Kriegers Flak (wind farm)

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Kriegers Flak
CountryDenmark
LocationBaltic Sea east of Møn, south of Skåne, north of Rügen
Coordinates55°01′34″N 12°56′20″E / 55.026°N 12.939°E / 55.026; 12.939Coordinates: 55°01′34″N 12°56′20″E / 55.026°N 12.939°E / 55.026; 12.939
StatusProposed
Wind farm
TypeOffshore
Site area179 km2 (69 sq mi)
Max. water depth25 m
Distance from shore15 km
Hub height125 m
Rotor diameter190 m
Power generation
Units operational60 - 200 (proposed)
Make and model3 MW - 10 MW (proposed)
Nameplate capacity600 MW

Kriegers Flak is a proposed 600 MW offshore wind farm to be located in the Baltic Sea on the Danish part of the reef of the same name.[1] It will form part of a new 400 MW interconnector between Denmark and Germany.

Location[edit]

In 2010 the Danish Energy Agency pointed to the site as one of the most attractive for a Danish offshore wind farm.[1] In addition to favorable wind conditions and a depth ranging from 16 m to 25 m,[2] Kriegers Flak will also be located next to the German offshore wind farm ″EnBW Baltic 2″. Kriegers Flak will take advantage of this and be connected both to the Danish grid as well as to the 288 MW ″EnBW Baltic 2″ which is connected via the 48 MW ″EnBW Baltic 1″ to the German grid. The wind farm will consist of two partitions, a western of 200 MW covering 69 km2 (27 sq mi) and an eastern of 400 MW covering 110 km2 (42 sq mi); a sand dredging area separates the two areas.[2][3]

Combined Grid Solution[edit]

The Kriegers Flak Combined Grid Solution, a serial connection of offshore wind farms into the power grids of two different countries will be the first of its kind.[4] This has the advantage that up to the capacity of the connection the produced power can be transmitted to the country with the highest demand and price, improving the economy of the wind farms. Secondly, the connection between Denmark and Germany can act as an interconnector, so power can be transmitted from one country to the other, also in absence of power production from the wind farms themselves. This improves the overall reliability of the power grids in both countries[5] and can also reduce the overall price of the electricity.

The combined solution was scheduled to be direct current, but the offshore converter turned out to be prohibitively expensive,[6] and alternating current (AC) was chosen instead.[7][8] Like the 150 kV cables connecting the ″EnBW Baltic 2″, ″Baltic 1″ and Germany, the cables connecting Krigers Flak to ″Baltic 2″ and to Denmark will be relatively short and thus using AC which is more economical.[5][9] However, Germany is part of the synchronous grid of Continental Europe, while Kriegers Flak will connect to eastern Denmark, which is synchronized with the Nordic grid. As such, the non-synchronous connection requires a paired, back-to-back HVDC converter substation, to be located in Bentwisch, Germany, which already hosts the converter substation for the Kontek interconnector. The transmission capacity will be 400 MW, with the converter substation being delivered by ABB for around 140M US$.[4] Thus, when Kriegers Flak operates at its full 600 MW capacity at least one third of the produced power must be transmitted to Denmark.

The 220 kV cables to Kriegers Flak will be constructed and operated by Energinet.dk, with a planned spending of 3.5 billion DKK and planned commissioning by the end of 2018.[1][10] The cable will reach Denmark at Rødvig on Zealand.[2]

Tender[edit]

The result of a call for tenders for the construction of the wind farm was expected to be published by the end of 2016. By November 2015 seven companies and consortia had been prequalified to bid on the project; an unusually high number of bidders.[11]

The tender was won by Vattenfall in November 2016 at a fixed-price of €49.90/MWh ($56.38/MWh) with no adjustment for inflation, for 30 TWh (corresponding to 50,000 full-load hours for 600 MW, or about 11 years),[12] without the cost of the unusual transmission project. As of 2016, it is the lowest price for offshore wind. Vattenfall has not decided on the make and model of turbines.[13] The price is 58 % lower than the cap price of €0.12 (90 øre) per kWh set in 2012. Build cost is estimated at €1.1bn-€1.3bn[14] ($1.19bn-$1.4bn).[15]

The low price was achieved by optimizing several aspects of the process, including the long-standing policy of authorities to prepare shovel-ready projects with all necessary permissions. This method was also used in the previous low price record at Borssele where the price is €72.70/MWh (€87/MWh with transmission). The method contrasts with the British way of tender, where applicants must perform preparatory work.[12]

Construction[edit]

The wind farm is expected to be operational by the end of 2021.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Kriegers Flak Offshore Wind Farm". energinet.dk. Retrieved 2016-08-22.
  2. ^ a b c "Kriegers Flak Havmøllepark" [Kriegers Flak Offshore Wind Farm] (PDF). energinet.dk (in Danish). January 2015. Retrieved 2016-08-22.
  3. ^ "Kriegers Flak". 4coffshore.com. Retrieved 2016-08-22.
  4. ^ a b Garus, Katharina (2016-03-14). "ABB gets order for Kriegers Flak onshore converter". ABB. Retrieved 2016-08-22 – via offshorewindindustry.com.
  5. ^ a b Wittrup, Sanne (2014-12-19). "Sjælland får ny, millliard-dyr elforbindelse til Tyskland". Ingeniøren (in Danish). Retrieved 2016-08-22.
  6. ^ Wittrup, Sanne (2014-03-12). "Hundedyrt at slutte havmølleparken Kriegers Flak til nettet". Ingeniøren (in Danish). Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  7. ^ "Offshore wind turbines are connected to the electricity grid by traditional AC system". Energinet.dk. 5 June 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  8. ^ "Indstilling om tilladelse til etablering af ilandføringsanlæg for havmølleparken Kriegers Flak" (PDF) (in Danish). 12 December 2014. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  9. ^ "The project". Energinet.dk. 29 April 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  10. ^ "Timeline". Energinet.dk. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  11. ^ a b Garus, Katharina (2015-11-03). "Seven companies prequalified for Kriegers Flak". offshorewindindustry.com. Retrieved 2016-08-22.
  12. ^ a b Parr, Mike (2016-07-20). "Dutch and Danish Auction Model Heralds Bright Future for Offshore Wind". theenergycollective.com. Retrieved 2017-02-07. The tenderer is to quote a kWh price to be paid for 30 TWh (corresponding to 50,000 full-load hours for 600 MW). The price tendered is to be a fixed “øre” amount (constant in current prices) and will not be indexed.
  13. ^ Steel, William (2016-11-09). "Vattenfall wins Kriegers Flak with record €49.90/MWh". Recharge. Archived from the original on 10 November 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-10.
  14. ^ "Vattenfall Wins Bid for Denmark's Largest Offshore Windfarm". The Maritime Executive. 2016-11-10. Retrieved 2017-02-07.
  15. ^ Williams, Diarmaid (2016-11-10). "More evidence of competitive wind power with Vattenfall's Baltic deal". powerengineeringint.com. Retrieved 2017-02-07.

External links[edit]