Kundal Shahi language

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Kundal Shahi
Native to Pakistan
Native speakers
700 (2005)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 shd
Glottolog kund1257[2]

Kundal Shahi is a Dardic language spoken by about 700 people in the Kundal Shahi village of Neelam Valley in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. It is an endangered language and its speakers are shifting to Hindko.

Phonology[edit]

The following tables set out the phonology of Kundal Shahi.[3]

Vowels[edit]

Kandal Shahi is unusual amongst Dardic languages in that it has front rounded vowels.[3]

Front Central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close i iː y yː u uː
Close-Mid e eː øː ə o oː
Open-Mid ɛ ɛː ʌ ɔ ɔː
Open a aː

Consonants[edit]

Like Kashmiri, Kundal Shahi is unusual amongst Dardic languages in that it lacks retroflex fricatives and affricates.[3]

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ (ŋ)
Plosive voiceless p t ʈ k (q)
aspirated ʈʰ
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
Affricate voiceless
aspirated tʃʰ
voiced
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ x h
voiced z ɣ
Lateral l
Flap ɾ ɽ
Approximant j w

Tone[edit]

Kundal Shahi, like many Dardic languages, has either phonemic tone or, as in Kundal Shahi, pitch accent.[4] Words may have only one accented mora, which is associated with high pitch; the remaining mora have a default or low pitch.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kundal Shahi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kundal Shahi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ a b c d Baart, Joan L. G. and Khawaja A. Rehman (2005), A First Look at the Language of Kundal Shahi in Azad Kashmir (PDF), SIL International, pp. 10–13 
  4. ^ Baart, Joan L. G. (2003), Tonal features in languages of northern Pakistan (PDF), National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics, pp. 3, 6 

External links[edit]