Kumyks

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Kumyks
Къумукълар (Qumuqlar)
Кумыки в Дагестане.svg
Total population
(505,000 (est. 14.2% of the population of Republic of Dagestan); unknown number of Kumyks living outside of Dagestan)
Regions with significant populations
 Russia 503,060[1]
 Ukraine 718[2]
Languages
Kumyk, Russian
Religion
Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups

Khazars, Sabir people, Kipchaks

Crimean Tatars, Balkars, Karachays, Nogais, Volga Tatars

Kumyks (Kumyk: къумукълар, qumuqlar, Russian: кумыки) are a Turkic people living in the Kumyk plateau (in northern Dagestan to the south of the Terek river), the lands bordering the Caspian Sea, Northern Ossetia, Chechnya and the banks of the Terek river. They speak the Kumyk language, till the 1930's the lingua-franca of the Northern Caucasus.

According to the national census of 2010 there is more than 500,000 Kumyks in Russia.

A Kumyk family

Notable Kumyks: Ilyas Bekbulatov, Bozigit Ataev, Jamal Ajigerey (wushu star and actor,[3] 12-time European and 1-time world wushu champion[4][5]), Nariman Israpilov, Rustam Khabilov, Bakhtiyar Akhmedov, Saypulla Absaidov, Magomet-Gasan Abushev, Marid Mutalimov, Muslim Salikhov, Marat Gafurov, Nasrulla Nasrullayev, Zapir Rasulov, Haidar Bammate, Najmuddin Bammate, Temirbulat (Timour) Bammate, Djalaluddin Korkmasov.

Population and present settlement area[edit]

Kumyks until today traditionally populate, apart from Dagestan, some areas in modern Northern Ossetia (Kizlar (Gücük-yurt), Predgornoye (Borasuw-otar), Maliy Malgobek (Malğabek-otar), settlement of Kalininsky (Köpürawuz), quarters of Kirzavod and Yangi-yurt (Yañı-yurt) in the town of Mozdok), and Chechnya (Grozny and Gudermes districts — villages of Braguny (Borağan), Vinogradnoye (Bammat-yurt), Darbanhi (İstisuw)) — all parts of the Russian Federation. They comprise 14% of the population of the Russian republic of Dagestan, the third largest population of the Chechnya, and the fifth largest population of the Northern Ossetia.[6]

Kumyks is the second largest turkic-speaking ethnic group after Azerbaijanis in the Causasus, the largest turkic people of the North Caucasus and the third largest nation of Dagestan.

Russian Federation[edit]

Russian'a territorial subject (krai, oblast, republic etc.) Population
2002
2010[7]
Dagestan 365 804[8] 431 736
Tyumen oblast 12 343[9] 18 668
Northern Ossetia 12 659[10] 16 092
Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug 9 554[11] 13 849
Chechnya 8 883[12] 12 221
Yamal-Nenets autonomous okrug 2 613[13] 4 466
Stavropol krai 5 744[14] 5 639
Moscow 1 615[15] 2 351
Moscow oblast 818[16] 1 622
Astrakhan oblast 1 356[17] 1 558
Rostov oblast 1 341[18] 1 511
Volgograd oblast 895[19] 1 018
the table contains regions with the population exceeding 1000 people only.

Turkey and The Middle East[edit]

In the 19th century (during and after the Caucasian war) Kumyks were subject to or willingly made a resettlement (hijra) to the Ottoman Empire and then Turkey.[20]

There is no government-conducted state census of the minor nationalities in Turkey ( ethnic or racial censuses are outlawed), but according to the studies in 1994—1996 there were more than 20 settlements which Kumyks populated, those are:

Bursa province — Koşuboğazı, Mustafakemalpaşa (assimilated but keeping family history); Orhangazi province — Yeniköy (along with avars and dargins); Sivaş province — Yıldızeli (Yavuzköy), Yağlıdere, Yıldızeli (Yağköy), Süleymaniye, Hafik (along with turkish and avars; Tokat province — Doğançaylı (along with karachays), Yavu, Çermik, Artova (along with dargins and avars), Çirdağ (along with dargins and avars), Gültepe, Erbaa (along with dargins and avars), Yeniderbent, Zile (along with lezgins), Turhal (along with karachays, Culture Centre is precent); Çanakkale province — Akköprü, Biga (Culture Centre is precent), Aziziye, Doğancı, Geyikkırı, Kalafat, Biga (Bozna). Many Kumyk districts and villages, for instance in the town of Samsun, dekumykised due to assimilation and resettling.[21]

