Russell at the 2016 San Diego Comic-Con
Kurt Vogel Russell
March 17, 1951
|Education||Thousand Oaks High School|
(m. 1979; div. 1983)
|Partner(s)||Goldie Hawn (1983–present)|
|Children||2, including Wyatt|
Kurt Vogel Russell (born March 17, 1951) is an American actor. He began acting on television at the age of 12 in the western series The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters (1963–1964). In the late 1960s, he signed a ten-year contract with The Walt Disney Company where, according to Robert Osborne, he became the studio's top star of the 1970s.
Russell was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture for his performance in Silkwood (1983). In the 1980s, he starred in several films directed by John Carpenter, including anti-hero roles such as army hero-turned-robber Snake Plissken in the futuristic action film Escape from New York (1981), and its sequel Escape from L.A. (1996), helicopter pilot R.J. MacReady in the remake of the horror film The Thing (1982), and truck driver Jack Burton in the dark kung-fu comedy action film Big Trouble in Little China (1986). He was nominated for an Emmy Award for the television film Elvis (1979), also directed by Carpenter.
Russell starred in other films, including Overboard (1987), Tango & Cash (1989), Backdraft (1991) Tombstone (1993), Stargate (1994), Miracle (2004), Sky High (2005), Death Proof (2007), The Hateful Eight (2015), Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 (2017) and Once Upon a Time in Hollywood (2019). He also appeared in The Fast and the Furious franchise, having starred in Furious 7 (2015) and The Fate of the Furious (2017).
Born in Springfield, Massachusetts, Russell is the son of actor Bing Russell (1926–2003) and dancer Louise Julia (née Crone) Russell. He has three sisters, Jill, Jamie and Jody. Russell played little league baseball throughout his grade school years and also on his high school baseball teams. He graduated from Thousand Oaks High School in California in 1969. His father, Bing, played professional baseball. His sister, Jill, is the mother of baseball player Matt Franco. From 1969 to 1975, Russell served in the California Air National Guard, and belonged to the 146th Tactical Airlift Wing, then based in Van Nuys.
Russell made his film debut with an uncredited part in Elvis Presley's It Happened at the World's Fair. On April 24, 1963, Russell guest starred in the ABC series Our Man Higgins, starring Stanley Holloway as an English butler in an American family.
Later, he played the title role in the ABC western series The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters (1963–64). The show was based on Robert Lewis Taylor's eponymous novel, which won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1959. In 1964, Russell guest-starred in "Nemesis", an episode of the ABC series The Fugitive in which, as the son of police Lt. Phillip Gerard, he is unintentionally kidnapped by his father's quarry, Doctor Richard Kimble. In NBC's The Virginian, he played the mistaken orphan whose father was an outlaw played by Rory Calhoun who was still alive and recently released from prison looking for his son. Russell played a similar role as a kid named Packy Kerlin in the 1964 episode "Blue Heaven" for the western series Gunsmoke. In the story line, he works for an outlaw gang, but the Rangers take him under their wing and the boy proves helpful when gunslingers try to occupy Laredo, Texas. At age 13, Russell played the role of Jungle Boy on an episode of CBS's Gilligan's Island, which aired on February 6, 1965.
In 1966, Walt Disney wrote "Kurt Russell" on a piece of paper as his final words. In January 1967, Russell played Private Willie Prentiss in the episode "Willie and the Yank: The Mosby Raiders" in Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color. While filming the Sherman Brothers theatrical film musical The One and Only, Genuine, Original Family Band, Russell met his future partner Goldie Hawn. Later, he, Jay C. Flippen and Tom Tryon appeared in the episode '"Charade of Justice" of the NBC western series The Road West starring Barry Sullivan. In a March 1966 episode of CBS's Lost in Space entitled "The Challenge", he played Quano, the son of a planetary ruler and Edward's son "Whitey" in Follow Me, Boys!.
