Kremenchug".
  11. ^ Kremenchuk. Encyclopedia of Ukraine
  12. ^ Shirochin, Semen (2022-07-27). "Ось як крізь роки виглядає Кременчук, який на війні знищують вже вдруге". Заборона (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2023-04-13.
  13. ^ Mike Holm, Strategic Rocket Forces, see SRF page
  14. ^ "Attacks kill Ukraine mayor Oleg Babayev, bomb Andrii Sadovyi's house". NewsComAu, Archived from the original on 2015-05-03. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
  15. ^ Подробности-ТВ (17 March 2014). "Самооборона взялась за охрану Кременчугского водохранилища от браконьеров". podrobnosti.
  16. ^ "Про утворення та ліквідацію районів. Постанова Верховної Ради України № 807-ІХ". Голос України (in Ukrainian). 2020-07-18. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  17. ^ "Нові райони: карти + склад" (in Ukrainian). Міністерство розвитку громад та територій України. 17 July 2020.
  18. ^ "Two Die as Russian Missiles Hit Shopping Mall in Central Ukraine", Bloomberg, 27 June 2022
  19. ^ "Missile strike on Kremenchuk: Death toll rises to 16". 28 June 2022.
  20. ^ Francesca Ebel; Yuras Karmanau (2022-06-29) [2022-06-28]. "Macron says Russia can't win in Ukraine after strike on mall". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. ISSN 0190-8286. OCLC 1330888409.[please check these dates]
  21. ^ "Бійці АТО отримали першу партію снайперських гвинтівок "Форт-301"".
  22. ^ a b c "Kremenchug". Retrieved 2023-05-24.
  23. ^ "Community Finder - Kremenchuk". Retrieved 24 May 2023.
  24. ^ "Untold Stories - Kremenchug". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 24 May 2023.
  25. ^ "KREMENCHUG | Ukraine | International Jewish Cemetery Project". IAJGS Cemetery Project. Retrieved 2023-05-24.
  26. ^ "Рідні мови в об'єднаних територіальних громадах України".
  27. ^ "HK Kremenchuk". Elite Prospects. Retrieved 2016-01-01.
  28. ^ "МФК "КРЕМіНЬ"". Retrieved 2015-11-23.
  29. ^ uk:Чайковський Петро Ілліч#Походження
  30. ^ "Dimitri Tiomkin biography". Retrieved 2012-12-29.
  31. ^ "Sister cities of Kremenchuk". (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on February 25, 2022.

External links[edit]