Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant
|Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant|
Location of Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant in India
|Construction began||31 March 2002|
|Commission date||22 October 2013|
|Owner(s)||Nuclear Power Corporation of India|
|Units operational||1 x 1000 MW
(13 July 2013)
|Units under const.||1 x 1000 MW|
|Nameplate capacity||9200 MW|
Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power station in Koodankulam in the Tirunelveli district of the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Construction on the plant began on 31 March 2002, but faced several delays. Long construction times for nuclear reactors are common in India, but this delay was also due to the fishermen's objection
Unit 1 was synchronized with the southern power grid on 22 October 2013. The original cost of the two units was ₹13,171 crore, but it was later revised to ₹17,270 crore. Russia advanced a credit of ₹6,416 crore to both the units.
An Inter-Governmental Agreement (IGA) on the project was signed on 20 November 1988 by then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and then Soviet head of state Mikhail Gorbachev, for the construction of two reactors. The project remained in limbo for a decade due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. There were also objections from the United States, on the grounds that the agreement did not meet the 1992 terms of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). M.R. Srinivasan, Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Chairman from 1987 to 1990, called the project "a non-starter". However, the project was revived on 21 June 1998.
Construction began on 31 March 2002, with Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. (NPCIL) predicting that the first unit would be operational in March 2007, instead of the original target of December 2007.
A small port became operational in Kudankulam on 14 January 2004. This port was established to receive barges carrying over sized light water reactor equipment from ships anchored at a distance of 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi). Until 2004, materials had to be brought in via road from the port of Tuticorin, risking damage during transportation. In 2008, negotiations on building four additional reactors at the site began. Though the capacity of these reactors has not been declared, it was expected that the capacity of each reactor will be 1200 MW or 1.2 GW. The new reactors would bring the total capacity of the power plant to 6800 MW or 6.8 GW.
The first reactor of the plant attained criticality on 13 July 2013 at 11:05 pm.
Design and specification
Two 1 GW reactors of the VVER-1000 model are being constructed by the NPCIL and Atomstroyexport. When completed they will become the largest nuclear power generation complex in India producing a cumulative 2 GW of electric power. Both units are water-cooled, water-moderated power reactors.
The reactor was to begin supplying power to the Central Grid by end of August 2013.
The Kerala State Electricity Board (KSEB) board members have approved signing of a power purchase agreement (PPA) with the Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) for sourcing electricity from the Kudankulam nuclear power project (KKNPP).
KKNPP was first synchronized to grid at 2:45 am on 22 October 2013. Power generation from first nuclear reactor started on the same day. Unit-1 was operating at 73% capacity (680 MW) by April 2014. Unit 1 attained its maximum capacity of 1,000 MWe at 1:20 pm on 7 June 2014. The unit 1 started commercial operation from 31 December 2014 Till April 2015, KNPP-1 generated 2,783 MU electricity at 97% capacity factor.
In 2011, thousands from the vicinity of the plant protested against it, fearing a nuclear disaster. According to the protesters, evacuation of people in the event of a nuclear disaster would be impossible. According to S P Udayakumar, of the People's Movement Against Nuclear Energy, "the nuclear plant is unsafe". However, in 2012, the chief of India's nuclear energy program, Dr Srikumar Banerjee, called the plant "one of the safest" in the world. In December 2012, The Hindu reported that hundreds of villagers in the region were largely ignorant of the risks and benefits of the plant.
A Public Interest Litigation (PIL) was filed in 2011 with the Supreme Court asking for nuclear power development to be delayed until safety concerns were independently assessed. In May 2013, the Supreme Court ruled in favour of the plant, stating that the nuclear power plant was in the larger public interest.
In March 2012, nearly 200 anti-nuclear protesters were detained for a few hours by the police. The protesters were set to join protests objecting resumption of work of one of two 1 GW reactors, a day after the local government restarted work on the project.
On, 24 February 2012, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh blamed foreign NGOs for protests at the power plant. News agencies reported that three NGOs had diverted donations earmarked for religious and social causes to the protests, in violation of foreign exchange regulations.
There are allegations from various agencies throughout India and officials from Home Ministry that several Christian organisations and Christian NGOs are behind the protest against KKNPP. The Church of South India, The Catholic Bishops Conference of India and the National Council of Churches openly oppose the KKNPP. It is also implicitly recognizable that officials in the Catholic Church of these regions too spread rumours through anti-nuclear videos from church premises and through Missionary Schools. The prime motives for opposing the Nuclear Reactor were allegedly multi-faceted. One of the allegations was that the protest was meant to damage the Russian civil nuclear credibility and to make it impossible for Russia to recover costs of construction, and thereby, artificially creating a state of uncertainty for future foreign investments in India Another was that it was meant to increase the inevitable dependability of India towards the US alone for future foreign investments.
Role of Church
The role of Church has also come under the scrutiny . The pro-government calls the movement “Church-orchestrated” and foreign funded, .The protest leaders did not deny the support of the Church but dismissed the allegation of foreign funds. As majority where Christian fishermen — called Fernandos in the area — belonging to Most Backward Classes (MBC), Fernandos where the surviving factor of the movement, as the Church’s support was “important and natural” for the movement, The local clergy did not conceal support to the fisherfolks but chose to be on the sidelines, particularly after the government’s accusation.
Supportive civil society figures such as former navy chief L. Ramdas to Binayak Sen as well as artists, singers and activists joined hundreds of residents when children from the villages and cultural troupes from other parts of the country performed on the sprawling porch of the church in support of the anti-nuclear campaign.. 
