Kudlik

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Seal oil lamps
Qulliq lighting, Nunavut, 1999
Sukh-eh-nukh, goddess of the sun.
Ivory lamp feeder in the lower left corner.

The qulliq[1][2] (seal-oil, blubber or soapstone lamp,[3] Inuktitut: ᖁᓪᓕᖅ, ‘kudlikIPA: [qulːiq]; Inupiaq: naniq), is the traditional oil lamp used by Arctic peoples, including the Inuit, the Chukchi[4] and the Yupik peoples.[5]

This characteristic type of oil lamp provided warmth and light in the harsh Arctic environment where there was no wood and where the sparse inhabitants relied almost entirely on seal oil or on whale blubber. This lamp was the single most important article of furniture for the Eskimo peoples in their dwellings.[6]

History[edit]

It is uncertain in which period the seal-oil lamps began to be used. They are part of a series of technological innovations among the Arctic peoples whose introduction and spread has been partly documented. Oil lamps have been found in sites of Paleo-Eskimo communities dating back to the time of the Norton tradition 3,000 years ago.[7] They were a common implement of the Dorset culture and of the Thule people, the lamps manufactured then showing little changes compared with more recent ones.[8]

In one of the Inuit myths of the Sun and the Moon, the sun deity Sukh-eh-nukh —known as Malina in Greenland carries an oil lamp which gets overturned spilling oil and soot on her hands and she blackens the face of her brother, the moon deity Ahn-ing-ah-neh (Anningan).[9] Among the Netsilik if the people breached certain taboos, Nuliajuk, the Sea Woman, held the marine animals in the basin of her lamp. When this happened the angakkuq had to visit her to beg for game.[10]

In former times, the lamp was a multi-purpose tool. The Arctic peoples used the lamp for illuminating and heating their tents, semi-subterranean houses and igloos, as well as for melting snow, cooking, and drying their clothes.

In present times such lamps are mainly used for ceremonial purposes. Owing to its cultural significance, a qulliq lamp is featured on the coat of arms of Nunavut.

Description and use[edit]

The Eskimo oil lamps were made mainly of soapstone, but there are also some made of a special kind of pottery.[11] Sizes and shapes of lamps could be different, but most were either elliptical or half-moon shaped.[12] Lamp feeders were made of ivory.

The wick was mostly made of Arctic cottongrass, common cottongrass,[13] or dried moss (Inupiaq: peqaq)[11] It was lit along the edge of the lamp, providing a pleasant light.[14] A slab of seal blubber could be left to melt over the lamp feeding it with more fat.[15] These lamps had to be tended continually by trimming the wick in such a way that the lamp would not produce smoke.[16]

Although such lamps were usually filled with seal blubber and the English term 'seal-oil lamp' is common in writings about Arctic peoples, they could also be filled with whale blubber in communities where there was whaling.[17] However, the term 'whale-oil lamp' refers to a different kind of lighting device.[18] Generally caribou or reindeer fat was a poor choice, as was the fat of other land animals, seal oil being a more efficient fuel for the lamp. Women used to scrape the carcasses, gathering every bit of fat.[15]

Realizing that these lamps were such an important fixture of the nomadic Eskimo household that "when the family moved the lamp went along with it", Arctic explorer William Parry (1790 – 1855) commented:

The fire belonging to each family consists of a single lamp or shallow vessel of lapis ollaris, its form being the lesser segment of a circle. The wick, composed of dry moss rubbed between the hands until it is quite inflammable, is disposed along the edge of the lamp... [19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inuinnaqtun to English
  2. ^ Inuktitut Living Dictionary
  3. ^ PRISM - Blubber Lamps
  4. ^ Edward J. Vajda, The Chukchi
  5. ^ National Museum of the American Indian : Yup'ik (Yupik Eskimo) Lamps
  6. ^ Joyce, T. A. & Dalton, O. M. (1910) Handbook to the ethnographical collections. British Museum. Dept. of British and Mediaeval Antiquities and Ethnography Joyce,
  7. ^ Don E. Dumond, Coastal Adaptation and Cultural Change in Alaskan Eskimo Prehistory in William Fitzhugh (ed.) Prehistoric Maritime Adaptations of the Circumpolar Zone, p. 168
  8. ^ Far North Traditions
  9. ^ Inuit: Finding Meaning in the Cosmos
  10. ^ Rasmussen 1965:278
  11. ^ a b Alaska Native Collections - Oil lamp
  12. ^ The Inupiaq and the St. Lawrence Island Yupik Cultures of Alaska
  13. ^ "Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago". mun.ca/biology/delta/arcticf/. Retrieved 2009-03-31. 
  14. ^ A woman demonstrates the use of a stone oil lamp, resting on a metal stand. Gambell, 1960. Anchorage Museum
  15. ^ a b Eskimos and the Long Winter Darkness
  16. ^ Josephine Peary & Marie Ahnighito, (1903) Children of the Arctic, F.A. Stokes Company, New York
  17. ^ "Glossary Kudlik". Macdonald Stewart Art Centre. Retrieved 2009-03-31. 
  18. ^ Antique Whale Oil Lamps - Demonstration
  19. ^ Kashevaroff, Andrew P. (1922) Descriptive booklet on the Alaska Historical Museum, Alaska Historical Library and Museum, b. 1863 Alaska Historical Association

External links[edit]