In 1971, he co-starred as a young robber released from jail, alongside James Stewart in Fools' Parade. Later, he guest-starred in an episode of Room 222 as an idealistic high school student who assumed the costumed identity of Paul Revere to warn of the dangers of pollution. In 1966, Russell was signed to a ten-year contract with The Walt Disney Company, where he became, according to Robert Osborne, the "studio's top star of the '70s". Later, he starred in The One and Only, Genuine, Original Family Band and The Computer Wore Tennis Shoes, the latter of which spawned two sequels: Now You See Him, Now You Don't (1972) and The Strongest Man in the World (1975).
Russell, like his father, had a baseball career. In the early 1970s, Russell was a switch-hitting second baseman for the California Angels minor league affiliates, the Bend Rainbows (1971) and Walla Walla Islanders (1972) in the short season Class A-Short Season Northwest League, then moved up to Class AA in 1973 with the El Paso Sun Kings of the Texas League.
While in the field turning the pivot of a double play early in the season, the incoming runner at second base collided with him and tore the rotator cuff in Russell's right (throwing) shoulder. He did not return to El Paso, but was a designated hitter for the independent Portland Mavericks back in the Northwest League late in their short season. The team was owned by his father, and he had been doing promotional work for them in the interim. The injury forced his retirement from baseball in 1973 and led to his return to acting.
In the autumn of 1974, he appeared in the ABC series The New Land, inspired by the 1972 Swedish film of the same name. Critically acclaimed, it suffered very low ratings and aired only six of the 13 episodes. In 1976, Russell appeared with Tim Matheson in the 15-episode NBC series The Quest In 1980, Russell was nominated for an Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Limited Series or a Special for the made-for-television film Elvis.
During the 1980s, Russell teamed with John Carpenter several times, helping create some of his best-known roles, usually as anti-heroes, including the infamous Snake Plissken of Escape from New York and its sequel, Escape from L.A.. Among their collaborations was The Thing (1982), based upon the short story Who Goes There? by John W. Campbell, Jr., which had been interpreted on film before, albeit loosely, in 1951's The Thing from Another World. In 1986, Russell played a truck driver caught in an ancient Chinese war in Big Trouble in Little China, which was a financial failure like The Thing and has since gained a cult audience. He was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture for his performance in Silkwood (1983).
Russell played Lt. Stephen "Bull" McCaffrey in Backdraft (1991), Wyatt Earp in Tombstone (1993) and Colonel Jack O'Neil in the military science fiction film Stargate (1994). His portrayal of U.S. Olympic hockey coach Herb Brooks in the 2004 film Miracle, won the praise of critics. "In many ways", wrote Claudia Puig of USA Today, "Miracle belongs to Kurt Russell." Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times wrote, "Russell does real acting here." Elvis Mitchell of The New York Times wrote, "Mr. Russell's cagey and remote performance gives ''Miracle'' its few breezes of fresh air. "
In 2006, Russell claimed in one interview that he had ghost-directed the hit 1993 western film Tombstone on behalf of credited director George P. Cosmatos, saying he gave Cosmatos shot lists. Russell claimed Sylvester Stallone recommended Cosmatos to him after the removal of the first director, writer Kevin Jarre, but Cosmatos had also worked with Tombstone executive producer Andrew G. Vajna before on Rambo: First Blood Part II. Russell said he promised Cosmatos he would keep it a secret as long as Cosmatos was alive; Cosmatos died in April 2005. Russell said he didn't get a chance to edit his version, but Vajna gave him a tape of "everything on the movie" and that he might try to "reconstruct the movie", although he would need to go back to the script and all his notes.
Russell played the villainous Stuntman Mike in Quentin Tarantino's segment Death Proof of the film Grindhouse. After a remake of Escape from New York was announced, Russell was reportedly upset with Gerard Butler for playing his signature character, Snake Plissken, as he believed the character 'was quintessentially [...] American.'
Russell appeared in The Battered Bastards of Baseball, a documentary about his father and the Portland Mavericks, which debuted at the Sundance Film Festival in 2014. He co-starred in the action thriller Furious 7 in 2015.
