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Ku Klux Klan members in United States politics

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This is a partial list of notable historical figures in U.S. national politics who were members of the Ku Klux Klan before taking office. Membership of the Klan is secret. Political opponents sometimes allege that a person was a member of the Klan, or was supported at the polls by Klan members.[1][2]

Politicians who were active in the Klan[edit]

In 2018, The Washington Post reported that, by 1930, the KKK, while its "membership remained semi-secret, claimed 11 governors, 16 senators and as many as 75 congressmen – roughly split between Republicans and Democrats." The actual names were never released. The Washington Post also reported that the 1924 Democratic National Convention was not called a "Klanbake," and the KKK did not control the Democratic Party in 1924, contrary to false claims made in the 21st century.[3]

Supreme Court justices[edit]

Hugo Black[edit]

Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black

In 1921, Hugo Black (D) successfully defended E. R. Stephenson in his trial for the murder of a Catholic priest, Fr. James E. Coyle. Stephenson's daughter had converted to Catholicism and married a man of Puerto Rican descent, and Coyle had conducted the wedding. Black got Stephenson acquitted in part by arguing to the jury that Puerto Ricans should be considered black under the South's one drop rule. Black joined the Ku Klux Klan shortly afterwards, in order to gain votes from the anti-Catholic element in Alabama. He built his winning Senate campaign in 1926 around multiple appearances at KKK meetings across Alabama. Late in life, Black told an interviewer:

"At that time, I was joining every organization in sight! ... In my part of Alabama, the Klan was engaged in unlawful activities ... The general feeling in the community was that if responsible citizens didn't join the Klan it would soon become dominated by the less responsible members."[4]

News of his membership was a secret until shortly before he was confirmed as an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1937. Black later said that joining the Klan was a mistake, but he went on to say, "I would have joined any group if it helped get me votes."[5][i]

On the Supreme Court, Black wrote the opinion in Korematsu v. United States, which upheld the exclusion of Japanese Americans from the West Coast. Black also wrote the opinion in Everson v. Board of Education, a key case about the separation of church and state.[6] Some have argued that his views on the separation of church and state were influenced by the Klan's anti-Catholicism.[7][8][9]

Despite his former Klan membership, Black joined the Supreme Court's unanimous decisions in Shelley v. Kraemer (1948), which outlawed judicial enforcement of racially restrictive covenants, and Brown v Board of Education, which outlawed school segregation. Justice William O. Douglas would write years later that at least three (and possibly as many as five) justices were originally planning to rule school segregation constitutional, but Black had actually been one of the four justices planning to strike down school segregation from the beginning of the Brown case.[10]

Members of the Senate[edit]

Theodore G. Bilbo[edit]

Theodore G. Bilbo, U.S. Senator for Mississippi

Theodore G. Bilbo (D), the U.S. Senator for Mississippi, stated he was a member of the KKK .[11]

Joseph E. Brown[edit]

Joseph E. Brown (D), the U.S. Senator for Georgia, was a key supporter of the KKK in his home state.[12]

Robert C. Byrd[edit]

Senator Robert Byrd was a Kleagle, a Klan recruiter, in his 20s and 30s.

Robert C. Byrd (D), the U.S. senator for West Virginia, a recruiter for the Klan while in his 20s and 30s, rising to the title of Kleagle and Exalted Cyclops of his local chapter. After leaving the group, Byrd spoke in favor of the Klan during his early political career. Though he later said he officially left the organization in 1943, Byrd wrote a letter in 1946 to the group's Imperial Wizard stating "The Klan is needed today as never before, and I am anxious to see its rebirth here in West Virginia." Byrd attempted to explain or defend his former membership in the Klan in his 1958 U.S. Senate campaign when he was 41 years old.[13] Byrd, a Democrat, eventually became his party leader in the Senate. Byrd later said joining the Klan was his "greatest mistake,"[14] and after his death, the NAACP released a statement praising Byrd, acknowledging his former affiliation with the Klan and saying that he "became a champion for civil rights and liberties" and "came to consistently support the NAACP civil rights agenda".[15] In a 2001 interview, Byrd used the term "white niggers" twice during a national television broadcast. The full quote ran as follows: "My old mom told me, 'Robert, you can't go to heaven if you hate anybody.' We practice that. There are white niggers. I've seen a lot of white niggers in my time. I'm going to use that word. We just need to work together to make our country a better country, and I'd just as soon quit talking about it so much." Byrd later apologized for the phrase and admitted that it "has no place in today's society," and did not clarify the intended meaning of the term in his context.[16][17]

