Kumul Khanate

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Kumul Khanate
Vassal of the Qing dynasty (1696-1912)
Vassal of the Republic of China (1912-1930)

1696–1930
Location of the Kumul Khanate
Capital Kumul, Xinjiang
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Monarchy
Khan Muhammad Shah
 •  1908-1930 Maqsud Shah (last)
Chancellor/Vizier Unknown
 •  1930 Yulbars Khan (last)
History
 •  Established 1696
 •  Disestablished 1930
Part of a series on the
History of Xinjiang

The Kumul Khanate was a semi-autonomous feudal Turkic khanate within the Qing dynasty and then the Republic of China until it was abolished by Xinjiang governor Jin Shuren in 1930.

The khans of Kumul were direct descendants of the khans of the Chagatai Khanate. It came under Qing rule in 1696 and remained a khanate as a part of the Qing Empire.

The Ming dynasty established a tributary relationship with the Kumul Khanate, which was heavily involved in the Ming–Turpan conflict. The Khanate paid tribute to the Ming. The Kumul Khanate under Sa'id Baba supported Chinese Muslim Ming loyalists during the 1646 Milayin rebellion against the Qing dynasty. After the defeat of the Ming loyalists, during which the Kumul Prince Turumtay was killed at the hands of Qing forces, Kumul submitted to the Qing.

Beginning in 1647, the rulers of Hami submitted to the Qing dynasty and sent tribute. The title "Jasak Darhan" was granted to Abdullah Beg, ruler of Hami in 1696 after submitting to the Qing as a vassal during the Dzungar–Qing War.[1][2][3]

The khanate had fought against the Dzungars for the Qing. Kumul continued as a vassal khanate when Xinjiang was changed into a province in 1884 after the Dungan revolt.[4]

The khans also were given the title of Qinwang (Prince of the First Rank Chinese: 親王; pinyin: qīn wáng), by the Qing Empire. The khans were allowed enormous power by the Qing court, with the exception of administering execution, which had to be allowed by a Chinese official posted in Kumul.[5][6] The khans were officially vassals to the Emperor of China, and every six years were required to visit Beijing to be a servant to the Emperor during a period of 40 days.[7][8]

It was also known as the principality of Kumul, and the Chinese called it Hami.[9] The khans were friendly to Chinese rule and authorities.[10]

The Khan Muhammad and his son and successor Khan Maqsud Shah heavily taxed his subjects and extorted forced labor, which resulted in two rebellions against his rule in 1907 and 1912.[11]

The khan was assisted by a chancellor/vizer/chief minister in his court. The last khan, Maqsud Shah, had Yulbars Khan, the tiger Prince of Hami as his chancellor.[12]

The khan paid tribute to the Xinjiang government in Ürümqi.[13]

The Han Chinese Governor of Xinjiang, Yang Zengxin was a monarchist, and tolerated the khanate, and was friendly toward the khan Maqsud Shah.

Around the 1920s Japanese secret agents began exploring the Kumul area.

It was the fact that the khanate existed which prevented the Uyghurs from rebelling, since the khanate represented a government where a man of their ethnicity and religion was reigning. The abolition of the khanate led to a bloody rebellion.[14]

Upon Maqsud Shah's death in 1930 Jin Shuren replaced the khanate with three normal provincial administrative districts Hami, Yihe, and Yiwu. This set off the Kumul Rebellion, in which Yulbars Khan attempted to restore the heir Nasir to the throne.[15]

List of kings[16][edit]