On May 4, 2017, Russell and Goldie Hawn received stars in a double star ceremony on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for their achievements in motion pictures, located at 6201 Hollywood Boulevard.
Russell married actress Season Hubley, whom he met while filming Elvis, in 1979, and had a son, Boston (born February 16, 1980). After his divorce from Hubley in 1983, Russell began his relationship with Goldie Hawn, and appeared alongside her in Swing Shift and Overboard having previously appeared with her in The One and Only, Genuine, Original Family Band in 1968. They have a son, Wyatt Russell (born July 10, 1986), and own homes in Vancouver, British Columbia; Snowmass Village, Colorado; Manhattan, New York; Brentwood and Palm Desert, California. Hawn's daughter with Bill Hudson, actress Kate Hudson, considers Russell to be her father.
Russell is a libertarian. In 1996, he was quoted in the Toronto Sun saying: "I was brought up as a Republican, but when I realized that at the end of the day there wasn't much difference between a Democrat and Republican, I became a libertarian." In February 2003, Russell and Hawn moved to Vancouver, British Columbia, so that their son could play hockey.
Russell is a hunter and a staunch supporter of gun rights, and said that gun control will not reduce terrorism. He is also an FAA-licensed private pilot holding single/multi-engine and instrument ratings, and is an Honorary Council Member of the humanitarian aviation organization Wings of Hope.
|1963||It Happened at the World's Fair||Boy Kicking Mike||Uncredited cameo|
|1965||Guns of Diablo||Jamie McPheeters|
|1966||Follow Me, Boys!||Whitey|
|1966||Mosby's Marauders||Willie Prentiss|||
|1968||The One and Only, Genuine, Original Family Band||Sidney Bower|
|1968||The Horse in the Gray Flannel Suit||Ronnie Gardner|
|1969||Guns in the Heather||Rich Evans|
|1969||The Computer Wore Tennis Shoes||Dexter Riley|
|1971||The Barefoot Executive||Steven Post|
|1971||Fools' Parade||Johnny Jesus|
|1972||Now You See Him, Now You Don't||Dexter Riley|
|1973||Charley and the Angel||Ray Ferris|
|1975||The Strongest Man in the World||Dexter Riley|
|1976||The Captive: The Longest Drive 2||Morgan "Two Persons" Bodeen|
|1980||Used Cars||Rudy Russo|
|1981||Escape from New York||Snake Plissken|
|1981||The Fox and the Hound||Adult Copper||Voice role|
|1982||The Thing||R.J. MacReady|
|1984||Swing Shift||Lucky Lockhart|
|1985||The Mean Season||Malcolm Anderson|
|1986||Big Trouble in Little China||Jack Burton|
|1986||The Best of Times||Reno Hightower|
|1988||Tequila Sunrise||Nick Frescia|
|1989||Winter People||Wayland Jackson|
|1989||Tango & Cash||Lt. Gabriel Cash|
|1991||Backdraft||Stephen McCaffrey / Dennis McCaffrey|
|1992||Unlawful Entry||Michael Carr|
|1992||Captain Ron||Captain Ron Rico|
|1994||Forrest Gump||Elvis Presley||Uncredited voice role|
|1994||Stargate||Col. Jonathan "Jack" O'Neil|
|1996||Executive Decision||David Grant|
|1996||Escape from L.A.||Snake Plissken||Also writer and producer|
|2001||3000 Miles to Graceland||Michael Zane|
|2002||Interstate 60||Captain Ives|
|2003||Dark Blue||Eldon Perry|
|2005||Sky High||Steve Stronghold / The Commander|
|2007||Death Proof||Stuntman Mike|
|2013||The Art of the Steal||Crunch Calhoun|
|2014||The Battered Bastards of Baseball||Himself||Documentary|
|2015||Furious 7||Mr. Nobody|
|2015||Bone Tomahawk||Sheriff Franklin Hunt|
|2015||The Hateful Eight||John "The Hangman" Ruth|
|2016||Deepwater Horizon||Jimmy "Mr. Jimmy" Harrell|
|2017||The Fate of the Furious||Mr. Nobody|
|2017||Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2||Ego the Living Planet|
|2018||The Christmas Chronicles||Santa Claus / Saint "Nick' Nicholas|||
|2019||Crypto||Martin Duran, Sr.|
|2019||Once Upon a Time in Hollywood||Randy Miller and the Narrator|
|2019||QT8: The First Eight||Himself||Documentary|
|TBA||The Christmas Chronicles 2||Santa Claus||filming|