John Brown Gordon[edit]

John Brown Gordon (D), the U.S. Senator for Georgia, was a founder of the KKK in his home state of Georgia.[12]

James Thomas Heflin[edit]

James Thomas Heflin (1869–1951) (D), the U.S. Senator for Alabama, was suspected of being a member of the KKK.[18]

Rufus C. Holman[edit]

Rufus C. Holman (R), the U.S. Senator for Oregon, was an active member of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) in Oregon, serving as an officer in that organization.[19]

Rice W. Means[edit]

Rice W. Means (R), the U.S. Senator for Colorado, was the directing head of the Ku Klux Klan in Colorado.[20]

John Tyler Morgan[edit]

John Tyler Morgan (D) (June 20, 1824 – June 11, 1907, the U.S. Senator for Alabama (March 4, 1877, to June 11, 1907), was the Grand Dragon of the KKK in Alabama.[21][22]

Edmund Pettus[edit]

Edmund Pettus (July 6, 1821 – 1907) (D), the U.S. Senator for Alabama (1896 to 1907), was also a Grand Dragon of the KKK in Alabama.[23]

William Bliss Pine[edit]

William Bliss Pine (1877–1942) (R), the U.S. Senator for Oklahoma (March 4, 1925, to March 3, 1931), was a Klansman, according to historian Chalmers[24] and the Eufaula Indian Journal.[25][26]

Non-Klan Senators who received support from the Klan[edit]

Lawrence C. Phipps[edit]

The Klan helped elect Lawrence C. Phipps (1862–1958) (R), U.S. Senator for Colorado.[citation needed]

Owen Brewster[edit]

Republican Owen Brewster (1888-1961) received crucial support from the Klan in his election as Governor of Maine (1925-1929), and went on to become a U.S. Congressman, and then U.S. Senator (1941-1952). In the last position he was a close ally of Joseph McCarthy. Former Maine Republican governor Percival Baxter accused Brewster of having been actually inducted into the Klan.

Daniel F. Steck[edit]

Daniel F. Steck (1881–1950) (D), of Iowa, in 1925, with the help of the Klan, defeated Senator Smith W. Brookhart (1869–1944) (R), a progressive. Because the vote was close, there was a recount, and Steck was the victor. Brookhart contested it. Steck reportedly had no Klan connections, except that he enlisted the Klan's top lawyer and legislative expert, William Francis Zumbrunn (1877–1930), to secure his seat in the 69th Congress (1925–1926). Earlier, Zumbrunn – with lawyer William Pinkney McLean, Jr. (1872–1937) of Fort Worth – helped seat Klan Senator from Texas, Earle Mayfield.[27]

Frederick Steiwer[edit]

In the 1926 Oregon election, the Ku Klux Klan, under the auspices of The Oregon Good Government League, helped Frederick Steiwer (1883–1939) win the Republican primary by spreading word that it was supporting the reelection of his opponent, Senator Robert N. Stanfield (1877–1945) (R). The effort was fueled by White Supremacist (anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic) groups in Oregon in support of the state's Compulsory Education Act, enacted in 1922, mandating public education; which would have taken effect in 1926; but the Supreme Court, in 1925, struck it down in Pierce v. Society of Sisters.[28][29]

