Krishna Raja Sagara

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Krishna Raja Sagara
ಕೃಷ್ಣರಾಜ ಸಾಗರ ಜಲಾಶಯ
Krishna raja sagara dam.JPG
Country India
Location Mandya, Karnataka
Coordinates 12°24′58″N 76°34′26″E / 12.41611°N 76.57389°E / 12.41611; 76.57389Coordinates: 12°24′58″N 76°34′26″E / 12.41611°N 76.57389°E / 12.41611; 76.57389
Purpose Water supply, irrigation, power
Status Operational
Construction began 1911
Opening date 1938[citation needed]
Construction cost 10.34 million (US$160,000)[1]
Operator(s) Cauvery Neeravari Nigam Limited
Dam and spillways
Type of dam Gravity dam
Impounds Kaveri River
Height 39.8 m (131 ft)
Length 2,620 m (8,600 ft)
Reservoir
Creates Krishna Raja Sagara
Total capacity 1,368,847,000 m3 (1,109,742 acre·ft)
Active capacity 124,421,000 m3 (100,870 acre·ft)
Catchment area 10,619 km2 (4,100 sq mi)
Surface area 129 km2 (50 sq mi)

Krishna Raja Sagara, also popularly known as KRS, is the name of both a lake and the dam that creates it. It is located close to the settlement of Krishnarajasagara in the Indian State of Karnataka. The gravity dam made of surki mortar is situated below the confluence of river Kaveri with its tributaries Hemavati and Lakshmana Tirtha, in the district of Mandya.[2]

There is an ornamental garden attached to the dam, called Brindavan Gardens.[3]

Background[edit]

The region of Mysore and especially Mandya had historically been dry, and had witnessed mass migration to adjoining areas in the hot summers. A severe drought in 1875–76 had wiped out one-fifth of the population of the Kingdom of Mysore. Crop failures were common due to lack of water for irrigation.[4] The Kaveri River was seen as a potential source of irrigation water for the farmers in and around Mysore in the erstwhile Kingdom of Mysore.

The Chief Engineer of Mysore M. Visvesvaraya presented a blueprint to build a dam across the River near the village of Kannambadi. However, he was faced with opposition from the finance ministry of the government of Mysore who said the project would "serve no purpose" and that the electricity produced from it would not be of complete use due to lack in demand. He then approached T. Ananda Rao, the Diwan of Mysore and the Maharaja Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV for a reconsideration.[5] Upon examining, the latter gave his consent issuing an order on 11 October 1911 to begin the project and a sum of 81 lakh was set aside for it. Madras Presidency then opposed the project and urged the imperial government to not approve it. Upon Visvesvaraya's persuasion, the government consented. However, the initial plan of wanting to build a dam of 194-feet high to hold an estimated 41,500,000,000 cu ft (1.18 km3) of water had to be dropped.[1]

Construction began in November 1911 and 10,000 workers were employed. A mortar known locally as surki was used in place of cement as the latter was not manufactured in India at the time, and importing would prove costly for the state. [5] By the time construction completed in 1931, around 5,000 to 10,000 persons had lost their homes to the project. However, they were rehabilitated and provided with agricultural land in the adjacent areas by the government.[5]

Operation[edit]

In place of spillways that prevents over-topping of dams, Visvesvaraya employed 48 automatic gates that open and close at the rise and fall of water in the reservoir, in six sets, with eight in each. Each gate consists of a sill, lintel and side grooves and plates; balance weight; float; chains and pulleys; and inlet and outlet pipes. The gates are made of cast iron and were manufactured at the Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant in Bhadravati.[6]

The eight sets of gates are connected by means of chains and pulleys to a dead weight, which in turn is connected to a float, making up the 'balance weight' together, working inside a masonry well, both situated on the rear of the dam. The dead weight and float are placed one behind the other so as to have four gates on each side of it. When all the eight gates close the sluice, the balance weight moves to the top of its swing and the float to the bottom of the well. The well has an inlet pipe of 1 ft (0.30 m) diameter from the reservoir that allows water in when the reservoir reaches maximum permissible level causing the float to rise, the balance weight to fall pulling the gates up allowing discharge of water. In the same mechanism, the well gets emptied through an exit pipe when water level in the reservoir falls.[6]

Dam[edit]

The dam was built across river Kaveri in 1924. It is the main source of water for the districts of Mysore[citation needed]. The water is used for irrigation in Mysore and Mandya and it is the main source of drinking water for all of Mysore, Mandya and almost the whole of Bengaluru city, the capital of the state of Karnataka. The water released from this dam flows into the state of Tamil Nadu, and is stored in Mettur dam in the Salem district.

Brindavan Gardens[edit]

Main article: Brindavan Gardens

The Brindavan Gardens is a show garden that has a botanical park, with fountains, as well as boat rides beneath the dam. Diwan Sir M Vishweshwaraiah of Mysore planned and built the gardens in connection with the construction of the dam. KRS Dam was the first to install automated Crest gates during 1920 which was initiated by Sir. M V. Display items include a musical fountain. Various biological research departments are housed here. There is a guest house, a state run hotel, Hotel Mayura Kauvery KRS and a four star luxury heritage hotel Royal Orchid for tourists.

Flora and Fauna[edit]

KRS Dam & Garden

It is very good picnic spot.The landscape of the area represents a complexity of agricultural land, rural habitation, sparingly spread trees and patches of original vegetation at the close by Arabithittu Wildlife Sanctuary. Which attracts wide varieties of local and migrant birds. Over the years nearly 220 species[7] of birds have been recorded here in large numbers.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b K. R., Rajendrakumar (12 October 2011). "Centenary milestone for KRS dam". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  2. ^ Jain, Sharad K.; Agarwal, Pushpendra K.; Singh, Vijay P. (16 May 2007). Hydrology and Water Resources of India. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 715. ISBN 1402051808. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  3. ^ "Brindavan Garden (KRS-Krishna Raja Sagar)". 
  4. ^ Misra, Rameshwar Prasad (1985). Development Issues of Our Time. Concept Publishing Company. p. 145. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c Bharathi, C. (2012). M. Visvesvaraya. Sapna Book House Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 9788128017810. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  6. ^ a b Rao, A. V. Shankara (May 2002). "Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya: Engineer, Statesman Planner". Indian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  7. ^ http://www.mysorenature.org/around-mysore/mandya-sector/krishnarajasagar-reservoir/bird-checklist

External links[edit]