|- Town -|
Lenina Square in Kstovo
Location of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in Russia
|Administrative status (as of February 2014)|
|Federal subject||Nizhny Novgorod Oblast|
|Administrative district||Kstovsky District|
|Town of district significance||Kstovo|
|Administrative center of||Kstovsky District, town of district significance of Kstovo|
|Municipal status (as of December 2012)|
|Municipal district||Kstovsky Municipal District|
|Urban settlement||Kstovo Urban Settlement|
|Administrative center of||Kstovsky Municipal District, Kstovo Urban Settlement|
|Population (2010 Census)||66,657 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||233rd|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
|Founded||14th century|
|Town status since||1957|
|Postal code(s)||607650, 607651, 607654–607657, 607660–670664, 607669|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 83145|
|Kstovo on Wikimedia Commons|
Kstovo (Russian: Ксто́во) is a town and the administrative center of Kstovsky District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Volga River, 22 kilometers (14 mi) southeast of Nizhny Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 66,657 (2010 Census); 66,944 (2002 Census); 62,414 (1989 Census).
The village of Kstovo was mentioned as early as the 14th century.
With the construction of Novogorkovsky Oil Refinery, which started operations on August 18, 1958,) a new settlement was built a few kilometers to the northwest of the old village of Kstovo, on the high ground between the Volga and the Kudma Rivers. Since then, the western part of the town centered on the original village of Kstovo, and, still quite rural in character, has been commonly referred to as the Old Kstovo (Staroye Kstovo), while the newer eastern part, built in the 1950s and still expanding, is known as the New Kstovo (Novoye Kstovo). As the New Kstovo expanded over the years, it completely or partially displaced several smaller villages.
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kstovo serves as the administrative center of Kstovsky District. As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Kstovsky District as the town of district significance of Kstovo. As a municipal division, the town of district significance of Kstovo is incorporated within Kstovsky Municipal District as Kstovo Urban Settlement.
Kstovo's main industrial zone is located south of the town, on the southern side of the Kudma River. It is centered on the petrochemical plants of Lukoil-Nizhegorodnefteorgsintez (formerly NORSI-Oil and Novogorkovsky Oil Refinery), a subsidiary of Lukoil, which is the town's main employer, and, historically, the reason for the town's existence.
The "BVK" plant, which started operation in 1973 and was closed in 2003, used n-paraffins (produced by the oil refinery nearby) as feed for yeast, in order to produce the so-called "protein and vitamin concentrate" (single-cell protein) for use as animal food. The facility was originally run by the Soviet Ministry of Microbiological Industry. As of c. 1990, it produced some 300,000 tons of its product per year. The facility also produced certain pharmaceutical products, such as Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone-10), which is used as a dietary supplement.
A cogeneration power plant supplies electricity into the regional electric grid (305 MWt) and hot water for heating town apartment buildings. In November 2008, the local power company announced its plans to increase the power plant's electricity production capacity to 605 MWt; the new power generation unit was scheduled to be brought online by the end of 2011.
The town has a large farmer's market, and a decent selection of supermarkets and retail stores.
Kstovo is served by the Moscow–Nizhny Novgorod–Kazan Highway (M7), a river tanker port on the Volga, an electric railway branch, and a number of oil and oil-product pipelines, such as the Sever Pipeline.
The town has a history of building bypass roads to keep some of the transit traffic (either the east-west traffic on M7, or traffic headed for the petrochemical industrial area south of the town) off the town streets, only to see the development overtake them a decade or so later, the "bypass" not being a true bypass anymore. Most recently, in 2003 a highway bypass was completed a few kilometers south of the town (cutting through a section of the Zelyony Gorod forest) both taking M7 away from the town and providing convenient road access to the Lukoil area.