Arthur Raymond Robinson[edit]

Arthur Raymond Robinson (1881–1961) (R), of Indiana, was, on November 2, 1925, characterized by Time magazine was follows: "The New Man. Arthur R. Robinson is only 44. He is an Indianapolis attorney, a 'good Republican' but of no particular political importance. He is said to be a good orator. Against him politically is the fact that he supported Governor Jackson in the last election and so, justly or unjustly, he is considered a 'Klan man.'"[30]

Frank Willis[edit]

According to historian Chalmers, "the Klan supported Frank B. Willis (1871–1928) (R) [of Ohio] not because it liked him, but because it disliked his anti-Klan opponent, Atlee Pomerene (1863–1937) (D), more.[31]

Members of the House of Representatives[edit]

Clifford Davis[edit]

Clifford Davis (D), U.S. Representative for Tennessee's 9th and 10th congressional districts was an active member in Tennessee.

George Gordon[edit]

George Gordon (D), U.S. Representative for Tennessee's 10th congressional district, became one of the Klan's first members. In 1867, Gordon became the Klan's first Grand Dragon for the Realm of Tennessee, and wrote its Precscript, a constitution setting out the organization's purpose, principles, and the like.[32][33][34][35]

William David Upshaw[edit]

William David Upshaw (D), U.S. Representative for Georgia's 5th congressional district, was an active member in Georgia.[36]


Homer Martin Adkins[edit]

Homer Martin Adkins (D), (1890 – 1964) the Governor of Arkansas, was a supporter of the Klan in his home state of Arkansas.[37]

Bibb Graves[edit]

Bibb Graves (D), (1873 – 1942) was the Governor of Alabama. He lost his first campaign for governor in 1922, but four years later, with the secret endorsement of the Ku Klux Klan, he was elected to his first term as governor. Graves was almost certainly the Exalted Cyclops (chapter president) of the Montgomery chapter of the Klan. Graves, like Hugo Black, used the strength of the Klan to further his electoral prospects.[38]

Edward L. Jackson[edit]

Edward L. Jackson (R), (1873 – 1954) was the Governor of Indiana in 1925 and his administration came under fire for granting undue favor to the Klan's agenda and associates. Jackson was further damaged by the arrest and trial of Grand Dragon D. C. Stephenson for the rape and murder of Madge Oberholtzer. When it was revealed that Jackson had attempted to bribe former Gov. Warren T. McCray with $10,000 to appoint a Klansman to a local office, Jackson was taken to court. His case ended with a hung jury, and Jackson ended his political career in disgrace. There is, however, evidence that Jackson joined the KKK himself.[39]

Clarence Morley[edit]

Clarence Morley (R),(1869 – 1948) the Governor of Colorado, was a KKK member and a strong supporter of Prohibition. He tried to ban the Catholic Church from using sacramental wine and attempted to have the University of Colorado fire all Jewish and Catholic professors.[40][41][42][43]

Tom Terral[edit]

Tom Terral (D), ( 1882 – 1946) the Governor of Arkansas, was a member of the KKK in Louisiana.[44][45]

Clifford Walker[edit]

Clifford Walker (D), (1877 – 1954) the Governor of Georgia, was revealed to be a Klan member by the press in 1924.[46][47]

Federal judges[edit]

Elmer David Davies[edit]

Elmer David Davies (D), a federal judge of the United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee, was a member of the KKK while at university.[48]

Statewide officials[edit]

Lee Cazort[edit]

Lee Cazort (D), the Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas, was active in the Klan, and openly endorsed the Klan's platform.[49][50]

John W. Morton[edit]

John Morton (D), the Tennessee Secretary of State, was the founder of the Nashville chapter of the KKK[51]

William L. Saunders[edit]

William L. Saunders (D), the North Carolina Secretary of State, was the founder of the North Carolina chapter.[52]

Local officials[edit]