In the 1910s and 1920s during bolshevik Soviet Russia there was another wave of the Kumyks' emigration to Turkey. Among the emigrants (muhajirs) of that period are prominent Dagestanian figure Aselderkhan Kazanalip (1855—1928 and his wife princess Jahbat Tarkovskaya, and also princes — Asadullah Utsumi-khan and Akhmat-khan.[22]

Kumyks also moved to Syria and Jordan, where a few Kumyk families still live.[23] For instance, the Syrian village of Dar-Ful was established in 1878-1880 by Kumyk emigrants (muhajirs) from the Northern Caucasian Dagestan, settlements of Utamish, Bashlykent and Karabudaghkent, later joined by Kumyks from the Kumyk possession of the Russian Empire and many other Dagestanians.[24]

History[edit]

The rifle of Kumyk Shamhal of Tarki, 19th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York

Some historians have speculated that the Kumyks may be descendants of the Khazars, such as the Hungarian historian Ármin Vámbéry, who believed that they settled in their present territory during the flourishing period of the Khazar Khaganate in the 8th century.

During the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries CE the Kumyks had an independent kingdom, based at Tarki, and ruled by a leader called a Shamkhal.

The Russians built forts in their territory in 1559 and under Peter I. The upper terraces of the Kumyk plateau, which the Kumyks occupy (leaving its lower parts to the Nogais) are very fertile.

Language[edit]

Kumyks speak Kumyk language, which is a part of Kipchak-Cuman language subfamily of the Kipchak family of the Turkic languages. It's an inheritant of Hunnic and Khazar languages, and contains also Bulghar and Oghuz substratum.[25]

Nikolay Baskakov, based on a famous scripture Codex Cimanicus, included modern Kumyk, Karachai-Balkar, Crimean Tatar, Karaim, and the language of Mamluk Kipchak in the same with Cuman-Kipchak lingual family. Samoylovich also considered Cuman-Kipchak close to Kumyk and Karachai-Balkar.[26]

It had been a lingua-franca of the biggest part of the Northern Caucasus, from Dagestan to Kabarda, until the 30th of the 20th century.[27][28][29]

In 1848, a professor of "Caucasian Tatar" (Kumyk) Timofey Makarov published the first ever grammatical book for one of the Northern Caucasian languages - regionally international Kumyk. Makarov wrote:[30]

From the peoples speaking Tatar language I liked the most Kumyks, as for the language's distinction and precision, so for their closeness to the European civilization, but most importantly, I considered, that they live on the Left flang of the Caucasian front, where we conduct military action, and where all the peoples, apart from their own language, speak Kumyk also.

Amongst the dialects of the Kumyk there are Kaitag, Terek (town of Mozdok and Braguny), Buynaksk (Temir-Khan-Shura) and Xasavyurt, the last two of which became basis for the literary language.[31]

Kumyk is an old-script literary language of Dagestan and Caucasus. During the 20th century the writing system of the language was changed twice: during Soviet times in 1929 traditional Arabic script (called ajam) was substituted by the Latin script at first, and then in 1938 — by Cyrillic script.

The closest to Kumyk languages are Karachai-Balkar, Crimean Tatar, and Karaim.[32]

More than 90%, according to census, also speak Russian, and those in Turkey speak Turkish.

In Russian and European classical literature[edit]

Kumyk language was a subject of studies for such Russian classical authors as Leo Tolstoy[33] and Mikhail Lermontov,[34] both of whom served in the Caucasus. The language is present in such works of Tolstoy as "The Raid",[35] Cossacks,[36] Hadji Murat, and Lermontov's - "A Hero of Our Time",[37][34] Bestuzhev-Marlinsky's - "Molla-nur" and "Ammalat-bek".