|1962||Dennis the Menace||Kevin||Episode: "Wilson's Second Childhood" (uncredited)|
|1962||The Dick Powell Show||Boy / Vernon||3 episodes|
|1963||Sam Benedict||Knute||Episode: "Seventeen Gypsies and a Sinner Named Charlie"|
|1963||The Eleventh Hour||Peter Hall||Episode: "Everybody Knows You Left Me"|
|1963||Our Man Higgins||Bobby||Episode: "Delinquent for a Day"|
|1963–64||The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters||Jaimie McPheeters||Series regular (26 episodes)|
|1964||The Man From U.N.C.L.E.||Christopher Larson||Episode: "The Finny Foot Affair"|
|1964/65||The Virginian||Toby Shea / Andy Denning||Episodes: "A Father for Toby", "The Brothers"|
|1964/66||The Fugitive||Eddie / Philip Gerard Jr.||Episodes: "Nemesis", "In a Plain Paper Wrapper"|
|1964, 1974||Gunsmoke||Packy Kerlin / Buck Henry||Episodes: "Blue Heaven" and "Trail of Bloodshed"|
|1965||Gilligan's Island||Jungle Boy||Episode: "Gilligan Meets Jungle Boy"|
|1965–69||Daniel Boone||Various||5 episodes|
|1966||Lost In Space||Quano||Episode: "The Challenge"|
|1966||Laredo||Grey Smoke||Episode: "Meanwhile Back at the Reservation"|
|1967||The Road West||Jay Baker||Episode: "Charade of Justice"|
|1967–76||Disneyland||Rich Evans / Pvt. Willie Prentiss / Narrator||7 episodes|
|1969||Guns in the Heather||Rich||Originally broadcast on Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color; a.k.a. The Secret of Boyne Castle (European theatrical release)|
|1969||Then Came Bronson||William P. Lovering||Episode: "The Spitball Kid"|
|1970||Men at Law||Jerry Patman||Episode: "This is Jerry, See Jerry Run"|
|1970||The High Chaparral||Dan Rondo||Episode: "The Guns of Johnny Rondo"|
|1970||Love, American Style||Johnny||Segment: "Love and the First-Nighters"|
|1971||Room 222||Tim||Episode: "Paul Revere Rides Again"|
|1973||Love Story||Scott||Episode: "Beginner's Luck"|
|1974||Hec Ramsey||Matthias Kane||Episode: "Scar Tissue"|
|1974||The New Land||Bo Larsen||Series regular (6 episodes, plus 7 unaired)|
|1974-1975||Police Story||J.D. Crawford / Officer David Singer||2 episodes|
|1975||Harry O||Todd Conway||Episode: "Double Jeopardy"|
|1975||The Deadly Tower||Charles Whitman||Television film|
|1975||Search for the Gods||Shan Mullins||Television film|
|1976||The Quest||Morgan 'Two Persons' Beaudine||Series regular (15 episodes)|
|1976||The Quest:The Longest Drive||Morgan 'Two Persons' Beaudine||Television film|
|1977||Hawaii Five-O||Peter Valchek||Episode: "Deadly Doubles"|
|1977||Christmas Miracle in Caufield, U.S.A.||Johnny||Television film|
|1979||Elvis||Elvis Presley||Television film|
|1980||Amber Waves||Laurence Kendall||Television film|
This section of a biography of a living person does not include any references or sources. (December 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|1979||Primetime Emmy Awards||Outstanding Lead Actor in a Limited Series or a Special||Elvis||Nominated|
|1984||Golden Globe Awards||Best Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture||Silkwood||Nominated|
|1997||Blockbuster Entertainment Awards||Favorite Actor – Adventure/Drama||Executive Decision||Won|
|2003||DVD Exclusive Awards||Best Audio Commentary – Library Release||Used Cars||Nominated|
|2003||Saturn Awards||Career award||N/A||Won|
|2015||Fright Meter Awards||Best Actor||Bone Tomahawk||Nominated|
|2015||Hollywood Film Awards||Ensemble of the Year||The Hateful Eight||Won|
|2016||Fangoria Chainsaw Awards||Fangoria Horror Hall of Fame induction||N/A||Won|
|2016||Fangoria Chainsaw Awards||Best Actor||Bone Tomahawk||Won|
|2016||Gold Derby Awards||Best Ensemble Cast||The Hateful Eight||Nominated|
|2017||Teen Choice Awards||Choice Movie – Hissy Fit||Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2||Nominated|
|2017||Hollywood Walk of Fame||Star for Motion Pictures||N/A||Won|
- Introduction by Robert Osborne to the TCM premiere of The Barefoot Executive, April 13, 2007.
