Krotoszyn

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Krotoszyn
Market Square
Market Square
Flag of Krotoszyn
Flag
Coat of arms of Krotoszyn
Coat of arms
Krotoszyn is located in Greater Poland Voivodeship
Krotoszyn
Krotoszyn
Krotoszyn is located in Poland
Krotoszyn
Krotoszyn
Coordinates: 51°41′N 17°26′E / 51.683°N 17.433°E / 51.683; 17.433Coordinates: 51°41′N 17°26′E / 51.683°N 17.433°E / 51.683; 17.433
Country Poland
Voivodeship Greater Poland
CountyKrotoszyn County
GminaGmina Krotoszyn
Established15th century
Town rights1415
Government
 • MayorFranciszek Marszałek
Area
 • Total22.55 km2 (8.71 sq mi)
Highest elevation
140 m (460 ft)
Lowest elevation
130 m (430 ft)
Population
 (2006)
 • Total29,421
 • Density1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
63–700 to 63–710
Area code(s)+48 62
Car platesPKR
ClimateCfb
Websitehttp://www.krotoszyn.pl

Krotoszyn [krɔˈtɔʂɨn] (German: Krotoschin, Yiddish: קארטשיןKortshin) is a town in central Poland with 30,010 inhabitants as of 2005. It has been part of the Greater Poland Voivodeship since 1999; it was within Kalisz Voivodeship from 1975 to 1998.

History[edit]

Regional Museum and Baroque Church of Saints Peter and Paul

Krotoszyn was founded by local nobleman Wierzbięta Krotoski [pl], partipant of the Battle of Grunwald,[1] and was granted town rights in 1415 by King Władysław II Jagiełło.[2] It was a private town owned by the Krotoski, Niewieski, Rozdrażewski and Potocki families, historically located in the Kalisz Voivodeship in the Greater Poland Province of the Polish Crown.[1] After the town suffered a fire in 1453, King Casimir IV of Poland vested it with new privileges, establishing a weekly market and three annual fairs.[1]

It developed as a regional center of trade and crafts, located at the intersection of the KaliszGłogów and ToruńWrocław trade routes.[2] During the Thirty Years' War, in 1628, Protestant refugees from German states settled in the town.[1] It was plundered by the Swedes, during the Swedish invasion of Poland in 1656, but soon recovered and famous fairs were held there.[2]

It was annexed by Prussia in 1793 during the Second Partition of Poland. In 1807 regained by Poles as part of the short-lived Duchy of Warsaw, in 1815 it was re-annexed by Prussia,[2] and in 1871 it subsequently became part of Germany. During the German rule in the 19th century, the town was located in the Prussian province of Posen.[3] The castle of Krotoszyn was the centre of a mediatized principality formed in 1819 out of the holdings of the Prussian crown and granted to the prince of Thurn und Taxis in compensation for his relinquishing control over the Prussian postal system[3] and it was subjected to Germanisation.[1] During the Polish Greater Poland uprising (1848) Germans and Jews attacked the local Polish committee, and the Poles had to move their activities to Koźmin Wielkopolski.[1] Later on, despite the Germanisation policies, Poles established a number of organizations, including an industrial society, a cooperative bank and a local branch of the "Sokół" Polish Gymnastic Society.[1]

Plaque commemorating the capture of the train station by Polish insurgents in 1919

Many inhabitants took part in the Greater Poland uprising (1918–19), during which the town was liberated by the insurgents on 1 January 1919,[2] nearly two months after Poland regained its independence.

The Germans attacked Krotoszyn on 1 September 1939, the first day of the invasion of Poland and World War II.[1] On 2 September they bombed a train with Polish civilians fleeing the Wehrmacht from Krotoszyn, killing 300 people[1][4] and on 4 September they captured the town.[1] The Germans established a transit camp for Polish prisoners of war and over 4,500 Polish soldiers passed through the camp.[1] During the German occupation the Polish population was subject to mass arrests,[5] Germanisation policies, discrimination, expulsions and executions.[1] Nevertheless, local Poles managed to organize the underground resistance movement, which included secret Polish teaching, scout troops and a local branch of the Home Army.[1] The town was liberated by Soviet troops and local Poles in January 1945.[1]

Economy[edit]

The dominant trade is in grain and seeds, and the headquarters of the Polish branch of Mahle GmbH is located there.

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Krotoszyn is twinned with:

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Kalendarium do roku 1994 - Paweł Anders". Portal - Krotoszyn - oficjalna strona miasta (in Polish). Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Krotoszyn - Dzieje Miast". Region Wielkopolska (in Polish). Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  3. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Krotoschin" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 928–929.
  4. ^ Maria Wardzyńska, Był rok 1939. Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpieczeństwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion, IPN, Warszawa, 2009, p. 89 (in Polish)
  5. ^ Wardzyńska, Op. cit., p. 116