Krishnaraja Wadiyar III
|Krishnaraja Wadiyar III|
|Maharaja of Mysore|
Photograph of Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar III (± 1866)
|22nd Maharaja of Mysore|
|Reign||30 June 1799 – 19 October 1831 (Under British Rule)|
1831 – 1868 (Titular monarchy)
|Coronation||30 June 1799, Royal Palace, Mysore|
|Predecessor||KhasaChamaraja Wodeyar IX (1776–1796) (father) (Under Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan)|
Tipu Sultan(1782 – 1799)
|Successor||Chamarajendra Wadiyar X (son)|
|Born||14 July 1794|
Royal Palace, Srirangapatna (now extinct)
|Died||27 March 1868|
Royal Palace, Mysore
|Issue||Chamarajendra Wadiyar X (adopted son)|
|Father||Chamaraja Wodeyar IX|
|Mother||Maharani Kempa Nanja Ammani Avaru|
Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar III (Sriman Rajadhiraja Raja Parameshvara Praudha-pratapa Apratima-vira Narapati Birud-antembara-ganda Maharaja Sir Krishnaraja Wadiyar III Bahadur; Kannada: ಮುಮ್ಮಡಿ ಕೃಷ್ಣರಾಜ ಒಡೆಯರ್; 14 July 1794 – 27 March 1868) was the twenty-second maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore. Also known as Mummadi Krishnaraja Wadiyar, the maharaja belonged to the Wadiyar dynasty and ruled the kingdom for nearly seventy years, from 30 June 1799 to 27 March 1868. He is known for his contribution and patronage to different arts and music during his reign. He was succeeded by his adopted son, Chamarajendra Wadiyar X.
Krishnaraja Wadiyar III, who was born at Srirangapatna, was the son of Khasa Chamaraja Wadiyar IX (who was born at Arikottara, now Chamarajanagar) and his first wife, Maharani Kempananjammani Avaru. Maharani Lakshmi Ammani Devi, his adoptive grandmother, played a major role in the education and upbrining of her adopted grandson, Krishnaraja Wadiyar III, and was instrumental in his ascendancy to the Mysore throne. The Wadiyars had lost the throne of Mysore to Hyder Ali in the year 1766 and, for the first and last time in Mysore's history, there was no Wadiyar ruler on the Mysore throne between 1760 and 1799. Maharani Lakshmi Ammani Devi was awaiting a chance to unseat Hyder Ali (who died) and later his son Tipu Sultan, and had sent numerous feelers to the British to unseat him and hand over the kingdom to the Wadiyars. She also informed the British about the treaty between Tipu Sultan and the French. When Tipu Sultan died at the hands of the British in 1799, she discussed about the handover of the Mysore throne, which finally led to the installation of the five-year-old Krishnaraja Wadiyar III, as the Maharaja of Mysore on 30 June 1799. The ceremony took place in a special pavilion constructed near the Lakshmiramana Swamy temple in Mysore. Being led to it by the Duke of Wellington on his right, Tipu Sultan's prime minister Dewan Purnaiah was formally selected as the Dewan of Mysore with an indication that he should be loyal to the king till the king himself attains an age of discretion.
Ruler of Mysore State
Krishnaraja Wadiyar III attained the age of 16 in early 1810 and hence attained the age of discretion. After discussing with the British Resident, A. H. Cole, the reins of the state were transferred from Dewan Purnaiah to the king. But the king lost the services of his grandmother, who died in 1810, and also of Purnaiah, who died in 1812.
The years that followed witnessed cordial relations between Mysore and the British until things began to sour in the 1820s. Even though the Governor of Madras, Thomas Munro, determined after a personal investigation in 1825 that there was no substance to the allegations of financial impropriety made by A. H. Cole, the incumbent Resident of Mysore, the civil insurrection which broke out towards the end of the decade changed things considerably. In 1831, close on the heels of the insurrection and citing maladministration, the British took direct control of the princely state. For the next fifty years, Mysore passed under the rule of successive British Commissioners; Lieutenant-General Mark Cubbon, renowned for his statesmanship, served from 1834 until 1861 and put into place an efficient and successful administrative system which left Mysore a well-developed state.
