Kung Pao chicken

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Kung Pao chicken
Kung-pao-shanghai.jpg
A Sichuan version of Kung Pao chicken
Traditional Chinese 宮保雞丁
Simplified Chinese 宫保鸡丁

Kung Pao chicken (Chinese: 宫保鸡丁), also transcribed as Gong Bao or Kung Po, is a spicy, stir-fried Chinese dish made with chicken, peanuts, vegetables, and chili peppers. The classic dish in Sichuan cuisine originated in the Sichuan Province of south-western China and includes Sichuan peppercorns. Although the dish is found throughout China, there are regional variations that are typically less spicy than the Sichuan serving. Kung Pao chicken is also a staple of westernized Chinese cuisine.

History[edit]

Ding Baozhen, the Qing dynasty official in Sichuan after whom the dish is named
The Anhui version of Kung Lao chicken, served in an iron pot

The dish is believed to be named after Ding Baozhen (1820–1886), a late Qing Dynasty official and governor of Sichuan Province. His title was Gongbao (Chinese: 宫保; pinyin: Gōngbǎo; Wade–Giles: Kung1-pao3; literally: "Palace Guardian").[1] The name Kung Pao chicken is derived from this title.

During the Cultural Revolution, the dish's name became politically incorrect because of its association with the imperial system. The dish was renamed fast-fried chicken cubes (hongbao jiding)[dubious ] or "chicken cubes with seared chiles" (Chinese: 糊辣鸡丁; pinyin: húlà jīdīng) by Maoist radicals until its political rehabilitation in the 1980s under Deng Xiaoping's reforms.[2]

Versions[edit]

Sichuan version[edit]

The original Sichuan version uses chicken as its primary ingredient. In this original version, diced chicken is typically mixed with a prepared marinade.[3] Shaoxing wine is used to enhance flavor in the marinade. The wok is seasoned and then chili peppers and Sichuan peppercorns are flash-fried to add fragrance to the oil. In Sichuan, or when preparing Sichuan-style Kung Pao chicken, only Sichuan-style chili peppers such as facing heaven pepper or seven stars pepper (Chinese: 七星椒; pinyin: Qīxīngjiāo; Wade–Giles: Ch'i1-shing1-chiao1) are used. Smaller, thinner Sichuanese varieties may also be used.[4] The most important component of the dish is handfuls of Sichuan peppercorns. It is these peppercorns that give authentic Kung Pao chicken its distinctive numbing flavor. Use of hot and numbing flavor (Chinese: 麻辣味型; pinyin: Málà wèixíng; Wade–Giles: Ma2-la4 wei4-hsing2) is a typical element of Sichuan cooking. Then the chicken is stir-fried and vegetables, along with peanuts, are added. Kung Pao chicken starts off with fresh, moist, unroasted peanuts or cashew nuts.[5] These are often used instead of their pre-roasted versions. The peanuts or cashew nuts are dropped into the hot oil at the bottom of the wok, then deep-fried until golden brown before the other ingredients are added.

Variants exist that use other meats in place of chicken, such as "Kung Pao shrimp" (Chinese: 宫保虾) [6] and "Kung Pao frog legs" (Chinese: 宫保田鸡) [7]

Western versions[edit]

Versions commonly found in the west, called Kung Pao chicken, Kung Po, or just chicken chili and garlic, consist of diced, marinated chicken, stir-fried with orange or orange juice, ginger, garlic, chicken broth, sugar, cooking oil, corn starch, and salt and pepper to taste.[8] The dish often includes or is garnished with whole roasted peanuts. Instead of chicken, western variations sometimes substitute other meat such as pork, duck or fish.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ding Baozhen—an outstanding minister of the Qing Dynasty". Replay.waybackmachine.org. 2008-08-20. Archived from the original on August 20, 2008. Retrieved 2012-01-23. 
  2. ^ "Savoring the Spice in Kung Pao Chicken". NPR. Retrieved 2012-01-23. 
  3. ^ "Easy Kung Pao Recipe". Easy Recipes, Tips, Ideas, and Life Musings. 2014-03-27. Retrieved 2016-10-28. 
  4. ^ Eats, Serious. "Real Deal Kung Pao Chicken Recipe". www.seriouseats.com. Retrieved 2016-10-28. 
  5. ^ "Gong Bao Chicken/Kung Pao Chicken 宫保雞丁/宫爆雞丁 recipe & photos". MaMaChineseCooking.com. 2009-06-22. Retrieved 2012-01-23. 
  6. ^ ""欧洲四川美食文化周"走进奥地利". 中国侨网. Retrieved 5 October 2017. 
  7. ^ "Easy Kung Pao Frog Legs 宫保田鸡". Eat What Tonight. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  8. ^ "Kung Pao Chicken". Epicurious. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2017. 
  9. ^ D'Arabian, Melissa (3 October 2017). "Healthy, quick Kung Pao Cod". Washington Post. AP. Retrieved 5 October 2017. 

External links[edit]