German poet Fleming, travelling together with Holstein embassy through Kumyk lands in 1633 and 1636, had dedicated to Kumykia and its towns a few verses.[38][39]

References[edit]

Kumyks Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. [40]

  1. ^ Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity Archived 2012-04-24 at the Wayback Machine. (in Russian)
  2. ^ State statistics committee of Ukraine - National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian)
  3. ^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm1374453/?ref_=login
  4. ^ http://www.iwuf.org/upload/2016/1101/11011938568_2.pdf
  5. ^ http://www.sport-express.ru/newspaper/2008-11-28/13_4/
  6. ^ Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity Archived 2012-04-24 at the Wayback Machine. (in Russian)
  7. ^ Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Официальные итоги с расширенными перечнями по национальному составу населения и по регионам.: см.
  8. ^ Демоскоп Weekly — Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России — Респ. Дагестан
  9. ^ емоскоп Weekly — Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России — Тюменская область
  10. ^ Демоскоп Weekly — Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России — Респ. Северная Осетия-Алания
  11. ^ емоскоп Weekly — Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России — ХМАО
  12. ^ Демоскоп Weekly — Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России — Чеченская Республика
  13. ^ Демоскоп Weekly — Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России — Ямало-Ненецкий автономный округ
  14. ^ Демоскоп Weekly — Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России — Ставропольский край
  15. ^ Демоскоп Weekly — Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России — г. Москва
  16. ^ Демоскоп Weekly — Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России — Московская область
  17. ^ Демоскоп Weekly — Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России — Астраханская область
  18. ^ Демоскоп Weekly — Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России — Ростоская область область
  19. ^ Демоскоп Weekly — Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России — Волгоградская область
  20. ^ Ömer Karata Mehmed Said Arbatl KUMUK TÜRKLERİNİN KAFKASYA’DAN ANADOLU’YA GÖÇÜ (The Resettlement of Kumyk from the Caucasus to Anatolia), 2015.
  21. ^ "Nartajans DAĞISTAN KÖKENLİLERİN TÜRKİYE'DE YAŞADIKLARI ŞEHİRLER VE YERLEŞİM YE". www.nartajans.net. Retrieved 2017-06-23. 
  22. ^ İrfan Nallar (2003). "Türkiyedeki Kumuklar Damarlarını Arıyorlar" (in турецкий) (исследовательская статья, Стамбул ed.). 
  23. ^ "Мухаджиры (Muhajirs)". Радио Свобода (Radio Freedom). Retrieved 2017-06-23. 
  24. ^ ""Северокавказская диаспора Сирии надеется на Россию" (North Caucasus Diaspora hopes for help from Russia)" (in Russian). Retrieved 2017-06-23. 
  25. ^ Baskakov N.A. Введение в изучение тюркских языков. М., 1962, с. 236.
  26. ^ Абибуллаева С. ""Кодекс Куманикус" – ПАМЯТНИК ТЮРКСКИХ ЯЗЫКОВ КОНЦА XIII – НАЧАЛА XIV ВЕКОВ" (PDF) (in русский). 
  27. ^ Pieter Muysken. (2008). Studies in language companion series. From linguistic areas to areal linguistics. 90. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 74. ISBN 9789027231000. 
  28. ^ Nansen. Gjennem Kaukasus til Volga (Oslo: Jacob Dybwads Forlag, 1929). 
  29. ^ Н.С.Трубецкой (1925). ""О народах Кавказа"" (статья ed.). 
  30. ^ "Kafkaz Lehçeni Tatar Grammatikası, Makarov 1848". caucasian.space (in Kumyk and Russian). Retrieved 2017-06-28. 
  31. ^ Template:БСЭ3
  32. ^ Кумыкский энциклопедический словарь. Махачкала. 2012. С. 218.
  33. ^ "Лев Толстой: Дневник 1847 — 1854 гг. Тетрадь Г. Март - май 1851 г.". tolstoy.lit-info.ru. Retrieved 2017-03-10. 
  34. ^ a b Мугумова, Анна Львовна. "К проблеме ориентального лексического влияния на язык русской художественной литературы 20-30-х годов XIX в.: На материале произведений М. Ю. Лермонтова." (диссертация ed.). 
  35. ^ s:Набег (Толстой)
  36. ^ s:Казаки (Толстой)/XL
  37. ^ s:Герой нашего времени (Лермонтов)/Предисловие
  38. ^ http://kumukia.ru/article-9142.html
  39. ^ http://kumukia.ru/article-9143.html
  40. ^ "Kumyks - 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica - Bible Encyclopedia - StudyLight.org". StudyLight.org. Retrieved 2017-06-23. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 42°23′14″N 47°59′12″E / 42.3873°N 47.9867°E / 42.3873; 47.9867