The Kstovo railway branch is primarily used to serve the needs of the oil refinery. Although commuter trains from Nizhny Novgorod's Myza terminal stop not far from both the Old and the New Kstovo, the stations are not particularly conveniently located. Throughout most of the town's history, commuter trains were fairly slow and only ran two or three times a day, and thus were popular mostly with retirees and other persons eligible for free or discount fares. Around 2011 or 2012, the passenger rail service to Kstovo was discontinued altogether. As of 2013, the local authorities have proposed the resumption of the commuter rail service between Nizhny Novgorod and Kstovo; the proposal includes the construction of a new, more conveniently located passenger station in Kstovo, as well as straightening of the railway line.
Volga hydrofoil boats used to stop at Kstovo in the 1970s and 1980s, but the town no longer appears in the boat schedules.
Therefore, most of passenger travel between Kstovo and Nizhny Novgorod is by road. Commuter buses and routed taxis to Nizhny Novgorod, as well as suburban buses to villages throughout Kstovsky District, run from a bus station on the west side of New Kstovo. Some long-distance buses between Nizhny Novgorod and the destinations to the east (Lyskovo, Cheboksary, etc.) stop there as well. There are also shuttle buses from Kstovo's Lenina Square to the Mega shopping mall in Fedyakovo, in the western part of Kstovsky District.
Most summers, during the beach season, ferry boat service operates between Kstovo and the beach area on the north bank of the Volga.
An Oil Industry Community College trains skilled workers and technicians for the petrochemical industry.
Culture and recreation
The town has a puppet theater, a Palace of Culture, a public library, and an active chess club. The movie theater was popular with the residents during the Soviet era, but closed down after the advent of home video. Part of its premises were used by an Eldorado electronics store for a few years in the early 2000s.
Indoor water park Atoll was opened in February 2015 in Kstovo's Lenin Square. This is the first facility of this kind in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, and is intended to serve the entire Nizhny Novgorod metropolitan area.
Kstovo's best known sporting venue is The World Academy of Sambo, which has hosted many national and international Sambo wrestling competitions. Its origins go back to 1964, when the first local Sambo club was formed. In October 1976, a Sambo School building was opened on the western edge of the town; in 1995, in time for the Sambo World Cup, a new, taller building was constructed next to it, the facility becoming known as the "World Academy of Sambo".
Christians are served by three Orthodox churches in the town and immediately adjacent villages. The Church of Our Lady of Kazan in Old Kstovo was built in the late 19th century, closed during the Soviet era, when its building was used for a printshop, and re-opened in the early 1990s.
Closer to the town center is another Church of Our Lady of Kazan. Although it can be seen from many apartment buildings on Kstovo's new northeast side, this historic building (constructed in 1792 and is now protected as a heritage site) is actually located in the nearby village of Veliky Vrag just northeast of the town.
Finally, the small Church of St. Vladimir is the closest to most of the city's residential neighborhoods.
- Order #3-od
- Law #169-Z
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 05 апреля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of April 05, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Erman, Adolph (1852), Archiv für Wissenschaftliche Kunde von Russland, Volume 10 (in German), p. 324
- M. S. Matveev (August 1968), "Ten years of the Novogor'kii Refinery", Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils 4 (8). Translated from Khimiya i Tekhnologiya Topliv i Masel, No. 8, pp. 1–4, August 1968
- Soviet Plant to Convert Oil to Protein for Feed; Use of Yeast Involved, By THEODORE SHABAD. the New York Times, November 10, 1973.
