Kujata (mythology)

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Kuyūthā (Arabic: كيوثاء) is the cosmic bull in medieval Islamic cosmography. It is said to carry on its back the angel who shoulders the earth and the rock platform upon which the angel stands. The bull is said to stand on the giant fish or whale, Bahamut.

The bull is variously described as having 40,000 horns and legs, or as many eyes, ears, mouths and tongues in the oldest sources. The number of appendages can vary in later versions. Its breathing is said to control the tides of the ocean.

Kīyūbān (Arabic: کیوبان‎) or Kibūthān (Arabic: کبوثان‎) also appear in printed editions of Qazwini's cosmography. These have been claimed to be corruptions of Leviathan (Arabic: لوياتان‎). Alternate names include Al-Rayann and Rakaboûnâ.[Arabic verification needed]

Kuyootà, Kuyoothán were forms of the name as transcribed by Edward Lane, and given as Kuyata (Spanish), Kujata (first English translation, 1969), and Quyata (revised English translation) in various editions of Jorge Luis Borges's Book of Imaginary Beings; it has also been re-transcribed from Lane as Kuyūta.[1] Kujūta was given by Thomas Patrick Hughes's Dictionary of Islam.[2]

Orthography[edit]

"Kuyootà" was Edward Lane's transcription of the beast's name according to an Arabic source not clearly specified.[a][3] This became "Kuyata" in Jorge Luis Borges's El libro de los seres imaginarios (originally published as Manual de zoología fantástica, 1957[4]).[5][6] Then in its first English translation Book of Imaginary Beings (1969) it was further changed to "Kujata",[b][7] and then to "Quyata" (in the 2005 translation).[c][8]

"Kuyūthā" appears in a copy of al-Qazwini's cosmography[d] and as "Kīyūbān (Arabic: کیوبان‎) or Kibūthān" (Arabic: کبوثان‎) in Wüstenfeld's 1859 printed edition of al-Qazwini.[9][10][11] These names are said to be corrupted text,[12] and have been emended to "Leviat[h]an" (Arabic: لوياتان‎), by German translator Hermann Ethé.[11][14]

"Kuyoothán" is an alternate spelling from the source Lane identifies as Ibn-Esh-Shiḥneh,[15] which was some manuscript Lane had in his possession.[16]

"Rakaboûnâ" is one variant name for the bull, as read from some manuscript of Al-Damiri (d. 1405) by Frenchman Nicolas Perron.[17] Al-Rayann is the name of the bull as it appears in Muḥammad al-Kisāʾī (ca. 1100)'s version of the Qiṣaṣ al-Anbiyā’ ("Tales of the Prophets").[18]

Derivation[edit]

Lūyātān (Arabic: لوياتان‎)[Arabic&Latinization verification needed] was the bull's reconstructed correct name in Arabic according Hermann Ethé's notes.[11] Accordingly, he translates the bull's name as Leviathan in his German translation of Qazwini.[e]

Other commentators such as Maximillan Streck [de] have also stated that the bull derived from the biblical Leviathan, much as the name of the Islamic cosmic fish Bahamut derived from the biblical Behemoth.[19][20]

Lane's summary[edit]

Borges relied on Islamic traditional cosmography as summarized by Edward Lane in Arabian Society in the Middle Ages (1883).[21]

Lane's summary of Arabic source[a] explains that "Kuyootà" was the name of the bull created by God to hold up a rock of "ruby", on which stood an earth-propping angel. God created the angel, rock, then the bull in that order according to this source,[f] then a giant fish called Bahamut to sustain the bull underneath. Before this, the earth was oscillating in wayward directions, and all these layers of support were needed to achieve stability.[3]

The bull had 4,000 eyes, ears, noses, mouths, tougues, feet, according to Lane's summary,[3] but the number is 40,000 eyes, limbs, etc. in several (older) Islamic sources, as discussed below.

Arabic sources[edit]

Kuyūthā[d][g] is the name of the bull in the text of al-Qazwini (d. 1283)'s popular cosmography, The Wonders of Creation. This approximates Lane's spelling "Kuyootà". There exist a multitude of "editions" and manuscripts of al-Qazwini, which vary widely.[23]

Al-Damiri (d. 1405) on authority of Wahb ibn Munabbih, is one source he specifically named as being used in his summary.[h][24] This so-called al-Damiri's account is considered merely to a later redaction of al-Qazwini's cosmography printed on the margins,[25] and it may be note that Qazwini's account also is given as a narrative in the words of Wahb ibn Munabbih.[26] A translation of Al-Damiri into French was undertaken by Nicolas Perron. The bull's name was however "Rakaboûnâ" (Rakabūnā) in al-Damiri, according to Perron's translation.[17]

The name of the bull is wanting in Yaqut al-Hamawi (d. 1229)'s geography, Mu'jam al-Buldan.[27] Yaqut is thought to have borrowed from al-Tha'labi (d. 1038)’s Qiṣaṣ al-anbīyāʾ ("Lives of the Prophets"),[28] one of the two earliest sources containing the cosmology.[29]

Ibn al-Wardi (d. 1348) (Kharīdat al-ʿAjā'ib, "The Pearl of Wonders"), considered to be a derivative rearrangement of Yaqut,[30] is an alternate source used by Lane who noted variant readings from it.

