Kunstgewerbeschule

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Kunstgewerbeschule Magdeburg building
Auditorium of the former Kunstgewerbeschule Hamburg, with the mural de:Die ewige Welle by de:Willy von Beckerath, created 1911-1918, restored 2011.
Building of the former Kunstgewerbeschule Vienna, now the University of Applied Arts Vienna.
Entrance to the former Kunstgewerbeschule Erfurt, now the Art and Music building of the Education Faculty, University of Erfurt

A Kunstgewerbeschule (English: School of arts and crafts or school of applied arts) was a type of vocational arts school that existed in German-speaking countries from the mid-19th century. The term Werkkunstschule was also used for these schools. From the 1920s and after World War II, most of them either merged into universities or closed, although some continued until the 1970s.

Students generally started at these schools from the ages of 16 to 20 years old, although sometimes as young as 14, and undertook a four-year course, in which they were given a general education and also learnt specific arts and craft skills such as weaving, metalwork, painting, sculpting, etc.

Some of the most well known artists of the period had been Kunstgewerbeschule students, including Anni Albers, Peter Behrens, René Burri, Otto Dix, Horst P. Horst, Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka, Egon Schiele and Oskar Schlemmer. Many students accepted into the renowned Bauhaus art school had previously studied at Kunstgewerbeschulen.[1]

List of Kunstgewerbeschulen (selected)[edit]

In order of date opened.

  • Berlin (1868). There were two schools of applied art in Berlin. The teaching institute of the Berlin Museum of Applied Arts, (German: de:Unterrichtsanstalt des Kunstgewerbemuseums Berlin), opened on 12 January 1868. The museum itself was founded in 1866 as an initiative of a private museum association. The school was set up to provide an alternative to academic arts training. From 1881 the school was based in the museum's Martin-Gropius-Bau building in Niederkirchnerstraße in Kreuzberg.[2] In 1885, the Kunstgewerbemuseum and its affiliated school were taken over by the Prussian state.[3] In 1924, the school was separated from the museum and merged with the Hochschule für die Bildenden Künste, to become the Vereinigten Staatsschulen für Freie und Angewandte Kunst (United state schools for free and applied arts). It is one of the predecessors of the Hochschule der Künste Berlin which was founded in 1975, and which since 2001 has been the Universität der Künste Berlin (UdK) (Berlin University of the Arts). The other Berlin Kunstgewerbeschule, founded in 1899, was also integrated into what is now UdK, see below.[4]
  • München (Munich) (1868) The Königliche Kunstgewerbeschule München (Royal school of arts and crafts) was renamed the Staatsschule für angewandte Kunst (State school for applied art) in 1928, and in 1937 renamed again as the Akademie für angewandte Kunst.[5] In 1946 it was incorporated into the Akademie der Bildenden Künste München (Academy of Fine Arts, Munich).[6]
  • Kassel (1869). Grew from an art academy founded in 1777. Founded as the Werkkunstschule on 24 May 1869. Closed at the beginning of World War II and its premises were used as a military hospital, which stopped operating in May 1943 due to flood damage caused by the bombing of the Edersee Dam, of the Dam Busters fame. The school reopened under the name Schule für Handwerk und Kunst (School for Crafts and Art) in 1946. After various name changes and changes of premises this merged into the Kunsthochschule Kassel in 1970, which, in 1971, became a faculty of the University of Kassel.[7]
  • Stuttgart (1869). The school was called the Württembergische staatliche Kunstgewerbeschule (Wuttemberg school of applied arts). In 1946 it became the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste Stuttgart (State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart).[8]
  • Kaiserslautern (1874). The school was founded as the Pfälzische kunstgewerbliche Fachschule (Palatinate school of arts and crafts) in 1874, along with the Königliche Kreisbaugewerkschule (Royal district building trades school). About 1938 both schools merged to become the present day Meisterschule für Handwerker Kaiserslautern (Master school for trades people). [9][10]
  • Dresden (1875). It was founded as the Königlich-Sächsische Kunstgewerbeschule (Royal Saxon School of Applied Arts). It became the Akademie für Kunstgewerbe (State Academy of Applied Arts) in 1921, and merged with the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts in 1950 to become the present day Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden.[11][12]
  • Leipzig (1876). The Königliche Kunstakademie und Kunstgewerbeschule was established in 1876, from the earlier Zeichnungs-, Malerey- und Architectur-Academie which was founded in 1764. The writer Johann Wolfgang Goethe, then a law student, started attending drawing classes there from Autumn 1765. [13] From 1900 the school was called the Königliche Akademie für graphische Künste und Buchgewerbe (Royal school for art and the book trade). After World War II, in 1947, it became the Akademie für Graphik und Buchkunst - staatliche Kunsthochschule, and in 1950 the Hochschule für Graphik und Buchkunst (Academy for graphic design and book art). Today it is known as the Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst / Academy of Fine Arts Leipzig (HGB) (de).[14]
  • Pforzheim (1877). The school was founded as the Herzoglichen Kunstgewerbeschule und Fachschule für die Metallindustrie (Ducal School of Arts and Crafts and School for the Metal Industry). It merged into the Staatlichen Höheren Wirtschaftsfachschule, a teritary institute for economics founded in 1963, a predecessor of the Hochschule Pforzheim, a business, design and engineering institution.[17]
  • Karlsruhe (1878). The Kunstgewerbeschule Karlsruhe, established 1878, merged with the Großherzoglichen Badischen Kunstschule Karlsruhe (Grand Ducal School of Painting Karlsruhe) in 1920, to create the Badische Landeskunstschule (Baden state art school). This closed in 1944, and reopen in 1947 as the Badischen Akademie der bildenden Künste (Baden Academy of Fine Arts). Since 1961 it has been the State Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe.[18][19]
  • Frankfurt am Main (1878). Founded in 1878, in about 1930 the Kunstgewerbeschule Frankfurt was integrated into the Städelschule, an art school which had its origins in the Städel Art Institute which had been established in Frankfurt in 1817. The school is now known as the Staatliche Hochschule für Bildende Künste - Städelschule.[20][21][22]
  • Nürnberg (Nuremberg) (1883). The present day Akademie der Bildenden Künste Nürnberg (AdBK) (Academy of Fine Arts, Nuremberg), originated from a painting academy founded in 1662, making it the oldest art school in the German speaking world.[24] In 1820 it was renamed the Königliche Kunstschule (Royal Art School). Due to government pressure to develop trade and commerce in Nuremberg, in 1883 it became the Kunst- und Kunstgewerbeschule, focusing solely on applied arts rather than fine art. It became the Staatsschule für angewandte Kunst (State school for applied art) in 1928, and in 1940 it got its current name.[24]
  • Erfurt (1898). The school was officially called de:Staatlich-Städtischen Handwerker-und Kunstgewerbeschule. It was informally known as the Hügelschule, because it is in a street called Am Hügel ('On the hill'). It became the Fachschule für angewandte Kunst (College for applied art) in 1946. From 1955 it was part of Erfurt teachers' training college and since 2001 it has been the art and music building of the University of Erfurt Education Faculty.[28]
Kunstgewerbe und Handwerkerschule, in Berlin-Charlottenberg, c. 1900
  • Berlin (1899) The second of the two applied arts schools in Berlin had its origins in a continuing education school set up in 1861 for young tradesmen. In 1899 it was established as the Kunstgewerbe- und Handwerkerschule (de) (Applied arts and tradesmen's school). From 1900 until 1943 it was based in Eosanderstraße in Charlottenburg. In November 1943 the building was destroyed in an air raid.[29]

During the Nazi period, in 1936, the school was renamed the Meisterschule des deutschen Handwerks der Reichshauptstadt (Master school of German trades of the imperial capital city). After the war it was again renamed as the Meisterschule für das Kunsthandwerk (Master school for arts and crafts). In 1952 it moved into a building on what is now the Straße des 17. Juni, which now belongs to the Berlin University of the Arts. In 1964 the art school was called the Staatliche Werkkunstschule, and from 1966 the Staatliche Akademie für Werkkunst und Mode (State academy for applied arts and fashion). In 1971, it was integrated into the Hochschule für Bildende Künste. In 1975, this became the Hochschule der Künste Berlin, which since 2001 has been the Universität der Künste Berlin (UdK) (Berlin University of the Arts).[4][29]

Weimar Kunstgewerbeschule building, which was later used by the Bauhaus from 1919 to 1925.

A separate school, on a neighbouring site, the Großherzoglich-Sächsische Kunstschule Weimar (Weimar Saxon Grand Ducal Art School), was founded in 1860 and 1910 it became a higher education institute named the Großherzoglich Sächsische Hochschule für Bildende Kunst (Grand Ducal School for Fine Arts).[30]

In 1919 the buildings used by the former Kunstgewerbeschule and the neighbouring Hochschule für Bildende Kunst became the base of the newly founded Bauhaus art school. The buildings, designed by Henry van de Velde between 1904 and 1911, are now part of the Bauhaus World Heritage site.[30][31][32]

The Bauhaus in Weimar closed in 1925 and reopened in Dessau in 1926. The buildings in Weimar were used by successor arts related educational institutions.[30] There were also other art schools, at other sites, in Weimar, including the Fürstliche freie Zeichenschule Weimar (Weimar Princely Free Drawing School), which existed from 1776-1930, and the Staatliche Bauschule Weimar (State Architecture / Building Trades School). After various mergers, restructurings and renamings, the present day Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, founded in 1996 after German reunification, operates on the former Bauhaus site, teaching art and design related courses.[30]

  • Wiesbaden (1919). The Handwerker- und Kunstgewerbeschule Wiesbaden grew from a continuing education school established in 1817. From 1844 that school was supported by the trades association of the Duchy of Nassau, the Gewerbeverein für Nassau. By 1881 it had three departments offering lessons in business, drawing and model making. In 1918 the city of Wiesbaden took over the school, and in 1919 it was established as the Handwerker- und Kunstgewerbeschule.[33]The same year the school moved into a building built in 1863 for a primary school, which was designed by the architect Philipp Hoffmann. The building now houses the Kunsthaus Weisbaden, the city art gallery.[34][35] The school closed in 1934. It was reopen in 1947 and renamed the Werkkunstschule Wiesbaden in 1949.[33] In 1971 it merged with the engineering colleges in Geisenheim, Idstein and Rüsselsheim to form the Fachhochschule Wiesbaden, which since 2013 has been called the RheinMain University of Applied Sciences.[36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bauhaus Archiv. Bauhaus100. Students. Retrieved 20 January 2018
  2. ^ Das Kunstgewerbe-Museum zu Berlin: Festschrift zur Eröffnung des Museumsgebäudes. Berlin: Reichsdruckerei, 1881
  3. ^ UDK-Berlin. Unterrichtsanstalt des Kunstgewerbemuseums 1868-1924. Retrieved 28 January 2018
  4. ^ a b UDK-Berlin. Die Geschichte der Universität der Künste Berlin Die Vorgängerinstitutionen von 1696 bis 1975. Retrieved 28 January 2018
  5. ^ Volkert, Wilhelm (1983) Handbuch der bayerischen Ämter, Gemeinden und Gerichte 1799-1980. München, C. H. Beck, p. 216.
  6. ^ Schmalhofer, Claudia (2005) Die Kgl. Kunstgewerbeschule München (1868–1918). München: Herbert Utz Verlag GmbH
  7. ^ Kunsthochschule Kassel. History. Retrieved 20 January 2018
  8. ^ Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste Stuttgart. Geschichte der Akademie. Retrieved 21 January 2018
  9. ^ Meisterschule für Handwerker Kaiserslautern. Über uns. Retrieved 21 January 2018
  10. ^ Rasp, Ute-Konstanze (1995) Das Gewerbemuseum und die Königlichen Kreisbaugewerkschulen und Kunstgewerblichen Fachschulen Kaiserslautern, 1874–1918. Bonn: Diss
  11. ^ Stiftung Industrie und Alltagskultur. Design in der DDR. Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden. Retrieved 20 January 2018
  12. ^ Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden. History. Retrieved 20 January 2018
  13. ^ Dressler, Willy Oskar (ed.) (1913) Dresslers Kunstjahrbuch. Handbuch der deutschen Kunstpflege. 7. Jahrgang. Rostock: Dressler
  14. ^ Stiftung Industrie und Alltagskultur. Design in der DDR. Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst Leipzig. Retrieved 28 January 2018
  15. ^ University of Applied Arts Vienna. History. Retrieved 19 January 2018
  16. ^ Hölscher, Petra (2003) Die Akademie für Kunst und Kunstgewerbe zu Breslau. Wege einer Kunstschule 1791–1932 (pdf). Kiel: Verlag Ludwig. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  17. ^ Hochschule Pforzheim. Retrieved 2018
  18. ^ Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste Karlsruhe. Geschichte. Retrieved 26 January 2017
  19. ^ Heil, Axel Heil, Klingelhöller, Harald (eds.) (2004) 150 Jahre. Die Geschichte der Kunstakademie Karlsruhe in Bildern und Texten. Künzelsau: Swiridoff Verlag
  20. ^ Städelschule.History. Retrieved 26 January 2018
  21. ^ Meyer, Corina (2017) The origins of the Städelschule (PDF). Retrieved 26 January 2018
  22. ^ Salden, Hubert (ed.) (1999) Die Städelschule Frankfurt am Main von 1817 bis 1995. Mainz: Schmidt Hermann Verlag
  23. ^ Zurich University of the Arts. History. Retrieved 19 January 2018
  24. ^ a b Academy of Fine Arts Nuremberg. History. Retrieved 21 January 2018
  25. ^ Füllner, Bernd, et al (1987) Düsseldorf als Stadt der Kunst 1815–1850. In: Dokumentation zur Geschichte der Stadt Düsseldorf vol. 5. Düsseldorf: Pädagogisches Institut der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf
  26. ^ Puhle, Matthias (ed.) (1993) Die Kunstgewerbe- und Handwerkerschule Magdeburg 1793–1963. Die Geschichte der Kunstgewerbe- und Handwerkerschule Magdeburg sowie deren Vorgänger- und Nachfolgeinstitute im Spiegel ihrer künstlerischen und gestalterischen Leistungen. Magdeburg: Magdeburger Museen
  27. ^ Hamburg University for Fine Arts. HFBK history. Retrieved 19 January 2018
  28. ^ Stiftung Industrie und Alltagskultur. Design in der DDR. Erfurt Fachschule für angewandte Kunst. Retrieved 19 January 2018
  29. ^ a b UdK Berlin. Meisterschule für das Kunsthandwerk 1899-1971. Retrieved 29 January 2018
  30. ^ a b c d e Bauhaus-Universität Weimar. History. Retrieved 5 February 2017
  31. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Bauhaus and its sites in Weimar and Dessau. Retrieved 5 February 2017
  32. ^ Weimar Grand Ducal School of Arts and Crafts (Kunstgewerbeschule) Building. Retrieved 5 February 2017
  33. ^ a b Klockner, Clemens (2012) Die Gründerzeit ist schon Geschichte: Eine exemplarische Betrachtung der Vorgeschichte und der Anfangsjahre der Fachhochschule Wiesbaden. Wiesbaden: Hochschule RheinMain Retrieved 27 January 2018
  34. ^ Stadtarchiv Wiesbaden. Kunsthaus Wiesbaden. Retrieved 27 January 2018
  35. ^ Wiesbaden. Über das Kunsthaus. Retrieved 27 January 2018
  36. ^ Hochschule RheinMain. About us - History. Retrieved 27 January 2018.