Kullu language

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Kullui
Kullu
Native to India
Region Himachal Pradesh
Native speakers
196,295 (2011)[1]
Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi.
Language codes
ISO 639-3 kfx
Glottolog kull1236[2]
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Kullu (Kullū, also known as Kuluī and Kulvi) is a Western Pahari language spoken in Himachal Pradesh.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive p
b

t̪ʰ

d̪ʱ
ʈ
ʈʰ
ɖ
ɖʱ
k
ɡ
ɡʱ
ʔ
Affricate ts
tsʰ
dz
dzʱ
c
j
Fricative s ś ħ ɦ
Nasal m ɳ ɲ ŋ
Trill/Flap r ɽ
Lateral l ɭ
Approximant y

For the stops and affricates there is a four-way distinction in phonation between tenuis /p/, voiced /b/, aspirated /pʰ/ and breathy voiced /bʱ/ series. Thakur (1975, pp. 175–8) lists as separate phonemes aspirated correlates of /ŋ/, /n/, /m/, /j/, /r/, /ɽ/, /l/ and /ɭ/, but describes the aspiration as a voiceless pharyngeal friction. /n̪/ is dental, but becomes alveolar if the next syllable contains a retroflex consonant. /ŋ/ and /ɲ/ are rare, but contrast with the other nasals word-medially between vowels. /ɳ/, /ɭ/ and /ɽ/, together with their aspirated correlates, don't occur in the beginning of words.[3] The glottal stop occurs only between a vowel and /ɳ/, /n/, /r/ or /l/, e.g. [kɑːʔɭ] "a trumpet", which contrasts with [kɑːɭ] "famine". The pharyngeal fricative /ħ/ historically derives from /s/ and occurs word-finally, e.g. [ɡʱɑːħ] "grass", [biːħ] "twenty".[4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07. 
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kullu Pahari". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Thakur 1975, p. 180. An exception is the word [ɽəbɑːɳɑː] "to throw".
  4. ^ Thakur 1975, p. 181.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Thakur, Mauluram (1975), Pahāṛī bhāṣā, Delhi: Sanmarg Prakashan