- Taylor, Drew (March 18, 2015). "This Exclusive 'Furious 7' Scene Will Really Rev Your Engine (VIDEO)". The Moviefone Blog. Archived from the original on May 20, 2015. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- McCarthy, Tyler (April 1, 2015). "'Furious 7' Cast Member Kurt Russell Reveals Plot Details, Teases Eighth Movie [VIDEO]". International Business Times. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Singer, Leigh (February 19, 2009). "Oscars: the best actors never to have been nominated". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- "Kirk Russell profile". Filmreference.com. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
- "Kurt Russell Timeline and Biography".
- "SI Vault Sports Beat". Sports Illustrated. September 2, 2002. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- Libman, Gary (May 1, 1990). "Guard Unit Bids Farewell: The California Air National Guard turns over its Van Nuys Airport headquarters to the city of Los Angeles". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
- "It Happened at the World's Fair -- (Movie Clip) Kick Me". Turner Classic Movies; retrieved August 16, 2015.
- Billy Hathorn, "Roy Bean, Temple Houston, Bill Longley, Ranald Mackenzie, Buffalo Bill, Jr., and the Texas Rangers: Depictions of West Texans in Series Television, 1955 to 1967", West Texas Historical Review, Vol. 89 (2013), p. 115
- "See Kurt Russell as 'jungle boy' on 'Gilligan's Island'". Today. April 6, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- White, Micah (November 26, 2013). "Walt Disney: 7 Things You Didn't Know About the Man & the Magic", biography.com; accessed May 6, 2017.
- Anstine, Dennis (May 6, 1971). "Actor to play for Rainbows". The Bulletin. Bend, Oregon. p. 6.
- Anstine, Dennis (May 12, 1971). "Kurt Russell: Rainbow determined not to fade". The Bulletin. Bend, Oregon. p. 8.
- Cawood, Neil (May 13, 1971). "Islander raid 'World of Disney,' get infielder for Bend farm club". Eugene Register-Guard. Oregon. p. 1C.
- "Switch hitting Kurt Russell wants acting and baseball". The Milwaukee Journal. July 8, 1971. p. 4.
- Stewart, Chuck (June 20, 1972). "Movie star seeking success in baseball role". Spokane Daily Chronicle. Washington State U.S. p. 15.
- Hopper, Betty (August 14, 1972). "Russell combines acting, baseball". The Telegraph. Nashua, New Hampshire. Associated Press. p. 18.
- Witbeck, Charles (October 11, 1974). "Bad timing". Boca Raton News. Florida. KFS. p. 9, Tele-Viewer.
- "Kurt Russell". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
- "Wise, Kurt Russell to join Mavericks for rest of season". The Bulletin. Bend, Oregon. Associated Press. July 27, 1973. p. 11.
- Freedman, Richard (August 2, 1981). "Baseball player Kurt Russell banging out hits in new field". Youngstown Vindicator. Ohio. Newhouse News Service. p. B6.