Generation Name reign years information
1st generation Abdullah Beg 額貝都拉 é-bèi-dōu-lā 1697-1709 In the 36th year of the Kangxi reign, he was granted the title of Jasagh Darhan of the First Rank. He died in the 48th year of Kangxi's reign.
2nd generation 郭帕 guō-pà 1709-1711 Abdullah Beg's eldest son. In the 48th year of Kangxi's reign he was granted the title of Jasagh Darhan of the First Rank. He died in the fiftieth year of Kangxi's reign.
3rd generation Emin 額敏 É-mǐn 1711-1740 guō-pà beg's eldest son. In the fiftieth year of Kangxi's reign he inherited the title of Jasagh Darhan of the First Rank. In the fifth year of Yongzheng's reign he was promoted to Zhenguo Gong (鎮國公) (Duke Who Guards the State); in the 7th year of Yongzheng's reign, he was promoted to Gushan Beizi (固山貝子) (Banner Prince). In the 5th year of Qianlong's reign he died.
4th generation Yusuf 玉素甫 Yù-sù-fǔ or Yusup 玉素卜yù sù bǔ 1740-1767 Emin's eldest son. In the fifth year of Qianlong's reign he inherited the title of Jasagh Zhenguo Gong. In the 10th year of Qianlong's reign he was promoted to Gushan Beizi. In the 23rd year of Qianlong's reign he was granted the title of Beile pinji (貝勒品級). In the 24th year of Qianlong's reign, he was conferred the title of Duoluo Beile (多羅貝勒), and conferred the title of Junwang pinji (郡王品級). He died in the 12th month of the 31st year (January 1767).
5th generation Ishaq 伊薩克 yī-sà-kè 1767-1780 Yusuf's second son. In the 32nd year of Qianlong's reign he inherited the title of Junwang pinji Jasagh Duoluo Beile. In the 45th year he died.
6th generation 額爾德錫爾 é-Ěr-dé-xī-ěr 1780-1813 Ishaq's eldest son. In the 45th year of Qianlong's reign, he inherited the title of Junwang pinji Jasagh duoluo beile. In the 48th year by imperial order he was granted permanent succession (all his descendants would automatically inherited his title). In the 18th year of the Jiaqing Emperor he died.
7th generation 博錫爾 bó-xī-ěr 1813-1867 Son of é-Ěr-dé-xī-ěr. In the 18th year of Jiaqing's reign, he inherited (his father's titles). In the 12th year of Daoguang's reign, he was promoted to Duoluo Junwang 多羅郡王. In the third year of Xianfeng's reign, he was granted the title of Qinwang 親王. In the fifth year of Tongzhi's reign, the Dungan revolt broke out, but he stayed loyal (to the Qing). In the sixth year of Tongzhi's reign, he was posthumously granted the title of Hezhuo Qinwang 和碩親王.
8th generation Muhammad 賣哈莫特 mài-hǎ-mò-tè 1867-1882 Son of bó-xī-ěr. In the sixth year of Tongzhi's reign he inherited the title of Jasagh Heshuo Qinwang. In the seventh year of Guangxu's reign, he died, leaving no one to succeeded to his title.
9th generation Maqsud Shah 沙木胡索特 shā-mù-hú-suǒ-tè 1882-1930 Muhammad's agnatic nephew. In the eighth year of Guangxu's reign he inherited his titles. In the fourth year of the Republic of China, his salary as qinwang was doubled. In the 19th year of the Republic of China on the sixth month on the sixth day, he died of illness.
10th generation 聶滋爾 niè-zī-ěr 19th year of the Republic-23rd year of the Republic Maqsud Shah's second son. In the 19th year of the Republic of China on the 9th month on the 13th day he inherited his titles. In the 23rd year of the Republic he died.
11th generation 伯錫爾 bó-xī-ěr 23rd year of the Republic-38th year of the Republic niè-zī-ěr's eldest son. In the 23rd year of the Republic on the fourth month he inherited his titles. He was arrested and sent to prison. In 1951 he died while in prison.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Library of Congress. Orientalia Division (1943). Arthur William Hummel, ed. Eminent Chinese of the Chʻing period (1644-1912) (reprint ed.). Chʻeng Wen Publishing. p. 263. Retrieved 2011-05-08. 
  2. ^ Arthur William Hummel (1972). Arthur William Hummel, ed. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing period (1644-1912). Che̓ng Wen Publishing House. p. 263. Retrieved 2011-05-08. 
  3. ^ Arthur William Hummel (1991). Arthur William Hummel, ed. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing period: 1644-1912, Volumes 1. SMC publ. p. 263. ISBN 957-638-066-9. Retrieved 2011-05-08. 
  4. ^ James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian crossroads: a history of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 190. ISBN 0-231-13924-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  5. ^ Alexander Douglas Mitchell Carruthers; Jack Humphrey Miller (1914). Unknown Mongolia: a record of travel and exploration in north-west Mongolia and Dzungaria, Volume 2. Lippincott. p. 487. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  6. ^ Carruthers Douglas (2009). Unknown Mongoli: A Record of Travel and Exploration in North-West Mongolia and Dzungaria. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 487. ISBN 1-110-31384-5. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  7. ^ Alexander Douglas Mitchell Carruthers; Jack Humphrey Miller (1914). Unknown Mongolia: a record of travel and exploration in north-west Mongolia and Dzungaria, Volume 2. Lippincott. p. 489. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  8. ^ Alexander Mildred Cable; Francesca French (1944). The Gobi desert. Hodder and Stoughton. p. 134. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  9. ^ Reginald Charles Francis Schomberg (1933). Peaks and plains of central Asia. M. Hopkinson ltd. p. 78. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  10. ^ Royal Central Asian Society, Central Asian Society, London (1934). Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, Volume 21. Royal Central Asian Society. p. 82. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  11. ^ S. Frederick Starr (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim borderland. M.E. Sharpe. p. 74. ISBN 0-7656-1318-2. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  12. ^ Kate James (2006). Women of the Gobi: Journeys on the Silk Road. Pluto Press Australia. p. 178. ISBN 1-86403-329-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  13. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 247. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  14. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 44. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  15. ^ James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian crossroads: a history of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 191. ISBN 0-231-13924-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  16. ^ 《清史稿》卷二百十一 表五十一/藩部世表三