Response from officials
Former chairman of Atomic Energy Commission of India Srinivasan said, "The Fukushima plant was built on a beachfront, but the Kudankulam was constructed on a solid terrain and that too keeping all the safety aspects in mind. Also, we are not in a tsunami prone area. The plants in Kudankulam have a double containment system which can withstand high pressure. At least Rs.14,000 crore has been spent. If we don't operate the plant immediately, it will affect the economic stability of our country".
A centre panel constituted by the Government of India, which did a survey of the safety features in the plant, vouched for the safety of the Kudankulam reactors. Dr. Muthunayagam, who headed the panel, said that the protesters asked for some documents which are not related to the safety of the reactor. Nuclear scientist and principal scientific adviser to the federal Government of India Rajagopala Chidambaram has said "We have learnt lessons from the Fukushima nuclear accident, particularly on the post-shutdown cooling system," and also added Fukushima nuclear accident should not deter or inhibit India from pursuing a safe civil nuclear program.
The Tamil Nadu state government formed a four-member expert panel which submitted a report to the government after inspecting the safety features of the plant. The Tamil Nadu government in the wake of the acute power shortages in the state has ordered in favour of the commissioning of the plant.
Allocation of power
Government of India announced the power allocation from the 2 units of the reactor on 29 August 2013
|Tamil Nadu||925 MW|
|Not allocated||300 MW|
Tamil Nadu may get another 100 MW over its allocation.
- "PRIS - KUDANKULAM-1 - Reactor Details". Iaea.org. 2002-03-31. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
- "Commercial operation of Kudankulam plant delayed further". Business Standard. 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2013-07-14.
- http://www.telegraphindia.com/1130209/jsp/nation/story_16541617.jsp#.VM20odKUePw%7Caccessdate=1. Missing or empty
- Wait for Kudankulam power ends; unit 1 linked to grid | Business Line. Thehindubusinessline.com (2013-10-22). Retrieved on 2013-12-06.
- "Ready to run". Frontline. 9 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
- Nuclear Exports to India from Russia
- Kudankulam Port operational
- Dmitry Sergeev (1 February 2008). "Russia, India edge closer to major nuclear deal". Reuters. Retrieved 1 February 2008.
- [dead link]
- "Kudankulam nuclear plant goes critical". The Times of India. 2013-07-14. Retrieved 2013-07-14. "Birds started nesting in area surrounding NPP of Kudankulam". India Info Online. 2 September 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- NPCIL to go into details with 4 reactor suppliers
- Nuclear Power Plant Type
- "Koodankulam to start production in 40 days". Retrieved 1 March 20116. Check date values in:
- "Kudankulam Atomic Power Project 1 & 2 and". Archived from the original on 1 May 20085. Retrieved 1 June 2008. Check date values in:
- History of the Kudankulam Project
- Four more reactors
- Details on the Next Generation Reactors
- Tamil Nadu to get additional 100MW of power from Kudankulam nuclear power plant - Times Of India. Timesofindia.indiatimes.com (2013-08-08). Retrieved on 2013-12-06.
- Kudankulam nuclear plant begins power generation. Mumbai Mirror (2013-10-22). Retrieved on 2013-12-06.
- Rahul Bedi (28 October 2011). "Indian activists fear nuclear plant accident". NZ Herald.
- Thirteen Reasons Why We Do Not Want the Koodankulam Nuclear Power Project
- "Kudankulam one of safest reactors, Lanka's fears unfounded: India's nuclear chief". NDTV. 12 April 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "At Kudankulam’s core is fear, ignorance and anger". 2 December 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- Siddharth Srivastava (27 October 2011). "India's Rising Nuclear Safety Concerns". Asia Sentinel.
- Ranjit Devraj (25 October 2011). "Prospects Dim for India's Nuclear Power Expansion as Grassroots Uprising Spreads". Inside Climate News.
- "Kudankulam verdict: for this village, renewed protests or tacit acceptance". NDTV. 6 May 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Nearly 200 arrested in India nuclear protest". France24. 20 March 2012.
- "Rally seeks power generation at Kudankulam plant". The Hindu. 16 February 2012.
- "Blood donation camp in support of N-plant". The Hindu. 24 February 2012.
- "5 NGOs diverted foreign funds to fuel Kudankulam stir". hindustantimes. 24 February 2012.
- Sudipto Mondal. "Explosions at village near Kudankulam plant: Reports". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- Kudankulam Protests , Church and Western NGOs, Who is Udayakumar?
- Probe and Expose the Ploy - Missionary Hand in the Kudankulam Protest
- Churches back Kudankulam stir
- http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/at-kudankulams-core-is-fear-ignorance-and-anger/article4154421.ece At Kudankulam’s core is fear, ignorance and anger
- The Plot Behind Sabotage Kudankulam, Targeting Russia
- http://www.telegraphindia.com/1130209/jsp/nation/story_16541617.jsp#.VQzzK46UeSp. Missing or empty
- "Kudankulam plant is safe: Srinivasan". The Times of India. 14 November 2011.
- "Kudankulam reactors safest: Central panel". The Hindu. 19 November 2011.
- "R. Chidambaram bats for Kudankulam". The Hindu. 12 March 2012.
- "Kudankulam nuclear power plant issue ends - India - DNA". Dnaindia.com. 19 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- Press Information Bureau English Releases. Pib.nic.in. Retrieved on 2013-12-06.
- Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd
- Nuclear Plant Navigation Map (Tamil language)
- Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant, Tamil Nadu, India