Kura Kaupapa Māori
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Kura Kaupapa Māori are Māori-language immersion schools (kura) in New Zealand where the philosophy and practice reflect Māori cultural values with the aim of revitalising Māori language, knowledge and culture. The term Kaupapa Māori is used popularly by Māori to mean any particular plan of action created by Māori to express Māori aspirations, values and principles.
The establishment of Kura Kaupapa Māori schools followed a 1971 report by researcher Richard Benton that the Māori language was in a critical near-death stage. By the 1980s Māori communities "were so concerned with the loss of Māori language, knowledge and culture that they took matters into their own hands and set up their own learning institutions at pre-school, elementary school, secondary school and tertiary levels" (G Smith 2003:6-7)
The establishment of Kohanga Reo, Māori-language pre-schools triggered a series of initiatives in schooling and education by Māori, initially outside of the mainstream education system. The need for Māori language elementary schools arose when parents were concerned that their children who had finished Kohanga Reo quickly lost their language once they started at mainstream elementary schools. Those Kura Kaupapa Māori are part of a series of Māori-led initiatives aimed at strengthening the language, affirming cultural identity, and encouraging community involvement (G Smith 2003:8-11).
Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Hoani Waititi, Henderson, West Auckland is generally credited as being the first Kura Kaupapa Māori to be established in 1985. The Kura Kaupapa Māori movement is a term commonly used to describe parents and supporters of Kura Kaupapa Māori. The term emerged when the first kura was established.
In 1987 a working party was established to investigate an alternative schooling model that would better meet the aspirations of Māori communities in New Zealand. The working party consisted of Dr Katerina Mataira, Dr Pita Sharples, Dr Graham Smith, Dr Linda Smith, Dr Cathy Dewes, Tuki Nepe, Rahera Shortland, Pem Bird and Toni Waho. The working party adopted Te Aho Matua as being the foundation set of principles that guide the operations of a Kura Kaupapa Māori.
Kura Kaupapa Māori originate from humble beginnings. It took 5 years from the first Kura Kaupapa Māori to be established for the government to begin funding kura kaupapa Māori. In the early years, from 1985 to 1995, almost all Kura Kaupapa Māori were accommodated at some stage in a place or venue that accommodate children for little or no rent. Parents raised funds to resource Kura Kaupapa Māori until the government officially recognised and funded the school. Kura acknowledge two anniversary dates. The date in which the kura first established itself, and the date it became a state school in accordance with the 1989 Education Act.
In 1987, one of the recommendations of the Tomorrow's Schools' Pilot Report, a major education reform affecting all New Zealand schools, recommended to the government that Māori communities be able to establish and govern their own schools. Therefore, the 1989 Education Act was amended to include Section 155 which provides for the Minister of Education to designate a state school as a Kura Kaupapa Māori by notice in the New Zealand Gazette. Although the Act was amended, many kura communities were dissatisfied because the amendment did not adequately define the unique character of a Kura Kaupapa Māori.
On 16 July 1999, the Education (Te Aho Matua) Amendment Act 1999, amended Section 155 of the Education Act 1989. Māori communities wanted the unique character of Kura Kaupapa Māori to be protected in law. At the request of Te Runanga Nui, the Minister of Māori Affairs and associate Minister of Education Tau Henare was the Minister responsible for the Education (Te Aho Matua) Amendment Act becoming a statute in New Zealand. The Te Aho Matua amendment made it a requirement that Kura Kaupapa Māori adhere to the principles of Te Aho Matua. The amendment recognised Te Runanga Nui o nga Kura Kaupapa Māori as the kaitiaki (guardians, caretakers and architects), the most suitable body responsible for determining the content of Te Aho Matua, and for ensuring that it is not changed to the detriment of Māori.
According to Graham Smith, the charter "provides the guidelines for excellence in Māori, that is, what a good Māori education should entail. It also acknowledges Pākehā culture and skills required by Māori children to participate fully and at every level in modern New Zealand society" (G Smith 2003:10).
Te Aho Matua – governing principles
Written in the Māori language, Te Aho Matua o nga Kura Kaupapa Māori are the principles Kura Kaupapa Māori are required to adhere to. The principles are underpinned by Māori values, beliefs and customs. On Thursday 21 January 2008, Te Aho Matua along with an explanation in English was published in the New Zealand Gazette by the late Parekura Horomia. When Te Aho Matua was introduced into parliament to become legislated, an English explanation was written by Dr Katerina Mataira.
Te Aho Matua has six sections:
- Te Ira Tangata (the human essence), affirms the nature of the child as a human being with spiritual, physical and emotional requirements
- Te Reo (language), deals with language policy and how the schools can 'best advance the language learning of their children'
- Ngā Iwi (people), focuses on 'the social agencies which influence the development of children, in short, all those people with whom they interact as they make sense of their world and find their rightful place within it'
- Te Ao (the world), deals with 'the world which surrounds children and about which there are fundamental truths which affect their lives'
- Ahuatanga Ako (circumstances of learning), 'provides for every aspect of good learning which the whānau feel is important for their children, as well as the requirements of the national curriculum'
- Ngā Tino Uaratanga (essential values), 'focuses on what the outcome might be for children who graduate from Kura Kaupapa Māori' and 'defines the characteristics which Kura Kaupapa Māori aim to develop in their children'.
Te Runanga Nui (national body)
In 1993, Uru Gardiner, the principal of Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Ati Hau Nui A Paparangi asked key architects of Kura Kaupapa Māori to visit Wanganui. Her kura whānau (parents and extended family of the school community) wanted to seek advice on good practice for establishing a kura kaupapa Māori. When Māori communities from around New Zealand learned of this hui (gathering) they asked if they could attend. Consequently, Te Runanga Nui o Nga Kura Kaupapa Māori o Aotearoa, commonly known as Te Runanga Nui was established in 1993 at Kawhaiki marae on the Whanganui river. At the hui Dr Pita Sharples became the inaugural Tumuaki (president) of Te Runanga Nui.
Te Runanga Nui is the national collective body of Kura Kaupapa Māori Te Aho Matua communities. An incorporated society, the organisation holds its annual meeting in different locations throughout New Zealand, usually on the last weekend of March. Meetings are mostly conducted in Māori. The purpose of the organisation is to support Kura Kaupapa Māori whānau (communities) in realising their aspirations for their schools. They engage in discussions and negotiations with the government, Ministry of Education, the Education Review Office and other organisations who have a vested interest in Kura Kaupapa Māori.
The organisation is divided into ten geographic regions, and kura kaupapa Māori belong to a particular region. At the annual meeting, each region elects a māngai (representative) who becomes a member of the Te Rūnanga Whāiti (executive committee). Two regions like Tāmaki Makaurau (Auckland) and Te Ūpoko o te Ika (Lower North island) have two māngai. Te Rūnanga Whāiti meets several times of the year, usually in Auckland to discuss issues affecting kura kaupapa Māori. The issues can vary. The organisation also elects a Tumuaki (president) at the meeting, the current being Hone Mutu. The organisation has a small secretariat and the current kaitakawaenga (co-ordinator) is Arapine Walker supported by Te Tari Tautoko (support team).
The nine geographic regions of Te Runanga Nui are Te Hiku (Northland), Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland), Tainui (Waikato), Mataatua (Bay of Plenty), Te Puku (Central North Island), Tai-rāwhiti (East Coast), Taranaki, Te Ati Hau Nui A Paparangi (South Taranaki), Te Upoko o te Ika (Wellington), and Te Waka (South Island).
Former tumuaki (presidents or chairpersons) of the Runanga Nui were Dr. Pita Sharples, Bert McLean, Dr. Cathy Dewes, Arni Wainui, Hohepa Campbell Hone Mutu and Rawiri Wright. The current Tumuaki is Dr Cathy Dewes, elected in March 2018.[better source needed]
Types of Kura Kaupapa Māori
Different types of Kura Kaupapa Māori have emerged because of resourcing arrangements used by the Ministry of Education to fund and staff kura. All Kura Kaupapa Māori are co-educational and are part of the compulsory schooling sector of New Zealand state schools. Early childhood centres, kohanga Reo and Universities, Technical institutes or whare wananga in New Zealand are not part of the compulsory schooling sector.
Kura Tuatahi (Primary schools)
There are three types of primary schools in New Zealand. The different types are; full primary, contributing primary and restricted primary. Full primary schools teach children from Years 1 to 8, contributing primary schools teach from Year 7 to 8 and restricted teach children from Years 1 - 6 or from Years 7 - 8. Only children who turn 5 years old are eligible to be enrolled in these schools and the age of children ranges from 5 years old to 13 years old. Most of the children who enroll in kura tuatahi (Primary school) enrol at a kura after turning 5 and graduating from a Kohanga Reo (a Māori language learning nest child centre).
Kura Arongatahi (Composite schools)
Almost all kura started as a full primary school. Kura Arongatahi teach from Years 1 to Years 13. The age of children ranges from 5 years old to 18 years old, although in New Zealand the compulsory leaving age is 16. Students enrolled from Year 11 to Year 13 undertake NCEA (National Certificate of Educational Achievement). However, before a composite school can award NCEA qualifications, the school must be an accredited provider with the New Zealand Qualifications Authority. A kura can only become a composite once the Minister of Education has approved its change of class application. Approval to become a kura arongatahi typically takes two years. Funding and staffing of these kura is different from those of kura tuatahi. In 2008 there were 15 Kura Kaupapa Māori Te Aho Matua composite schools. A composite school in New Zealand can also be classified as an Area school. In recognition of becoming an area school or composite school, Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Māngere, in Mangere, Auckland, changed its name to Te Kura Kaupapa Māori ā rohe o Māngere. Sometimes the Minister of Education will not approve a change of class application to become a full composite school, instead the minister will approve the application so that the kura can become a restricted composite school. A restricted composite school usually allows a kura to teach children from Years 1 to 10. Gaining restricted composite school status does not limit a kura from eventually gaining full composite status in the future, whereby the kura is able to teach up to Year 15.
Wharekura (Secondary schools)
A wharekura is an immersion secondary school (kura) where the philosophy and practice reflect Māori cultural values with the aim of revitalising Māori language, knowledge and culture. The term Kaupapa Māori is used popularly by Māori to mean any particular plan of action created by Māori to express Māori aspirations, values and principles to teach children from Years 9 to Years 15. All of these kura are composite schools. In recognition of gaining wharekura status, one kura.
Kura Tuakana (Mentoring schools)
Some primary and composite kura kaupapa Māori become a Kura Tuakana (Mentoring school). Prior to a formal establishment process being adopted by the government, Kura Kaupapa Māori would satellite a Kura Teina (Mentored school) - another non government funded Kura Kaupapa Māori school community. This arrangement did not require Ministry of Education approval and was the mechanism used by the Kura Kaupapa Māori movement to increase the number of Kura around New Zealand. The satellite arrangement allowed the Kura Tuakana to give funding and staffing to the Kura Teina.
In 2001, the Ministry of Education negotiated a formal process for establishing new Kura with Te Runanga Nui. The process now requires an applicant Kura whanau to apply. Once the Minister of Education is satisfied with the application, a Kura Tuakana is assigned to support and mentor the applicant. Only selected Kura Kaupapa Māori can become a Kura Tuakana and must be able to demonstrate their ability to mentor the Kura teina.
Kura Teina (Mentored schools)
Kura Teina are applicant Kura Kaupapa Māori school communities who have applied to the Ministry of education to become a standalone primary school. The kura teina operates and teaches children, either at the primary school year levels (Years 1 to 8) or at the wharekura school year levels (Years 9 - 15) or sometimes at primary and wharekura school year levels. Te wharekura o Manurewa, Auckland, is the only Kura Kaupapa Māori that did not establish as a primary school. The school is a satellite to Te Kura Kaupapa Māori a rohe o Mangere, located in Mangere, Auckland.
Each Kura Kaupapa Māori established in accordance with the Education Act, has a governing body. Kura have a Board of Trustees where five parent representatives are elected and it is defined in its constitution when school is gazetted in the New Zealand gazette. The principal and an elected staff representative automatically becomes a member of that Board. For many kura, all parents become the governing body. Graha Smiths says "a key principle of kaupapa Māori, is the involvement of whanau (all parents)." This type of governance arrangement requires all parents to become actively involved at all levels of school operations. Kura that operate a whanau governance arrangement do not support the Board of Trustees model.
Like other state schools, the governing body is required to develop and adopt a school charter, strategic plan and annual plan. Policies also are developed to support the whanau and management to run the day-to-day affairs of the school.
Staffing and funding
The principal and all staff are employees of the governing body. The number of teachers is dependent on the number of children enrolled. There are two roll calculation dates for all New Zealand schools, used to calculate staffing numbers and Teachers. The dates are known as the 1 March and 1 July roll return.
Times and days open
Kura Kaupapa Māori are required to follow the stipulated number of days the school is required to be open in accordance with Ministry of education guidelines. Primary school Kura Kaupapa Māori primary schools are open for instruction from 9 am to 3 pm. The schools have the authority to change the times. Composite Kura Kaupapa Māori are required to be open for a longer period during the day because composite schools are open fewer days of the year than primary schools. Time and dates a kura is open varies from kura to kura.
Te Reo Māori funding
Kura Kaupapa Māori receive additional funding to help them develop and maintain their Te Reo Māori immersion environment. An immersion leveling system is the mechanism used to calculate the funding. Kura are at level 1. This means that the language of instruction, the principal language used the teachers, Te Reo Māori in the classroom must be from 81% to 100%. It is common for teachers to not speak any English to their children at kura. An additional salary allowance (MITA - Māori Immersion Teacher allowance) is also paid to full-time teachers who teach at Level 1.
Some primary kura teach English (Te Reo Pākehā) and all composite kura teach English to Year 9–13 students. Otherwise, English is only spoken on the grounds of a kura in a designated area.
Because of small roll numbers, most kura organise classrooms for a range of year levels. Year 1 and Year 2 students, are grouped separately, from Year 2 to Year 5 students, while Year 6 to Year 8 students separately. Kura have flexibility to organise their classrooms levels according to their priorities. Most kura operate a single cell classroom set up in which children are taught in one classroom by a single teacher. Three kura have an open plan teaching arrangement where children of many year levels are taught by many teachers in a large open teaching space. These kura are Mana Tamariki, Ruamata and Te Kotuku.
Karakia is central to kura kaupapa Māori and the spiritual well-being of Māori. Meetings will begin with a prayer. Children at the start and end of the day will undertake karakia with their kaiako. On special occasions, when new schools are opened or at special school events, kaumatua (elders) of the community will undertake special karakia. Children are taught to honour and practise karakia. Two common forms of prayer are practised in kura, Christian based and Kaupapa Māori based.
Te Aho Matua requires that the curriculum of a kura be holistic. A kura strategic plan will determine the strategic direction the whanau (parents, principal, teachers) have for the learning of their children. Learning programmes are themed, incorporate Māori cultural perspectives, honour Māori customs and traditions and validate Māori knowledge. The curriculum is outcome focussed. Student achievement targets are defined to support the planning of learning programmes and assessment practise.
List of Kura Kaupapa Māori
|Year||Legal Name||Location||Te Runanga Nui region||Class|
|1985||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Hoani Waititi||Henderson, West Auckland||Tamaki Makaurau||Composite|
|1987||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Waipereira||Kelston, West Auckland||Tamaki Makaurau||Primary|
|1988||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Maungawhau||Maungawhau||Tamaki Makaurau||Kura Tuatahi|
|1989||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Mangere||Mangere, Auckland||Tamaki Makaurau||Composite|
|1990||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Ruamata||Rotorua||Te Runanga Nui region||Composite|
|1990||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Manawatu||Palmerston North||Te Upoko o te Ika||Primary|
|1990||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Piripono Te Kura Whakahou ki Otara||Otara, South Auckland||Tamaki Makaurau||Primary|
|1991||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Wairarapa||Masterton||Te Upoko o te Ika||Primary|
|1991||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Rito||Otaki||Te Upoko o te Ika||Composite|
|1991||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Oparure||Oparure, Te Kuiti||Tainui||Primary|
|1991||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Whakapumau i Te Reo Tuturu o Waitaha||Christchurch||Te Waka||Composite|
|1991||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Atihau-Nui-A-Paparangi||Whanganui||Te Atihau-Nui-A-Paparangi||Primary|
|1991||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Arowhenua||Invercargill||Te Waha||Composite|
|1992||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Ruatoki||Ruatoki||Te Runanga Nui region||Class|
|1993||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Kaikohe||Kaikohe||Te Runanga Nui region||Composite|
|1993||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Puau Te Moananui-A-Kiwa||Glen Innes, Auckland||Tamaki Makaurau||Composite|
|1993||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Manurewa||Manurewa, South Auckland||Tamaki Makaurau||Primary|
|1993||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Whakarewa I Te Reo Ki Tuwharetoa||Taupo||Te Puku||Composite|
|1993||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Nga Taonga Tuturu ki Tokomaru||Tokomaru Bay, East Coast||Te Tai Rawhiti||Primary|
|1993||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Bernard Fergusson||Ngāruawāhia||Tainui||not sure|
|1993||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Rangi Āniwaniwa||Kaitaia||Te Hiku||Composite|
|1993||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Ara Rima||Hamilton||Tainui||not sure|
|1993||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Otepou||Tauranga||Te Runanga Nui region||Primary|
|1993||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Mangatuna||Tolaga Bay||Te Tairawhiti||Primary|
|1993||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori O Te Koutu||Rotorua||Te Puku||Composite|
|1994||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Rangiawhia||Kaitaia||Te Hiku||Primary|
|1994||Te Piipiinga Kakano Mai Rangiatea||New Plymouth||Taranaki||Primary|
|1994||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Rangiawhia||Kaitaia||Te Runanga Nui region||Class|
|1994||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Tamaki Nui A Rua||Dannevirke, Hawkes Bay||Te Upoko o te Ika||Composite|
|1994||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Nga Mokopuna||Seatoun, Wellington||Te Upoko o te Ika||Composite|
|1994||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Rakaumanga||Huntly||Tainui||Composite|
|1995||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Mana Tamariki||Palmerston North||Upoko o te Ika||Composite|
|1995||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Rawhitiroa||Whangarei||Te Hiku||Composite|
|1995||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Toku Mapihi Maurea||Hamilton||Tainui||Primary|
|1995||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Tamarongo||Taranaki||Taranaki||Primary|
|1995||Te Kura Kaupapa Motuhake o Tawhiuau||Murupara||Te Ika Whenua||not sure|
|1995||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Huiarau||Ruatahuna||Maungapohatu||not sure|
|1995||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Matahi||Waimana||Te Runanga Nui region||not sure|
|1995||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Waiohau||Waiohau, Whakatane||Te Runanga Nui region||Class|
|1995||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Waioeka||Waioeka||Te Runanga Nui region||Class|
|1996||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Rakipaewhenua||Mairangi Bay, Auckland||Tamaki Makaurau||Primary|
|1996||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Waiu o Ngati Porou||Ruatoria||Te Runanga Nui region||Composite|
|1996||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Nga Uri a Maui||Gisborne||Te Tairawhiti||Primary|
|1996||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Wananga Whare Tapere o Takitimu||Hastings||Te Upoko o te Ika||Composite|
|1996||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Ara Whanui||Lower Hutt, Wellington||Te Upoko o te Ika||not sure|
|1996||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Waipiro||Waipiro Bay, East Coast||Te Tairawhiti||Primary|
|1996||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Tapere Nui A Whatonga||Rangitukia||Te Runanga Nui region||Class|
|1996||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Rotoiti||Rotorua||Te Puku||Primary|
|1996||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Maraenui||Maraenui||Te Runanga Nui region||Class|
|1996||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Matai||Te Puke||Te Runanga Nui region||Primary|
|1996||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Harataunga||Kennedy Bay, Coromandel||Tainui||Primary|
|1997||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Taumarere||Kawakawa||Te Hiku||Primary|
|1997||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Whakawatea||Hamilton||Tainui||not sure|
|1997||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Ngati Kahungunu Ki Te Wairoa||Wairoa||Te Upoko o te Ika||Composite|
|1997||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Ngati Rangi||Ohakune||Te Ati-Hau-Nui-A-Paparangi||Primary|
|1997||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Whanau Tahi||Christchurch||Te Waka||Composite|
|1998||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Ngati Ruanui||Hāwera||Taranaki||not sure|
|1998||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Ngati Kahungunu Ki Heretaunga||Hastings, Hawkes Bay||Te Upoko o te Ika||Composite|
|1998||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Tupoho||Whanganui||Te Ati-Hau-Nui-A-Paparangi||Composite|
|1998||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Otepoti||Dunedin||Te Waka||Primary|
|1998||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Puaha o Waikato||Tuakau/ Port Waikato||Tainui||Primary|
|2001||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori O Te Ara Hou||Napier||Te Upoko o te Ika||Composite|
|2002||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Kotuku||Ranui, Auckland||Tamaki Makaurau||Primary|
|2003||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Kawakawa Mai Tawhiti||Hicks Bay, East Coast||Te Tairawhiti||Primary|
|2003||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Hiringa||Tokoroa||Te Puku||not sure|
|2005||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Whangaroa||Matauri Bay||Te Hiku||not sure|
|2005||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Tonga o Hokianga||South Hokianga||Te Hiku||Primary|
|2005||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Hurungaterangi||Rotorua||Te Puku||Primary|
|2005||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Pukemiro||Kaitaia||Te Hiku||composite|
|2006||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Waiuku||Waiuku||Tamaki Makaurau||Primary|
|2007||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Te Rau Aroha||Matamata||Tainui||Composite|
|2012||Te kura kaupapa Māori o Tuia te matangi||Nelson||Te tau ihu o te waka a Maui||Composite|
|2013||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Horouta Wānanga||Gisborne||Tairawhiti||Composite|
|2019||Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Hawaiki Hou||Gisborne||Tairawhiti||Composite|
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