Ku-Maloob-Zaap

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Ku-Maloob-Zaap
CountryMexico
RegionNorth America
Offshore/onshoreOffshore
OperatorPemex
Field history
Discovery1979
Start of production1981
Peak of production2015
Production
Current production of oil640,000 barrels per day (~3.2×10^7 t/a)
[1]
Year of current production of oil2020
Producing formationsKimmeridgian, Lower Paleocene-Upper Cretaceous and Middle Eocene

Ku-Maloob-Zaap (Spanish pronunciation: [ku maloːβ saːpʰ]) is the most productive oil field in Mexico. It is made up of three relatively large fields, Ku, Maloob and Zaap, which are located to the immediate northwest of the Cantarell field. The field lies in 100m of water.

Ku-Maloob-Zaap is located offshore in the Bay of Campeche, off the coast of Tabasco105 kilometres (65 mi) from Ciudad del Carmen. It was discovered by PEMEX, Mexico's national oil company, in 1979. It covers an area of 121km2, and includes five fields: Ku, Maloob, Zaap, Bacab, Lum and Zazil-Ha. The Ku, Maloob and Zaap fields produce from the Kimmeridgian, Lower Paleocene-Upper Cretaceous and Middle Eocene reservoirs. Total reserves of the field have been put at 4.9 billion barrels.[2]

Production History[edit]

The Ku field was discovered in 1980, the Maloob field in 1984 and Zaap in 1991. First oil from the Ku field was produced in 1981.

The KMZ development included drilling 82 wells, four of which are nitrogen injectors and installation of 17 oil platforms: seven drilling, four production, four accommodation, one telecommunication and one processing. There are 42 oil pipelines of 166 kilometres (103 mi) to transport the oil produced. It was expected that by 2011, production would reach 800,000 barrels per day (130,000 m3/d) of oil and 282 million cubic feet per day (8.0×10^6 m3/d) of natural gas.

This target was met by November 2009 when oil production reached 802,002 barrels per day (127,508.1 m3/d). The field produced 839,200 barrels per day (133,420 m3/d) crude oil in 2010. Production rose to 853,000 barrels per day (135,600 m3/d) in November 2015.[3] This new rate of production and the decline in production at the Cantarell Field made Ku-Maloob-Zaap Mexico's most productive oil field.

KMZ is among the company’s most profitable producing assets, according to Welligence Energy Analytics. Pemex reported average production costs of $10.37/boe at KMZ as of end-2019.

Production Decline[edit]

Production in the Ku-Maloob-Zaap fields have entered decline phase. Production declined to 770,000 barrels per day (122,000 m3/d) in July 2019. [4] Subsequently production plunged to 640,000 barrels per day (102,000 m3/d) in July 2020. The uncertainty created by Covid-19 contributed to the decline in production.

In order to maintain production in the Ku Maloob Zaap field, PEMEX has adopted an operational philosophy based on the application of reservoir management best practices, establishing and using specific measurements and criteria to manage production limits as well as maintaining reservoir pressure through nitrogen injection.[5]

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