Krishan Chander

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Krishan Chander Chopra
Krishan Chander 2017 stamp of India.jpg
Krishan Chander on a 2017 stamp of India
Born(1914-11-23)23 November 1914
Died8 March 1977(1977-03-08) (aged 62)
Alma materForman Christian College
OccupationWriter
Spouse(s)Vidyawati Chopra and Salma Siddiqui

Krishan Chander (23 November 1914 – 8 March 1977) was an Urdu and Hindi writer of short stories and novels. He also worked on English.

He was a prolific writer, penning over 20 novels, 30 collections of short stories and scores of radio plays in Urdu, and later, after partition of the country, took to writing in Hindi as well.

He also wrote screen-plays for Bollywood movies to supplement his meagre income as an author of satirical stories. Krishan Chander's novels (including the classic : Ek Gadhe Ki Sarguzasht, trans. Autobiography of a Donkey) have been translated into over 16 Indian languages and some foreign languages, including English.

His short story "Annadata" (trans: The Giver of Grain – an obsequious appellation used by Indian peasants for their feudal land-owners), was made into the film Dharti Ke Lal (1946) by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas – which led to his being offered work regularly as a screenwriter by Bollywood, including such populist hits as Mamta (1966) and Sharafat (1970). He wrote his film scripts in Urdu.[1]

Early life and education[edit]

Chander was born in Bharatpur, Rajasthan where his father worked as a doctor.[2] The family originally belonged to Wazirabad District Gujranwala, of undivided Punjab, British India. Chander spent his childhood in Poonch, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, where his father worked as the physician of Maharaja Poonch.[3] His novel Shakast (Defeat) is related to Kashmir's partition. Mitti Ke Sanam one of his most popular novel is about the childhood memories of a young boy who lived with his parents in Kashmir. His another memorable novel is "Gaddar", which is about the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947. In this novel, he brilliantly picturised the sufferings of the people during that time through a selfish young man's feelings, who himself was a gaddar (betrayer). His short stories are the stories of Kashmiri villages, as well as those of displaced expatriates and rootless urban man. He used Pahari (dialect of people living in Poonch) words while writing in Urdu.

In the 1930s he studied at Forman Christian College and edited the English section of the college house magazine, and was at that time interested in English writings. As the then editor of the Urdu section of the magazine, Mehr Lal Soni Zia Fatehabadi was instrumental to his career in having got published, in the year 1932, Chander's first Urdu short story, "Sadhu".[4]

Career[edit]

His literary masterpieces on the Bengal famine and the savagery and barbarism that took place at the time of the partition of India in 1947 are some of the finest specimens of modern Urdu literature, but at other times too he continued relentlessly to critique the abuse of power, poverty and the suffering of the wretched of the earth; but above all he never stopped protesting casteism, fanaticism, communal violence and terror. He was a humanist and a cosmopolitan.

Books written by Krishan Chander[edit]

He has been described as the "author of more than 100 books including novels, collections of short stories, plays, fantasies, satires, parodies, reportages, film-scripts and books for children",[5] which include:

Novels:

  1. Jamun ka ped
  2. Shikast
  3. Jab Khet Jagay
  4. Toofaan Ki KaliyaaN
  5. Dil Ki WaadiyaaN So GayiN
  6. Aasmaan Roushan Hai
  7. Bavan Patte
  8. Ek Gadhe Ki Sarguzasht
  9. Ek Aurat Hazaar Deewanay
  10. Ghaddar
  11. Jab Khet Jage
  12. Sarak Wapas Jaati Hai
  13. Dadar Pul Ke Neechay
  14. Barf Ke Phool
  15. Borban Club
  16. Meri YaadoN Ke Chinaar
  17. Gadhay Ki Wapasi
  18. Chandi Ka Ghaao
  19. Ek Gadha Nefa Mein
  20. Hong Kong Ki Haseena
  21. Mitti Ke Sanam
  22. Zar GaoN Ki Raani
  23. Ek Voilon Samundar Ke Kinare
  24. Dard Ki Nahar
  25. London Ke Saat Rang
  26. Kaghaz Ki Naao
  27. Filmi Qaaida
  28. Panch Loafer
  29. Panch Loafer Ek Heroine
  30. Ganga Bahe Na Raat
  31. Dusri Barfbari Se Pahlay
  32. Gwalior Ka Hajjam
  33. Bambai Ki Sham
  34. Chanda Ki Chandni
  35. Ek Karor Ki Botal
  36. Maharani
  37. Pyar Ek Khushbu
  38. MasheenoN Ka Shahr
  39. Carnival
  40. Aayine Akelay Hain
  41. Chanbal Ki Chanbeli
  42. Uska Badan Mera Chaman
  43. Muhabbat Bhi Qayamat Bhi
  44. Sone Ka Sansaar
  45. SapnoN Ki Waadi
  46. Aadha Raasta
  47. Honolulu Ka Rajkumar
  48. SapnoN Ki Rahguzarein
  49. Footpath Ke Farishtay
  50. Aadhe Safar Ki Poori Kahani