Number of appendages[edit]

The bull has 4,000 legs in al-Damiri (d. 1405). But in Qazwini (d. 1283), the bull has 40,000 eyes, etc., with "teeth" (German: zähnen) replace "tongues" in Lane's list. The larger number repeats what is found in older texts: "40,000 horns and 40,000 limbs" according to Yaqut (d. 1229)'s geography,[27] 70,000 horns and 40,000 legs according to al-Tha'labi (d. 1038)’s Lives[31] and 40,000 eyes, ears, mouths and tongues according to ʿAlī al-Kisāʾī (d. 804)'s Lives of the Prophets.[29]

The bull has 40 humps, 40 horns, and four feet according to Ibn al-Wardi (d. 1348) in another passage,[32] (although in the corresponding passage he merely repeats Yaqut's 40,000 horns and feet).[33]

Its horns extended from the earth to God's Throne (Arabic: عرش‎, ʿarš), entangling it[34] or lying like a "prickly hedge" underneath.[35]

Gem rock above bull[edit]

As for the rock platform supported by the bull, which Lane said was made of "ruby", the Arabic word used in original sources yāqūt (ياقوت) has ambiguous meaning.[36] Many of the Islamic sources have specifically indicated the rock was a green gem, viz.: "rock (made) of green jacinth",[37][38] "green rock",[35] "green corundum", etc.[34] It is given as "green emerald" in a Latin translation of ibn al-Wardi.[39]

God created the angel, rock, then bull in that order (the order they are arranged, one on top of another), according to Qazwini.[40] However, in other sources, God created in the order of angel then bull, so that the angel could stand on the bull's hump, but as this was unstable, God inserted the rock platform above the bull's hump.[35][34][i] These sources also say that God also inserted a sandhill between the great bull and the great fish.[35][34][j]

Bull controlling tides[edit]

The bull's breathing is said to control the ocean tides according to some sources.[41] Among the oldest sources (al-Tha'labi), the bull (ox) had its nose in the sea, and breathed once a day,[k] causing the sea to rise when it exhaled, and ebb when it inhaled.[35] The bull had its two nostrils pinned against two holes in the "green corundum" enabling it to breathe (Yaqut).[34][l]

On a related natural phenomenon, the bull and fish were considered responsible for drinking the water that tapped off from the land into the sea, maintaining the base level of the ocean's water. However, once their bellies become full they will become agitated (Ibn al-Wardi),[44] and it is a sign of the advent of Judgment Day (Yaqut).[34]

See also[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lane introduces the source as an "account as inserted in the work of one of the writers above quoted".
  2. ^ di Giovanni's English translation Book of Imaginary Beings, 1969.
  3. ^ Hurley's English translation Book of Imaginary Beings, 2005
  4. ^ a b "الصخرة أن تدخل تحت قدمي الملك ثم لم يكن للصخرة قرار فخلق الله تعالى ثورا عظيما يقال له كيوثاء (..the rock to under the feet of the malak (angel), and as the rock was not steady, God created a great bull called Kuyūthā)"
  5. ^ Just as he translates the great fish's name, Bahamūt as Behemot (German for Behemoth).
  6. ^ Angel, then bull, then rock on the bull's hump, according to Ibn al-Wardi, Yaqut al-Hamawi, and al-Tha'labi.[22]
  7. ^ "Kīyūbān/Kibūthān" is Wüstenfeld ed. published in the West, as noted.
  8. ^ "Ed-Demeeree, on the authority of Wahb Ibn-Munebbih, quoted by El-Isḥáḳee, 1, 1."
  9. ^ Also Ibn al-Wardi.[33]
  10. ^ Also Ibn al-Wardi.[33][41][42]
  11. ^ Yaqut says it "breathed two breaths" each day, but this can be read as one breath out and one breath in.
  12. ^ Ibn al-Wardi also referred to this.[43] The bull breathed through ducts (foramina) in the "green emerald".[33]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hastings, James (1957), Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 4, Scribner, p. 174, al-Damiri, Ibn Ibnal-Wardi, etc., ap. Lane
  2. ^ Hughes, Thomas Patrick (1885). A Dictionary of Islam: Being a Cyclopaedia of the Doctrines, Rites, Ceremonies, and Customs, Together with the Technical and Theological Terms, of the Muhammadan Religion. W. H. Allen. p. 102.
  3. ^ a b c Lane, Edward William (1883). Lane-Poole, Stanley, ed. Arabian society in the middle ages: studies from the Thousand and one nights. London: Chatto & Windus. pp. 106–107.
  4. ^ Borges & Guerrero (1967), p. 3.
  5. ^ Borges, Jorge Luis; Guerrero, Margarita (1978) [1957]. El Libro de los seres imaginarios. Bruguera. pp. 36–37.
  6. ^ Borges & Guerrero (1967), p. 67–68.
  7. ^ Borges, Jorge Luis; Guerrero, Margarita (1969). Book of Imaginary Beings. Norman Thomas di Giovanni (trans.). Dutton. p. 141.
  8. ^ Borges, Jorge Luis; Guerrero, Margarita (2005). Book of Imaginary Beings. Andrew Hurley (trans.). New York: Viking. p. 164. ISBN 9780670891801.
  9. ^ Chalyan-Daffner (2013), p. 214, note 195 transcribes "Kīyūbān/Kibūthān" from Wüstenfeld ed., I, p. 148
  10. ^ Wüstenfeld (1849), p. 145.
  11. ^ a b c Ethé (1868), p. 488, notes to Wüstenfeld's p. 145, line 5.
  12. ^ Guest, Grace D.; Ettinghausen, Richard (1961), "The Iconography of a Kāshān Luster Plate", Ars Orientalis, 4: 53, note 110, JSTOR 4629133, The passage in Qazwīnī dealing with these ideas is on p. 145 of Wüstenfeld's edition (where the names of the two animals are confused with each other and where also the Leviathan appears in a corrupt Arabic form form; see also tr. Ethé, p. 298
  13. ^ Streck (1936), "al-Ḳazwīnī", Ency. of Islām, p. 842
  14. ^ Wüstenfeld's edition has been criticized for being a collation (composite), mostly based on the Codex Gotha 1508, portions replaced with text from other manuscripts; for being thus based on a late 18th century copy; and not using a shorter recension that was the most widely disseminated.[13]
  15. ^ Lane (1883), p. 106, note 1
  16. ^ Lane, Edward William (1839). The Thousand and One Nights: Commonly Called, in England, the Arabian Nights' Entertainments. 1. London: Charles Knight. pp. 20, 23.
  17. ^ a b Ibn al-Mundir, Abū Bakr b. Badr (1860), Le Nâċérî: La perfection des deux arts ou traité complet d'hippologie et d'hippiatrie arabes, 3, Perron, Nicolas (tr.), Bouchard-Huzard, p. 481: Note 14 to p. 457 by Perron
  18. ^ Muḥammad al-Kisāʾī, Qiṣaṣ al-Anbiyā’, Thackston (1997), p. 10
  19. ^ Streck, Maximilian (1936), "Ḳāf", The Encyclopaedia of Islām, E. J. Brill ltd., IV, p. 615
  20. ^ Chalyan-Daffner (2013), p. 236, note 268
  21. ^ Borges & Guerrero (2005), pp. 25, 164 (on "Bahamut" am "Quyata"), and Hurley's note to them, pp. 221, 234, saying that the entries derive from Lane, Arabian Society.
  22. ^ Chalyan-Daffner (2013), p. 215, and note 196
  23. ^ Streck (1936), "al-Ḳazwīnī", Ency. of Islām, p. 841
  24. ^ Lane (1883), p. 107, note 2.
  25. ^ Streck (1936), "al-Ḳazwīnī", Ency. of Islām, p. 844.
  26. ^ The passage begins "Wahb ben Munabbih sagt..." (in German), Ethé (1868), p. 297
  27. ^ a b Jwaideh (1987), pp. 34–35.
  28. ^ Brinner (2002).
  29. ^ a b Jwaideh (1987), p. 34, notes 1, 2
  30. ^ Jwaideh (1987), p. 19, note 4.
  31. ^ Brinner (2002), p. 6.
  32. ^ Chalyan-Daffner (2013), p. 215, note 196: Ibn al-Wardī, Kharīdat al-ʿajāʾib (Cairo, 1939), p. 239.
  33. ^ a b c d Ibn al-Wardi (1835), pp. 36–37, Tornberg's Latin translation.
  34. ^ a b c d e f Yaqut al-Hamawi's geography, Jwaideh (1987), p. 34
  35. ^ a b c d e al-Tha'labi's Lives of Prophtets, Brinner (2002), p. 7
  36. ^ Rustomji, Nerina (2013). The Garden and the Fire: Heaven and Hell in Islamic Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 71.
  37. ^ "Felsen aus grünem Hyacinth", Ethé's German translation of Qazwini, Ethé (1868), p. 298
  38. ^ Streck (1936), p. 615.
  39. ^ accusative, smaragdum viridem, Ibn al-Wardi (1835), pp. 36–37
  40. ^ Ethé (1868), p. 298.
  41. ^ a b Chalyan-Daffner (2013), pp. 215–216 and notes 196, 107: Ibn al-Wardī, Kharīdat al-ʿajāʾib, p. 16.
  42. ^ Lane (1883), p. 107, note 1..
  43. ^ Lane (1883), pp. 106, note 1..
  44. ^ Chalyan-Daffner (2013), pp. 215–216 and note 200: Ibn al-Wardī, Kharīdat al-ʿajāʾib, p. 15.
Bibliography
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