- RusVinyl – Summary of Social Issues[permanent dead link] (EBRD)
- Первенец микробиологической промышленности (Microbiological industry's first plant), in: Станислав Марков (Stanislav Markov) «Кстово- молодой город России» (Kstovo, Russia's Young Town)
- "Practitioners' forum perestroika and soviet biotechnology". Authors: Rod Greenshields; Anthony Rimmington; Harry Rothman. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Volume 2, Issue 1 1990 , pages 63 - 76. Quote: "There arc large n-paraffins-based SCP factories at various stages of construction at Angarsk, Kirishi (1 00,000 tonnes/year), Kremenchug (120,000 tonnes), Kstovo, Mozyr (300,000 tonnes), Novopolotsk (100,000 tonnes), Svetloyar (240,000 tonnes projected), arid Syzran... "
- A. S. Koryagin; E. V. Krylova; L. D. Luk'yanova (June 2002), "Effect of Ubiquinone-10 on the Blood System in Rats Exposed to Radiation", Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 133 (6): 562–564, doi:10.1023/A:1020225623808, ISSN 0007-4888, PMID 12447465.. Abstract: "The use of synthetic ubiquinone-10 (2 and 10 mg/kg) as a therapeutic food additive normalized the counts of erythrocytes, reticulocytes, and leukocytes and the content of hemoglobin in the blood and inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes in irradiated rats (3 Gy)." Quote: "...ubiquinone-10 synthesized at the BVK Plant (Kstovo)..."
- Solvay to buy Russian soda ash plant. Reuters, Sep 8, 2009.
- JV for Russian vinyls production plant: First world-scale fully integrated vinyls plant to be built in Kstovo, Russia by Joint Venture, SolVin and SIBUR LLC (2007-06-30 News Release)
- BISNIS Search For Partners, April 6, 1998
- Кстово просит электрички. Железной дороге предложили совместный проект (Kstovo asks for commuter trains. A joint project has been proposed to the railway) Gudok, No. 43, 2013-11-22.
- Nizhny Novgorod Technical University, Kstovo Branch (Accessed 2006 October 24) (Russian).
- Colonel (retired) Boris Mikhailovoch Denisov, "Forgotten Anniversary". "Russky Pereplet" magazine, November 3, 2006 (Russian)
- Кстовский аквапарк "Атолл" готовится к росту загрузки. (Kstovo's Atoll Water Park is preparing for an increasing visitor volume), "РБК-Нижний Новгород". 2015-08-24
- "Михаил Бурдиков: После оглушительных успехов наших самбистов иностранные журналисты долго пытались отыскать на карте мира маленький город Кстово" (An article on the history of Sambo in Kstovo) (RIA Kreml, November 2004) (Russian)
- Государственно-правовой департамент Нижегородской области. Приказ №3-од от 23 января 2015 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных образований, городских и сельских населённых пунктов Нижегородской области». Опубликован: Эталонный банк данных правовой информации Губернатора и Правительства Нижегородской области. (State Legal Department of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. Order #3-od of January 23, 2015 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Formations, Urban and Rural Localities of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. ).
- Законодательное Собрание Нижегородской области. Закон №169-З от 24 октября 2005 г. «Об утверждении границ, состава территории Кстовского муниципального района, границ и состава территорий муниципальных образований, входящих в состав Кстовского муниципального района», в ред. Закона №149-З от 7 декабря 2012 г. «Об объединении населённых пунктов в Работкинском сельсовете Кстовского района Нижегородской области и о внесении изменения в статью 1 Закона Нижегородской области "Об утверждении границ, состава территории Кстовского муниципального района, границ и состава территорий муниципальных образований, входящих в состав Кстовского муниципального района"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Правовая среда" №91–93 (приложение к газете "Нижегородские новости" №216(3388)), 19 ноября 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. Law #169-Z of October 24, 2005 On Establishing the Borders and the Composition of Kstovsky Municipal District, the Borders and the Composition of the Municipal Formations Within Kstovsky Municipal District, as amended by the Law #149-Z of December 7, 2012 On Merging the Inhabited Localities in Rabotkinsky Selsoviet of Kstovsky District of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and on Amending Article 1 of the Law of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast "On Establishing the Borders and the Composition of Kstovsky Municipal District, the Borders and the Composition of the Municipal Formations Within Kstovsky Municipal District". Effective as of the day after ten days from the day of the official publication have passed.).