A notable number of local officials were also Klansmen, resulting in such as the "reign of terror" inflicted by Louisiana by crony "exalted cyclops":[53] Bastrop mayor, John Killian Skipwith, known as Captain J. K. Skipwith, and Mer Rouge mayor, Bunnie McEwin McKoin, MD, better known as Dr. B. M. McKoin (and whose surname was variously misreported as McCoin, M'Koin and McKoln in media).[54][55]

John Clinton Porter[edit]

John Clinton Porter (D), was mayor of Los Angeles and an early supporter of the Klan in the 1920s.[56]

Benjamin F. Stapleton[edit]

Benjamin F. Stapleton (D), was Mayor of Denver in the 1920s–1940s. He was a Klan member in the early 1920s and appointed fellow Klansmen to positions in municipal government. Ultimately, Stapleton broke from the Klan and removed several Klansmen from office.[57]

Kaspar K. Kubli[edit]

Kap Kubli (R) Speaker of the Oregon House of Representatives from 1923 to 1924[54]

David Duke[edit]

David Duke (D/R), a politician who ran in both Democrat and Republican presidential primaries, was openly involved in the leadership of the Ku Klux Klan.[58] He was founder and Grand Wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in the mid-1970s; he re-titled his position as "National Director" and said that the KKK needed to "get out of the cow pasture and into hotel meeting rooms". He left the organization in 1980. He ran for president in the 1988 Democratic presidential primaries. In 1989 Duke switched political parties from Democrat to Republican.[59] In 1989, he became a member of the Louisiana State Legislature from the 81st district, and was Republican Party chairman for St. Tammany Parish.[60]

Allegations of Klan membership[edit]

Warren G. Harding[edit]

The consensus of modern historians is that Warren Harding was never a member, and instead was an important enemy of the Klan. While one source claims Warren G. Harding, a Republican, was a Ku Klux Klan member while President, that claim is based on a third-hand account of a second-hand recollection in 1985 of a deathbed statement made sometime in the late 1940s concerning an incident in the early 1920s. Independent investigations have turned up many contradictions and no supporting evidence for the claim. Historians reject the claim and note that Harding in fact publicly fought and spoke against the Klan.

The rejected claim was made by Wyn Craig Wade. He stated Harding's membership as fact and gives a detailed account of a secret swearing-in ceremony in the White House, based on a private communication he received in 1985 from journalist Stetson Kennedy. Kennedy, in turn had, along with Elizabeth Gardner, tape recorded some time in the "late 1940s" a deathbed confession of former Imperial Klokard Alton Young. Young claimed to have been a member of the "Presidential Induction Team". Young also said on his deathbed that he had repudiated racism.[61][62] In his book, The Strange Deaths of President Harding, historian Robert Ferrell says he was unable to find any records of any such "ceremony" in which Harding was brought into the Klan in the White House. John Dean, in his 2004 book Warren G. Harding, also could find no proof of Klan membership or activity on the part of Harding.[63] Review of the personal records of Harding's Personal White House Secretary, George Christian Jr., also do not support the contention that Harding received members of the Klan while in office. Appointment books maintained in the White House, detailing President Harding's daily schedules, do not show any such event.[64]

In their 2005 book Freakonomics, University of Chicago economist Steven D. Levitt and journalist Stephen J. Dubner alluded to Warren Harding's possible Klan affiliation. However, in a New York Times Magazine Freakonomics column, entitled "Hoodwinked? Does it matter if an activist who exposes the inner workings of the Ku Klux Klan isn't open about how he got those secrets?", Dubner and Levitt said that they no longer accepted Stetson Kennedy's testimony about Harding and the Klan.[65]

The 1920 Republican Party platform, which essentially expressed Harding's political philosophy, called for Congress to pass laws combating lynching.[66] Harding denounced lynching in a landmark 21 October 1921 speech in Birmingham, Alabama, which was covered in the national press. Harding also vigorously supported an anti-lynching bill in Congress during his term in the White House. His "comments about race and equality were remarkable for 1921."[67]

