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Temporal range: Cambrian Series 2– Miaolingian[1] (Atdabanian–Amgaian)
Kutorgina cingulata.png
K. cingulata
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Clade: Lophophorata
Phylum: Brachiopoda
Class: Kutorginata
Order: Kutorginida

Kutoringates are early rhynchonelliform brachiopods.

Their annulated pedicles emerge from the apex of their pedicle valve, but they also have a large opening between the valves (from which the pedicle has, at various times, been alleged to emerge from).[1]

The pedicles are much larger than the apical opening.[1]

Included genera[edit]


Kutorgina has a concavo-convex shell with the smaller brachial valve dished in and the larger pedical valve broadly arched. The brachial valve has a rather prominent interarea at the back which is curved over by the prominent beak at the back of the pedical valve.

It includes the species Kutorgina elanica Malakhovskaya, 2013 and K. chengjiangensis Zhang et al. 2007.

K. chengjiangensis preserves soft anatomy - pedicle, lophophore & gut.


Nisusia Walcott, 1905 (Walcott, 1889) is known from the Middle Cambrian (~508 million years ago) Burgess Shale. 133 specimens of Kutorginata are known from the Greater Phyllopod bed, where they comprise 0.25% of the community.[2]

It's a senior synonym to Orthisina alberta Walcott, 1889.

ITS pedicle emerges from between its valves, as displayed by silicified material of N. sulcate, though it still has an opening at the apex of the pedicle valve.[1]

External links[edit]

  • "Nisusia burgessensis". Burgess Shale Fossil Gallery. Virtual Museum of Canada. 2011.


  1. ^ a b c d Holmer, Lars E; Zhang, Zhifei; Topper, Timothy P; Popov, Leonid; Claybourn, Thomas M (2017). "The attachment strategies of Cambrian kutorginate brachiopods: The curious case of two pedicle openings and their phylogenetic significance". Journal of Paleontology. 92: 33–39. doi:10.1017/jpa.2017.76.
  2. ^ Caron, Jean-Bernard; Jackson, Donald A. (October 2006). "Taphonomy of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale". PALAIOS. 21 (5): 451–65. doi:10.2110/palo.2003.P05-070R. JSTOR 20173022.
  • Kutorginata
  • Moore, Lalicker, and Fischer. Invertebrate Fossils, ch 6 Brachiopoda. McGraw-Hill 1952.