Short Story Collection

  1. Tilism E Khayal
  2. Nazaray
  3. Hawai Qilay
  4. Ghunghat Mein Gori Jalay
  5. Tootay Hue Taaray
  6. Zindagi Ke Mor Per
  7. Naghmay Ki Maut
  8. Purane Khuda
  9. Ann Daata
  10. Teeh Ghunday
  11. Hum Wahshi Hain
  12. Ajanta Se Aagay
  13. Ek Girja Ek Khandaq
  14. Samunder Door Hai
  15. Shikast Ke Baad
  16. Naye Ghulam
  17. Main Intezaar Karunga
  18. Mazaahiya Afsaanay
  19. Ek Rupiya Ek Phool
  20. Eucalyptus Ki Daali
  21. Hydrogen Bomb Ke Baad
  22. Naye Afsaanay
  23. Kaab Ka Kafan
  24. Dil Kisi Ka Dost Nahi
  25. Muskuraane Waaliyan
  26. Krishn Chander Ke Afsaanay
  27. Sapnon Ka Qaidi
  28. Miss Nainital
  29. DaswaaN Pul
  30. Gulshan Gulshan Dhundha Tujhko
  31. Aadhe Ghante Ka Khuda
  32. Uljhi Larki Kaalay Baal

Filmography[edit]

Death and legacy[edit]

Chander married Salma Siddiqui. He died working at his desk in Mumbai on 8 March 1977. He had just started to write a satirical essay entitled Adab baray-e-Batakh (Literature for a duck), and wrote just one line Noorani ko bachpan hi sey paltoo janwaron ka shaukh tha. Kabootar, bandar, rang barangi chiriyaan… (since childhood Noorani was fond of pet animals such as pigeons, monkeys, multi-coloured birds…) but before he could complete the sentence he succumbed to a massive heart attack.

A Fountain Park in [Poonch] City of J&K(India) has been renamed to Krishan Chander Park Poonch in his memory. His statue has also been erected in the middle of the garden.

Krishan Chander Chopra had married twice. His first wife was Vidyawati Chopra. They had total three children from the wedlock. Two daughters and one son.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Film World". Film World. T.M. Ramachandran. 10: 65. 1974. I feel that the Government should eradicate the age-old evil of certifying Urdu films as Hindi ones. It is a known fact that Urdu has been willingly accepted and used by the film industry. Two eminent Urdu writers Krishan Chander and Ismat Chughtai have said that "more than seventy-five per cent of films are made in Urdu." It is a pity that although Urdu is freely used in films, the producers in general mention the language of the film as "Hindi" in the application forms supplied by the Censor Board. It is a gross misrepresentation and unjust to the people who love Urdu.
  2. ^ Ahmed, Ishtiaq (4 February 2014). "Centenary of Krishan Chander". Daily Times.
  3. ^ Md Shahnawaz Khan Chandan (27 February 2015). "Remembrance: The Humanist Author". The Daily Star (Bangladesh).
  4. ^ Malik Ram (1977). Zia Fatehabadi – Shakhs Aur Shair (in Urdu). Delhi: Ilmi Majlis. pp. 116–117.
  5. ^ Advance, Volume 26 (1977), Public Relations, Punjab, p. 17

External links[edit]