The Cunene River (Portuguese spelling) or Kunene River (Namibian spelling) is a river in Southern Africa. It flows from the Angola highlands south to the border with Namibia. It then flows west along the border until it reaches the Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the few perennial rivers in the region. It is about 1,050 kilometres (652 mi) long, with a drainage basin 106,560 square kilometres (41,143 sq mi) in area. Its mean annual discharge is 174 m³/s (6,145 cfs) at its mouth. The Epupa Falls lie on the river. Olushandja Dam dams a tributary of the river, the Etaka, and helps provide the Ruacana Power Station with water.
Proposed hydroelectric dam
The Namibian government proposed in the late 90's to build the Epupa Dam, a controversial hydroelectric dam on the Cunene. In 2012 the Governments of Namibia and Angola announced plans to jointly build the Orokawe dam in the Baynes Mountains. The dam threatens the local ecosystem and therefore the economic basis of the local Himba ethnic group. During February 2012, traditional Himba chiefs issued a Declaration to the African Union and to the OHCHR of the United Nations, titled "Declaration of the most affected Ovahimba, Ovatwa, Ovatjimba and Ovazemba against the Orokawe Dam in the Baynes Mountains" outlines the fierce objections against the dam from the traditional Himba chiefs and communities that reside near the Kunene River.
November 23, 2012, hundreds of Himba and Zemba from Omuhonga and Epupa region protested in Okanguati against Namibia’s plans to construct a dam in the Kunene River in the Baynes Mountains, against increasing mining operations on their traditional land and human rights violations against them.
March 25, 2013, over thousand Himba and Zemba people marched in Owpuo to protest again against Namibia's plans to build the Orokawe dam in the Baynes Mountains at the Cunene River without consulting with the indigenous peoples that do not consent to the construction plans.
Tourists frequent campsites or lodges in Epupa which offer water sports on the river including rafting and canoeing. There are ancient baobab trees alongside the gorge, and there is an attractive and well-kept viewpoint high above the village and falls, but both are spoiled by broken bottles and abundant garbage.
- C.Michael Hogan. 2012. Kunene River. eds. P.Saundry & C.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC.
- F.C.de Moor, H.M.Barber-James, A.D.Harrison, C.R.Lugo-Ortiz. 2000. The macroinvertebrates of the Cunene River from the Ruacana Falls to the river mouth and assessment of the conservation status of the river. African Journal of Aquatic Science. Vol.25, no.1
- Mikiyasu Nakayama. 2003. International Waters in Southern Africa. United Nations University Press. ISBN 92-808-1077-4. Google eBook
- Nakayama, Mikiyasu (2003). International Waters in Southern Africa. United Nations University Press. p. 9. ISBN 92-808-1077-4.; online at Google Books
- "Indigenous Himba Appeal to UN to Fight Namibian Dam". galdu.org. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
- "Namibian Minority Groups Demand Their Rights". newsodrome.com. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
- "Declaration of the most affected Ovahimba, Ovatwa, Ovatjimba and Ovazemba against the Orokawe Dam in the Baynes Mountains". earthpeoples.org. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
- "Namibia: Indigenous semi-nomadic Himba and Zemba march in protest against dam, mining and human rights violations". EarthPeople.org. Retrieved 2012-Nov 24-12. Check date values in:
- . Earth Peoples http://earthpeoples.org/blog/?p=4151. Retrieved 2013-March 30-13. Check date values in:
|access-date=(help); Missing or empty
- "Himba, Zemba reiterate ‘no’ to Baynes dam". Catherine Sasman for The Namibian. Retrieved 2013-March 26-13. Check date values in: