Kurnool: Difference between revisions

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Revision as of 11:01, 10 April 2013

Kurnool
KANDANAVOLU
కందనవోలు
city
Konda Reddy Fort
Konda Reddy Fort
Nickname(s): Gateway to Rayalaseema
Country  India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Rayalaseema
District Kurnool
Government
 • Type Democratic
 • Body Collector
Area
 • Total 40 km2 (20 sq mi)
Area rank 7
Elevation 274 m (899 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 424,920
 • Rank 8
 • Density 11,000/km2 (28,000/sq mi)
Languages
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Website kurnool.nic.in

Kurnool (Telugu: కర్నూలు Urdu: کرنول‎) is a city and administrative seat of Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh state in southern India, about 212 kilometres (132 mi) south of state capital, Hyderabad.
It is also the seventh most populous city of Andhra Pradesh, is the gateway to Rayalaseema and the largest city in the area.
Kurnool served as the capital of Andhra State from 1 October 1953 to 31 October 1956.

History

Palaeolithic era

The Ketavaram[1] rock painting's are dated back to the Paleolithic era (located at a distance of 18 Kilometer from Kurnool). Also the Jurreru Valley, Katavani Kunta[2] and Yaganti in Kurnool District have some important rock art's and painting's in their vicinity, may be dated back to 35,000 to 40,000 years ago.

Medieval era

Hamlet's existed around Kurnool for more than 2,000 years. The Chinese traveller Xuanzang, on his way to Kanchi, passed through Kurnool. In the seventeenth century, Kurnool was part of the sultanate of Bijapur, under the governorship of a hereditary line of jagirdars of African origin, who were among the most powerful nobles at the court.[3]

Aurangazeb, the last Mogul King to rule India, conquered the Deccan in 1687 and left his governors, the Nizams, to rule the Andhra centres of Hyderabad and Kurnool. Both the Nizam of Hyderabad and Nawab of Kurnool declared independence and became sole rulers of their territories. Nawab Alaf Khan Bahadur was the first ruler of Kurnool and his descendants ruled it for over 200 years. In the early 18th century, the Nawabs joined hands with the sultan of Mysore and fought the British Empire.

Name of the City

There are many theories about the origin of the name Kurnool. According to A Manual of the Kurnool District in the Presidency of Madras, the name Kurnool is derived from Kandenavolu or Kandanavolu (a Telugu name by which it is referred to in the inscriptions and literature of the past), pronounced as karnooluu. The site on which the city now stands was a resting place before crossing the Tungabhadra river to Alampur, during the time of Chalukya's. Here, they greased their cart-wheels with oil. They called the place Kandenametta or kandanavolu (Kandanam means grease).

The strategic position led to the formation of a small settlement on the spot which subsequently came to be known as Kandenapalli, Kandenolu and Kandenavolu, the city of Kandena or grease. The site which was used as a halting place is still known as Bandla Metta (Bandla means carts and Metta means headquarters or halting place). There is a street in the Old city known as "Bandimetta".

Some scholars argue that Kurnool derived its name from Kallu which means stone and Nadu which means territory. Yet, others say the name Kurnool has been derived from Skandanavolu, the city of Skanda or Kumaraswamy. The worship of Skanda in Andhra Pradesh dates back to ancient times. The cities were also named after Skanda, the chief God of War of the Devas.

Fort Konda Reddy Buruju

There is a bastion named Konda Reddy fort, constructed as a strategic watch tower by the rulers of the Vijayanagara Empire. Underneath lies a passage (tunnel) which connects the fort to Gadwal which is 52 km away. The specialty of this tunnel is it crosses under the river Tungabhadra and reaches gadwal which was ruled by Nalla Somanadri who was the one built an ecxellent fort in gadwal . Stories tell that the ruler of Gadwal Kingdom utilized this tunnel to escape from the Muslim conquerors in 17th century. The government of Andhra Pradesh closed the tunnel somewhere around the 1901.

Image Gallery

Political administration

It is the headquarters of the mandal, the revenue division and the district of the same name. From 1 October 1953 to 31 October 1956, Kurnool was also the capital of Andhra State (not Andhra Pradesh), which was carved out of Madras State in 1953. Tangutoori Prakasam Pantulu was the chief minister of Andhra State during this period. The present day District court buildings were used as premises of state Assembly

Geography and climate

Kurnool

Period - 1951-2000

Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
0
 
 
29
18
 
 
1
 
 
33
20
 
 
4
 
 
36
23
 
 
25
 
 
38
25
 
 
41
 
 
39
25
 
 
86
 
 
34
23
 
 
145
 
 
31
22
 
 
140
 
 
31
22
 
 
170
 
 
31
22
 
 
115
 
 
31
22
 
 
13
 
 
29
19
 
 
7
 
 
28
17
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [1] IMD

Kurnool is located at 15°50′00″N 78°03′00″E / 15.8333°N 78.05°E / 15.8333; 78.05.[4] It has an average elevation of 273 metres (898 feet).

Kurnool lies on the banks of the Tungabhadra River. The Hundri and Neeva rivers also flow through the city. The K.C. Canal (Kurnool–Cuddapah) was built by the Dutch for transportation, but later used for irrigation.

Despite being the largest of all the 4 districts of Rayalaseema, it still remains the backward region of Andhra Pradesh. The other 3 districts are Anantapur, Kadapa and Chittoor. This region flourished in the past under the Hindu King Sri Krishnadevaraya. Hence the name Rayalaseema.

