Kugama language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Native toNigeria
RegionAdamawa state
Native speakers
(5,000 Kugama cited 1995)[2]
unclear if figure for Gengle is additional or duplicate
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
kow – Kugama
geg – Gengle (duplicate code)[1]
Languageɲáː wàm

Kugama, also known as Wam (Wã̀m[4]) or Gengle, is an Adamawa language of Nigeria. It is spoken in Mayo-Belwa and Fufore Local Government Areas of Adamawa State.[5][6] It is classified within the Yendang group of the Adamawa language family.[5]

Speakers refer to their language as ɲáː wàm. Kugama is an exonym that is often used by the speakers themselves when speaking in other languages, while Wã̀m is the name they use to refer to themselves.[7]

Further reading[edit]

  • Blench, Roger. 2009. The Maya (Yendang) languages.
  • Litvinova, Lora. 2014. Притяжательные местоимения в языке кугама [Possessive pronouns in Kugama]. In Alexandr Ju. Zheltov (ed.), Антропология и лингвистика. Материалы петербургских экспедиций в Африку [Anthropology and Linguistics. Materials of St. Petersburg expeditions to Africa], 167–173. St. Petersburg: MAE RAN.
  • Litvinova, Lora. 2015. Личные местоимения в языке кугама [Personal pronouns in Kugama]. Paper presented at 28th International Conference on historiography and source studies of Asia and Africa “Asia and Africa in the Changing World”. St. Petersburg.
  • Litvinova, Lora. 2016. Элементы морфосинтаксиса языка кугама [Topics in Kugama morphosyntax]. St. Petersburg: St.Petersburg State University MA thesis.


  1. ^ Hammarström (2015) Ethnologue 16/17/18th editions: a comprehensive review: online appendices
  2. ^ Kugama at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Gengle (duplicate code)[1] at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Gengle-Kugama". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Idiatov, Dmitry, Mark Van de Velde, Tope Olagunju and Bitrus Andrew. 2017. Results of the first AdaGram survey in Adamawa and Taraba States, Nigeria. 47th Colloquium on African Languages and Linguistics (CALL) (Leiden, Netherlands).
  5. ^ a b "Kugama". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2019-07-17.
  6. ^ "Gengle". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2019-07-17.
  7. ^ Litvinova, Lora. Wam. AdaGram, LLACAN.

External links[edit]

  • Wam, by Lora Litvinova. AdaGram.