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A kumiho (gumiho) (Korean pronunciation: [kumiho]; Hangul: 구미호; Hanja: 九尾狐, literally "nine-tailed fox") is a creature that appears in the tales and legends of Korea. Deriving from ancient Chinese myths and folklores, a fox that lives a thousand years turns into a kumiho, like its Japanese and Chinese counterparts. It can freely transform, among other things, into a beautiful woman often set out to seduce boys, and eat their liver or heart (depending on the legend). There are numerous tales in which the kumiho appears, several of which can be found in the encyclopedic Compendium of Korean Oral Literature (한국 구비문학 대계/韓國口碑文學大系).
Originating in Chinese myths dating back centuries before being introduced to Korean mythology, the Korean kumiho shares many similarities to the Chinese huli jing and the Japanese kitsune. Classic of Mountains and Seas, an old Chinese text, claims a fox with nine tails live in an area called Qingqiu (靑丘). As the kumiho and other versions of the nine-tailed fox myths and folklores originated from China, they all have a similar concept. All explain fox spirits as being the result of great longevity or the accumulation of energy, said to be foxes who have lived for a thousand years, and give them the power of shape-shifting, usually appearing in the guise of a woman. However, while huli jing and kitsune are often depicted with ambiguous moral compasses, possibly good or bad, the kumiho is almost always treated as a malignant figure who feasts on human flesh. It is unclear at which point in time Koreans began viewing the kumiho as a purely evil creature, since many ancient texts of the Chinese mention the benevolent kumiho assisting humans (and even make mentions of wicked humans tricking kind but naïve kumiho). In later literature, kumiho were often depicted as bloodthirsty half-fox, half-human creatures that wandered cemeteries at night, digging human hearts out from graves. The fairy tale The Fox Sister depicts a fox spirit preying on a family for their livers. However, according to Gyuwon Sahwa, kumiho is described as an auspicious fox spirit with a book in its mouth. Considering the text is thought to be written in 1675, some speculate that modern violent image of kumiho are influenced during the Japanese occupation in Korea. Nevertheless, foxes often contained negative image during Koryo Dynasty (Shin Don was described as an old fox spirit due to his love for women and drinks despite his being a buddhist monk), suggesting two different views could have co-existed in ancient Korea. Taiping Guangji claims Silla worshipped foxes as sacred beings.
The most distinctive feature that separates the kumiho from its two counterparts (kitsune and huli jing) is the existence of a 'yeowu guseul' (여우구슬, literally meaning fox marble/bead) which is said to consist of knowledge. According to Korean mythology, the yeowu guseul provides power to the kumiho and knowledge (and intelligence) to people if they can steal and swallow one. The kumiho can absorb humans' energy with it. The method of absorbing energy with the "yeowu guseul" resembles a "deep kiss" (i.e. a kiss using tongue). The kumiho sends the yeowu guseul into people's mouths and then retake it with their tongues. If that person swallows the yeowu guseul, however, and then observes "sky, land, and people", each observation gives the observer preternatural knowledge. But the person fails to watch the "sky" in most tales, so they get a special ability but not the most important one.
Most legends state that while a kumiho was capable of changing its appearance, there is still something persistently fox-like about it (i.e. a fox-like face, a set of ears, or the tell-tale nine tails) or a magical way of forcing; its countenance changes, but its nature does not. In Transformation of the Kumiho (구미호의 변신), a kumiho transforms into the identical likeness of a bride at a wedding and is only discovered when her clothes are removed. Bakh Mun-su and the Kumiho (박문수와 구미호) records an encounter that Pak Munsu has with a girl, living alone in the woods, that has a fox-like appearance. In The Maiden who Discovered a Kumiho through a Chinese Poem (한시로 구미호를 알아낸 처녀), the kumiho is ultimately revealed when a hunting dog catches the scent of a fox and attacks. Although they have the ability to change forms, the true identity of a kumiho was said to be zealously guarded by the kumiho themselves. Some tales say that if a kumiho abstains from killing and eating humans for a thousand days, it can become human.
Much like werewolves or vampires in Western lore, there are always variations on the myth depending on the liberties that each story takes with the legend. One version of the mythology, however, holds that with enough will, a kumiho could further ascend from its yokwe (monster) state and become permanently human and lose its evil character. Explanations of how this could be achieved vary, but sometimes include aspects such as refraining from killing or tasting meat for a thousand days, or obtaining a cintamani and making sure that the Yeoiju saw the full moon at least every month during the ordeal. Unlike Yeoiju-wielding dragons, kumiho were not thought to be capable of omnipotence or creation at will, since they were lesser creatures.
In popular culture
Works focusing on kumiho include:
Film and television
- The 1994 horror film The Fox with Nine Tails
- The 2004 KBS drama Forbidden Love
- The 2006 musical comedy The Fox Family
- The 2007 animated film Yobi, the Five Tailed Fox
- The 2007 anime television series Naruto
- The 2008 and 2009 KBS drama Korean Ghost Stories
- The 2010 SBS drama My Girlfriend Is a Nine-Tailed Fox
- The 2010 KBS drama Grudge: The Revolt of Gumiho
- The 2012 MBC drama The Thousandth Man
- The 2013 MBC drama Gu Family Book
- The 2013 MBC drama Nail Shop Paris
- In the 149th episode of SBS's Running Man, the female guests and the female member Song Ji-hyo must collect nine tails on their back to become human
- The 2006 series Laon by YoungBin Kim and Hyun You.
- The 2011 series A Thousand Years Ninetails by Giryang
- The Fox Sister, an ongoing webcomic started in 2011
- The God of High School, an ongoing webcomic started in 2011. The plot involves one of these Kumihos as a powerful deity bent on revenge.
- A Thousand-year Ninetails
- Marvel Comics: White Fox
- "Foxfire, Foxfire" by Yoon Ha Lee. The main character is a kumiho who has killed 99 humans and eaten their liver, which gives him the ability to take on the shape of any of them; if he kills a hundredth, he will become permanently human.
- League of Legends: Ahri
- Elsword: Ara Haan's companion, Eun
- Lost Saga: Gumiho
- Crusader Quest: Nine-Tailed Fox Yeowoodong
- Analogue: A Hate Story: *Mute
- Vainglory (Video Game): Taka
- StarCraft: Gumiho is the name of a well known professional StarCraft II player
- MapleStory: The Nine-Tailed Fox is a boss monster, along with three-tailed foxes known as Samiho.
- SCP – Containment Breach: Nine-Tailed Fox is the code name for a certain Mobile Task Force
- "Cookie Run": The Kumiho Cookie (also known as the Ninetales Cookie) is an in-game playable character that can transform from a marshmallow fox into a beautiful cookie by using double jumps.
- Arena of Valor: Liliana
- The popular Onibi Vocaloid series written by Masa is based on the kumiho.
- Fox spirit, a general overview about this being in East Asian mythology
- Ungnyeo, a bear-woman in Korean mythology
- Korean Mythology, on unsolvedmysteries.com. Retrieved 15 March 2007
- Heinz Insu Fenkl, "A Fox Woman Tale of Korea Archived 2006-11-11 at the Wayback Machine."
- Wallen, Martin (2006). Fox. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 69–70. ISBN 9781861892973.
In China the nine-tailed fox has its own name, Jinwei hu, while in Korea it is Gumiho [...] from China to Japan and Korea in the ninth century.