Contribution to culture
Krishnaraja Wadiyar III was responsible for the cultural growth of the Kingdom of Mysore. He was himself a writer, having written Kannada books like Sritattvanidhi and Sougandhikaparinaya. He also has a number of writers in his court who together contributed to the development of modern Kannada prose, which had a style different from the Champu style of prose which was followed till then. Other important writings that emerged during his rule include Mudramanjusha by Kempu Narayana, Kalavati Parinaya by Yadava, and Vachana Kadamabari. The king was well versed in many languages, including Sanskrit, Kannada, Tamil, English, Telugu, and Urdu. He even played the musical instrument, veena. He was an expert player of board games and is credited to have revived the Ganjifa game. He was also a collector and an inventor of board games.
Krishnaraja Wadiyar III was a ruler who gave a lot of importance to the development of art during his period. He patronised many scholars in his court and he himself was a great Kannada and Sanskrit Scholar, and has composed more than 50 works. The Yakshagana form of literature, its growth, and survival are all due to his efforts. Parti Subba from South Canara, a famous Yakshagana writer, flourished during his period. Devachandra, Venkatarama Shastri, Basavappa Shastri, Aliya Lingaraja, Kempu Narayana, Srinivasa Kavisarvabhouma, Thammaya Kavi, Nanjunda Kavi, Shantaraja Pandita were all patronised by him.
Devachandra wrote Rajavali Katha which is of great historical importance and also Ramakathavathara, a work in Champu style. Kempu Narayana wrote Mudra Manjusha, which is a Kannada prose. Asthana Vidwan Basavappa Shastri has written various works. He composed Kannada poems such as Shakuntala, Vikramorvasiya, Rathnavali, Chandakousika, and Uttara Ramacharita. He has also translated the famous work of Shakespeare, Othello, into Kannada and it is known as Shurasena Charita. He has also written Damayanti in Champu style, Savitri Charita in Shatpadi, Sri Raghavendra Swamy Ashtottara Stotram, and numerous other works in Sanskrit.
Krishnaraja Wadiyar III has composed many works like Dasharatha Nandana Charita, Grahana Darpana, Sankya Ratna Kosha, Chaturanga Sara Sarvasva, Sri Tatvanidhi, Saugandhika Parinaya, Sri Krishna Katha Sangraha, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Surya Chandra Vamsavali, etc. He was called Bhoja Raja of Kannada. The Wadiyar's Surya Chandra Vamsavali narrates a hundred episodes from the Ramyana and the Mahabharata, and the adventures of Yaduraya and Krishnaraya, the founders of the Wadiyar Dynasty.
Full name and titles
- Annals of The Mysore Royal Family Part-1: A publication by the Royal Family of Mysore: 1916
- Rajakaryaprasakta Rao Bahadur (1936), p265
- "Fountainhead of Carnatic music". Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2 December 2000. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
- Rajakaryaprasakta Rao Bahadur (1936), p271
- Rajakaryaprasakta Rao Bahadur (1936), p266
- Rajakaryaprasakta Rao Bahadur (1936), p383
- "Krishnaraja Wodeyar III". Wodeyars of Mysore. Kamat's Potpourri. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- K. M. George (1994), p167
- Laura Durnford. "Games afoot". Online webpage of Radio Netherlands, dated 15 December 2004. Archived from the original on 10 May 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
- Mary Quattlebaum (25 March 2005). "Fun Is the Name of the Game". Online Edition of The Washington Post, 25 March 2005. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
- Rao Bahadur, Rajakaryaprasakta (1936). Mysore State Gazetter. Mysore State.
- George, K. M. (1994) . Modern Indian Literature: An Anthology. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 8172013248.
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Krishnaraja Wadiyar IIIBorn: 1794 Died: 1868
(as Ruler of Mysore)
| Maharaja of Mysore
(As Senior Commissioner)
C. M. Lushington
(As Junior Commissioner)
|Titles in pretence|
|— TITULAR —
Maharaja of Mysore
Chamarajendra Wadiyar X