- "Nominees/Winners". Television Academy. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "Silkwood". The Golden Globes. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- Ebert, Roger (February 6, 2004). "Miracle". www.rogerebert.com. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
- Mitchell, Elvis (February 6, 2004). "Film Review; A Hollywood Ending From Real Life". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
- =Beck, Henry Cabot (October 2006). "The "Western" Godfather". True West Magazine. Archived from the original on January 22, 2007. Retrieved December 10, 2007.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
- Stax (March 22, 2007). "Kurt Blasts 'Escape' Remake". IGN. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
- "News Russell Enraged with New Snake Plissken". Pr-inside.com. March 25, 2007. Archived from the original on June 10, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
- Labrecque, Jeff (January 13, 2014). "Sundance: Kurt Russell goes deep for 'Battered Bastards of Baseball'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
- Josh Hill (August 31, 2013). "Kurt Russell Joins 'Fast and Furious 7' Cast". Hidden Remote. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
- "Kurt Russell: Hollywood Walk of Fame". Hollywood Walk of Fame. May 4, 2017. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "Goldie Hawn: Hollywood Walk of Fame". Hollywood Walk of Fame. May 4, 2017. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "Goldie Hawn, Kurt Russell Receive Walk of Fame Stars". KNBC. City News Service. May 4, 2017. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Diamond, Jamie (February 20, 2003). "At Home With: Kurt Russell and Goldie Hawn; Leather, Lace and Plenty of Ice". The New York Times. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Janet O'Grady (May 21, 2013). "During an intimate dinner at Kurt Russell's Old Snowmass ranch, the actor talks about the connections among movies, life and his newest passion—winemaking". Modern Luxury. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Nancy Collins (May 17, 2017). "Look Inside Goldie Hawn and Kurt Russell's Light-Filled Manhattan Home". Architectural Digest. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Lindsay Lowe (February 15, 2017). "See Inside! Goldie Hawn and Kurt Russell Sell Their California Mansion for $7 Million". Parade. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Meeks, Eric G. (2012). Palm Springs Celebrity Homes: Little Tuscany, Racquet Club, Racquet Club Estates and Desert Park Estates Neighborhoods. Horatio Limburger Oglethorpe. p. 452 (location number). ASIN B00A2PXD1G.
- Laurence O'Toole. "Goldie's girl". Venus.com. Archived from the original on December 6, 2005. Retrieved June 21, 2006.
- James Burke (January 4, 2016). "Why Actor Kurt Russell Is a 'Hardcore' Libertarian". Vision Times.
- Stern, Marlow (December 22, 2015). "Kurt Russell Talks Cowboys, Guns, and Life as Hollywood's Most 'Hardcore' Libertarian". The Daily Beast.
- "Wings of Hope Honorary Council". Wings of Hope. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
- "Vicky Tiu is a scene stealer It Happened at the Worlds Fair - Elvis Presley News Elvis News".
- "Mosby's Marauders (1966)". BFI Film Forever. British Film Institute (BFI). Retrieved February 22, 2018.
- Laura Peterson (June 6, 2013). "20 Things You Probably Don't Know About 'Forrest Gump'". KBMX. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
- Susman, Gary (July 4, 2014). "Here's Everything You Never Knew About 'Forrest Gump'", Moviefone.com; accessed May 6, 2017.
- "Kurt Russell to Play Santa Claus in Netflix Christmas Movie (Exclusive)". December 5, 2017.
- McNary, Dave (February 13, 2019). "Director Reclaims Rights to Documentary '21 Years: Quentin Tarantino' (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved January 14, 2020.
- "Kurt Russell". La Fila Cero. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
- "Dennis the Menace (TV series 1959–63)". Rare Film Finder. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
- Holmstrom, John. The Moving Picture Boy: An International Encyclopaedia from 1895 to 1995. Norwich, Michael Russell, 1996, p. 291-292.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kurt Russell.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Kurt Russell|