Kunqu

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Kunqu
Traditional Chinese崑曲
Simplified Chinese昆曲
Literal meaning"Kun[shan] Melody"
A scene from The Peony Pavilion

Kunqu (Chinese: 崑曲), also known as Kunju (崑劇), K'un-ch'ü, Kun opera or Kunqu Opera, is one of the oldest extant forms of Chinese opera. It evolved from the local melody of Kunshan, and subsequently came to dominate Chinese theater from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The style originated in the Wu cultural area. It has been listed as one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO since 2001.[1] American arts magazine TeRra Magazine acclaimed Kunqu one of the most elegant entertainment performing arts.[2]

History[edit]

Gu Jian, allegedly a transmitter of the Kunshan music in the Yuan dynasty
Pekinguniversitykunqu4.jpg
Kunqu - Dan.jpg
A Kunqu performer's portrayal of Hu Sanniang

Kunqu singing techniques are said to have been developed during the Ming Dynasty by Wei Liang Fu in the port of Taicang, but linked to the songs of nearby Kunshan.[3] Kunqu performance is closely inter-related with the performance of many other styles of Chinese musical theater, including Peking opera, which contains much Kunqu repertoire. The emergence of chuanqi plays, commonly sung to Kunqu, is said to have ushered in a "second Golden Era of Chinese drama". Kunqu troupes experienced a commercial decline in the late 19th century. However, in the early 20th century, Kunqu was reestablished by philanthropists as a theatrical genre that was subsequently subsidized by the Communist state. Like all traditional forms, Kunqu suffered setbacks both during the Cultural Revolution and again under the influx of Western culture during the Reform and Opening Up policies, only to experience an even greater revival in the new millennium. Today, Kunqu is professionally performed in seven major Mainland Chinese cities: Beijing (Northern Kunqu Theater), Shanghai (Shanghai Kunqu Theater), Suzhou (Suzhou Kunqu Theater), Nanking (Jiangsu Province Kun Opera), Chenzhou (Hunan Kunqu Theater), Yongjia County/Wenzhou (Yongjia Kunqu Theater) and Hangzhou (Zhejiang Province Kunqu Theater), as well as in Taipei. Non-professional opera societies are active in many other cities in China and abroad, and opera companies occasionally tour.

There are many plays that continue to be famous today, including The Peony Pavilion and The Peach Blossom Fan, which were originally written for the Kunqu stage. In addition, many classical Chinese novels and stories, such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Water Margin and Journey to the West were adapted very early into dramatic pieces.

In 1919 Mei Lanfang and Han Shichang, renowned performers of kunqu, traveled to Japan to give performances. In the 1930s Mei performed kunqu in the United States and the Soviet Union and was well received.[4]

Its melody or tune is one of the Four Great Characteristic Melodies in Chinese opera.

In 2006, Zhou Bing acted as a producer and art director for KunQu (Kun Opera) of sexcentenary. It won Outstanding Documentary Award of 24th China TV Golden Eagle Awards; it won Award of TV Art Features of 21st Starlight Award for 2006.

Repertoire[edit]

Dramatists[edit]

Performers[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kun Qu Opera". UNESCO Cultural Sector - Intangible Heritage.
  2. ^ "Kunqu, The elegant entertainment for an Chinese Empress | TeRra Magazine". 2019-06-15. Retrieved 2021-03-06.
  3. ^ according to Southern Lyrics Sung Correctly (南詞引正) by Wei Liangfu, a famous musician of the Ming Dynasty
  4. ^ "Kunqu | Chinese theatre". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-05-06.

Further reading[edit]

  • Xiao Li (2005). Chinese Kunqu Opera. Translated by Li Li and Liping Zhang. Long River Press. ISBN 1-59265-062-7.

External links[edit]