During British period, Nizam of Hyderabad ceded this area to British people so it is also called as ceded districts.

Kurnool was the erstwhile capital of Andhra When the Nizams princely state was merged to form Andhra Pradesh State the capital was shifted to Hyderabad.

The climate is tropical with temperatures ranging from 26°C to 45°C in the summer and 12°C to 31°C in the winter. The average annual rainfall is about 30 inches (762 mm).

Demographics

As per provisional data of 2011 census, Kurnool urban agglomeration had a population of 478,124, out of which males were 239,401 and females were 238,723. The literacy rate was 77.37 per cent. ref>

Education

Kurnool city is a very good educational center. The Following are some important educational institution's :
Rayalaseema University
Medical College (Kurnool Medical College)
Dr.Abdul Haq Unani Medical College
Thirteen Engg. Colleges
Two Polytechnics
One Dental College
One Physiotherapy College
Six B.Ed. Colleges
One Law College
Four Colleges of Nursing
Ten Degree Colleges for Men and Women
Twenty Junior Colleges
One College of Physical Education
Five Pharmacy colleges
Three schools for blind and physically challenged
one Oriental studies *(Arabic and Urdu) degree college. Several Computer Coaching Centers.

Kurnool Medical College

When Andhra State was formed in October 1953, the Government of Andhra decided to start a medical college in the Rayalaseema region of the state. In Government Order Ms. No. 1835, Health, dated 29 November 1955, the government of Andhra passed orders to establish a medical college, the third one in the state, at Kurnool. As the building was not ready for the college the government decided to admit 50 students intended for Kurnool Medical College at Kurnool City in July 1956. When Andhra Pradesh was formed and the capital was shifted to Hyderabad from Kurnool the erstwhile secretariat building was handed over to the medical college. The college was opened on 21 July 1956 by Sri T.T. Krishnamachari, the then Finance Minister of India. Fifty students were admitted to the M.B.B.S. course.

The Kurnool Medical College was first affiliated to Sri Venkateswara University, from January 1957 and permanently affiliated from January 1959.

The NCC unit attached to the college was started in January, 1958.

The legislators' hostel, which was very close to, the college was given for locating the men's hostel during 1958 and it accommodated 175 students. Further expansion of this hostel was made to accommodate 350 students in all. During December 2006 and January 2007 students and faculty of this college were celebrating their Golden jubilee function. It marked the completion of 50 successful years after establishment. They invited Dr. Abdul Kalam, former President of India to this program. Permission to set up Rayalaseema University was granted by the University Grants Commission (UGC).

G Pulla Reddy College of Engineering & Technology established in 1985 is one of the oldest private engineering colleges in the region.[citation needed]Rajeev Gandhi Memorial College of Engineering and Technology, established in 1995, is located in a 50 acres site at Nerawada cross roads, 10 km from Nandyal town on the way to kurnool on NH-18. In addition, Kurnool has a dental College, two Polytechnics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University Post Graduate Center, Govt. Pharmacy College, CES College of Pharmacy(CESCOP), degree colleges for men and women, M.B.A. college, M.C.A. colleges, four colleges of Education (B.Ed) and a law college. Government of Andhra Pradesh established the first residential degree college "Silver Jubilee College" in 1972 at Kurnool. In addition to 'G Pulla Reddy Engineering College and 'Brindavan Institute of Technology and Science'(BITS),' and a new university is established in Kurnool City named "Rayalaseema University".

Transportation

Kurnool is considered as the Gateway of Rayalaseema as one must pass through Kurnool to reach Kadapa or Chittor or Anantapur districts while travelling from Hyderabad. Kurnool is having the third largest bus station in Andhra Pradesh after Hyderabad and Vijayawada. Kurnool is connected to most cities and towns in Andhra Pradesh as well as to Bengaluru and Chennai by the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) and the Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC). National Highway 7 connects Kurnool to Hyderabad (210 km, 4.5 hours), Anantapur (140 km, three hours), Hindupur {245 km, 5.5 hours} and Bengaluru (360 km. The State Highway 51 connects to Srisailam, Vinukonda, Guntur, Vijayawada. The National Highway 18 Kurnool-Chittoor connects the city to Panyam, Nandyal,Allagadda Allagadda,Ahobilam(near to the highway),Mahanandi(near to the highway),Maidukuru, Kadapa, Rayachoty Pileru, and Chittoor.

Kurnool lies on the Hyderabad – Guntakal railway line and has express trains to Hyderabad, Delhi, Chennai, Chittoor, Tirupati, Jaipur, Madurai, Shirdi and Bengaluru. There are also passenger trains to Hyderabad, Guntakal and Guntur, which caters to the short distance passengers.

The four railway stations in Kurnool District are Kurnool Town, Adoni, Nandyal and Dhone junction. Adoni is on the Chennai-Mumbai Railway Line and several trains run daily to these cities and New Delhi. Nandyal is on the Guntakal -Vijayawada line and has daily trains to Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Bengaluru, Vishakhapatnam and Howrah. Dhone junction is situated on the Guntakal - Secunderabad / Vijayawada line. All the trains which pass through Nandyal and Kurnool pass through this junction.

The nearest airport is Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, at Hyderabad, three and half hours drive from Kurnool City.

References

http://www.kalagnani.com An Official Website Sri Pothuluru Veerabrahmendra Swami, Kandimallayapalle

External links