Payne argues that the Klan was so angry with Harding's attacks on the KKK that it originated and spread the false rumor that he was a member.[68]

Carl S. Anthony, biographer of Harding's wife, found no such proof of Harding's membership in the Klan. He does however discuss the events leading up to the period when the alleged Klan ceremony was held in June 1923:

[K]nowing that some branches of the Shriners were anti-Catholic and in that sense sympathetic to the Ku Klax Klan and that the Klan itself was holding a demonstration less than a half mile from Washington, Harding censured hate groups in his Shriners speech. The press "considered [it] a direct attack" on the Klan, particularly in light of his criticism weeks earlier of "factions of hatred and prejudice and violence [that] challeng[ed] both civil and religious liberty".[69]

In 2005, The Straight Dope presented a summary of many of these arguments against Harding's membership, and noted that, while it might have been politically expedient for him to join the KKK in public, to do it in private would have been of no benefit to him.[70]

It was falsely rumored, in his lifetime, that Harding was partly of African-American descent, so he would have been an unlikely recruit for the Ku Klux Klan.[71]

Calvin Coolidge[edit]

One common misconception is that President Calvin Coolidge was a Klan member,[ii] a claim that Klan websites have spread.[72] In reality, Coolidge was adamantly opposed to the Klan. According to Jerry L. Wallace at the Coolidge Foundation, "Coolidge expressed his antipathy to the Klan by reaching out in a positive, public way directly to its victims: Blacks, Jews, Catholics, and immigrants, with whom he had good relations—especially so for Irish Catholics—going back long before the rise of the Invisible Empire . . . [and] sought to highlight their positive achievements and contributions to American life."[73] Ironically, many Klan members voted for the Republican Coolidge in the 1924 presidential election because the Democratic presidential nominee John W. Davis denounced the Klan at the party's convention.[3]

Harry S. Truman[edit]

Harry S. Truman, the Democratic politician who became president in 1945, was accused by opponents of having dabbled with the Klan briefly. In 1922, he was running for eastern judge, this being the position for one of three court judges in Jackson County, Missouri. His friends Edgar Hinde and Spencer Salisbury advised him to join the Klan. The Klan was politically powerful in Jackson County, and two of Truman's opponents in the Democratic primary had Klan support. Truman refused at first, but paid the Klan's $10 membership fee, and a meeting with a Klan officer was arranged.[74]

According to Salisbury's version of the story, Truman was inducted, but afterward "was never active; he was just a member who wouldn't do anything". Salisbury, however, told the story after he became Truman's bitter enemy, so historians are reluctant to believe his claims.[iii]

According to Hinde and Margaret Truman's accounts, the Klan officer demanded that Truman pledge not to hire any Catholics or Jews if he was reelected. Truman refused, and demanded the return of his $10 membership fee; most of the men he had commanded in World War I had been local Irish Catholics.[iv]

Truman had at least one other strong reason to object to the anti-Catholic requirement, which was that the Catholic Pendergast family, which operated a political machine in Jackson County, were his patrons; Pendergast family lore has it that Truman was originally accepted for patronage without even meeting him, on the basis of his family background plus the fact that he was not a member of any anti-Catholic organization such as the Klan.[75] The Pendergast faction of the Democratic Party was known as the "Goats", as opposed to the rival Shannon machine's "Rabbits". The battle lines were drawn when Truman put only Goats on the county payroll,[76] and the Klan began encouraging voters to support Protestant, "100% American" candidates, allying itself against Truman and with the Rabbits, while Shannon instructed his people to vote Republican in the election, which Truman lost.[77][76]

Truman later claimed that the Klan "threatened to kill me,[78] and I went out to one of their meetings and dared them to try",[79] speculating that if Truman's armed friends had shown up earlier, violence might have resulted. However, biographer Alonzo Hamby believes that this story, which is not supported by any recorded facts, was a confabulation based on a meeting with a hostile and menacing group of Democrats that contained many Klansmen, showing Truman's "Walter Mitty-like tendency ... to rewrite his personal history".[80] Sympathetic observers see Truman's flirtation with the Klan as a momentary aberration, point out that his close friend and business partner Eddie Jacobson was Jewish, and say that in later years Truman's presidency marked the first significant improvement in the federal government's record on civil rights since the post-Reconstruction nadir marked by the Wilson administration.[v]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Hugo Black's membership was the subject of Ray Sprigle's 1938 series of articles in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, for which Sprigle won a Pulitzer Prize.
  2. ^ Examples of unsourced (or poorly sourced) media averring that Coolidge was a member of the Klan.
    1. "Letters to the Editor". Naples Daily News. June 18, 2007. Retrieved December 22, 2020.
    2. "Presidents and Others Who Were Members of the KKK". able2know.org. Retrieved December 22, 2020.
    3. "Revealed: 5 US Presidents Members of Racist Cult Ku Klux Klan (photos)". The Trent, Nigeria's Internet Newspaper. Lagos, Nigeria: A publication of Ziza Media, A Division of Ziza Group. July 19, 2014. Retrieved December 22, 2020. (This article originally appeared July 18, 2014, on I Love Black People, then re-posted March 24, 2016, on the same site). → Same article, but archived from the July 18, 2014, post → "Five US Presidents Were Members of the Ku Klux Klan". iloveblackpeople.net. July 2014. Archived from the original on July 21, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2021 – via Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ Salisbury was a war buddy and former business partner of Truman's. Salisbury believed that Truman attempted "to give Jim Pendergast control of [their] business." Truman alerted federal officials about Salisbury, leading to Salisbury's conviction for filing a false affidavit. Salisbury contradicts Hinde's statement that the meeting at the Hotel Baltimore was one-on-one, naming at least six individuals who were present. Salisbury states that at the meeting, Truman had to receive a special dispensation to join, because his grandfather Solomon had been a Jew; however, Solomon was not a Jew, and the rumor of Truman's Jewish ancestry was only spread later, by the Klan, once the political lines had been drawn so that Truman was the Klan's enemy. (Steinberg, 1962)
  4. ^ The author, Wade, gives essentially this version of the events, but implies that the meeting was a regular Klan meeting, rather than an individual meeting between Truman and a Klan organizer. An interview with Hinde at the Truman Library's website ("Oral History Interview with Edgar G. Hinde" by James R. Fuchs, 15 March 1962, retrieved June 26, 2005) portrays it as a one-on-one meeting at the Hotel Baltimore with a Klan organizer named Jones. Truman's biography, written by his daughter (Truman, 1973), agrees with Hinde's version, but does not mention the $10 initiation fee; the same biography reproduces a telegram from O.L. Chrisman stating that reporters from the Hearst papers had questioned him about Truman's past with the Klan, and that he had seen Truman at a Klan meeting, but that "if he ever became a member of the Klan I did not know it." (Wade, 1987, p. 196)
  5. ^ McCullough notes this extensively in his biography of Truman. While Truman had been raised in a family with Southern and Confederate leanings, he [Truman] still maintained his belief "in the brotherhood of all men before the law." (McCullough, p. 247) Truman's work on civil rights was politically damaging but extensive nonetheless.


  1. ^ American Experience, May 5, 2002.
  2. ^ McAndrew, January 25, 2017.
  3. ^ a b Washington Post, March 18, 2018.
  4. ^ Newman, 1994.
  5. ^ Ball, 1996.
  6. ^ Economist, March 2, 2019.
  7. ^ Carter, December 19, 2013.
  8. ^ Goff, Spring 2012.
  9. ^ Lindgren, October 20, 2010.
  10. ^ Millhiser, May 15, 2015.
  11. ^ New York Times Magazine, August 14, 1946.
  12. ^ a b Blackmon, 2008.
  13. ^ Washington Post, June 19, 2005.
  14. ^ Noah, December 18, 2002.
  15. ^ NAACP, June 29, 2010.
  16. ^ CNN, March 4, 2001.
  17. ^ Fox News, March 4, 2001.
  18. ^ Chalmers, Fall 1965, p. 237.
  19. ^ Drukman, 1997.
  20. ^ Daily Sentinel, September 16, 1926.
  21. ^ Davis, 1924.
  22. ^ Herbert, September 14, 2010.
  23. ^ Smithsonian Magazine, March 7, 2015.
  24. ^ Chalmers, Fall 1965, p. 236.
  25. ^ Indian Journal, October 9, 1924.
  26. ^ New York Times, November 6, 1924, p. 1.
  27. ^ Butler & Wolff, 1995.
  28. ^ Chalmers, p. 91.
  29. ^ Roseburg News-Review, August 16, 1926.
  30. ^ Time November 2, 1925.
  31. ^ Chalmers, p. 197.
  32. ^ Dixon, September 1905, p. 665.
  33. ^ Prescript, 1867.
  34. ^ Alexander, September 1949, p. 197.
  35. ^ Horn, 1939, p. 28, 147.
  36. ^ Moseley, Summer 1973.
  37. ^ Fayetteville Democrat, August 9, 1922.
  38. ^ Feldman, 1999, p. 88.
  39. ^ Gugin & St. James, 2006.
  40. ^ Colorado Independent, January 9, 2009.
  41. ^ Colorado Independent, March 4, 2014.
  42. ^ Colorado State Archives.
  43. ^ Denver Post, March 4, 2014.
  44. ^ Old State House Museum.
  45. ^ Alexander, Winter 1963, p. 317.
  46. ^ "Georgia – Gov. Walker.
  47. ^ Sobel & Raimo, 1978.
  48. ^ Kingsport Times, July 13, 1939.
  49. ^ New York Times, August 11, 1924.
  50. ^ New York Times, August 14, 1924.
  51. ^ Nashville Tennessean, November 21, 1914.
  52. ^ News & Observer, March 26, 2014.
  53. ^ Philadelphia Inquirer, January 10, 1923.
  54. ^ a b Newton, 2014.
  55. ^ New York Times, Apr 19, 1923.
  56. ^ Starr, 1990.
  57. ^ Goldberg, 1981.
  58. ^ ADL Report, January 13, 2013, p. 3.
  59. ^ Zatarain, 1990, p. 21.
  60. ^ ADL Report, January 13, 2013, pp. 1–2.
  61. ^ Stetson, 2000.
  62. ^ Wade, 1988, pp. 165, 477.
  63. ^ Dean, 2004.
  64. ^ Ferrell, 1996.
  65. ^ New York Times Magazine, January 8, 2006.
  66. ^ Woolley, 1920.
  67. ^ Washington Post, June 21, 2020.
  68. ^ Payne, 2009.
  69. ^ Anthony, 1998, pp. 412–413.
  70. ^ Straight Dope, November 8, 2005.
  71. ^ New York Times, August 18, 2015.
  72. ^ Cheathem, June 6, 2014.
  73. ^ Wallace, July 14, 2014.
  74. ^ McCullough, 1992, pp. 159–164.
  75. ^ McCullough, 1992.
  76. ^ a b Truman, 1973.
  77. ^ McCullough, 1992, p. 170.
  78. ^ Truman, 1973, p. 67.
  79. ^ Steinberg, 1962, p. 75.
  80. ^ Hamby, 1995.

News media[edit]


Books, journals, magazines, papers, websites[edit]

Government and genealogical archives[edit]

Sources by the Klan or known exponents of the Klan[edit]