Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi.
For the stops and affricates there is a four-way distinction in phonation between tenuis /p/, voiced /b/, aspirated /pʰ/ and breathy voiced /bʱ/ series. Thakur (1975, pp. 175–8) lists as separate phonemes aspirated correlates of /ŋ/, /n/, /m/, /j/, /r/, /ɽ/, /l/ and /ɭ/, but describes the aspiration as a voiceless pharyngeal friction. /n̪/ is dental, but becomes alveolar if the next syllable contains a retroflex consonant. /ŋ/ and /ɲ/ are rare, but contrast with the other nasals word-medially between vowels. /ɳ/, /ɭ/ and /ɽ/, together with their aspirated correlates, don't occur in the beginning of words. The glottal stop occurs only between a vowel and /ɳ/, /n/, /r/ or /l/, e.g. [kɑːʔɭ] "a trumpet", which contrasts with [kɑːɭ] "famine". The pharyngeal fricative /ħ/ historically derives from /s/ and occurs word-finally, e.g. [ɡʱɑːħ] "grass", [biːħ] "twenty".
- "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kullu Pahari". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Thakur 1975, p. 180. An exception is the word [ɽəbɑːɳɑː] "to throw".
- Thakur 1975, p. 181.
- Thakur, Mauluram (1975), Pahāṛī bhāṣā, Delhi: Sanmarg Prakashan
|This Indo-European languages-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|