Madinat Al Kuwayt
The Skyline of Kuwait City
|• Metro||200 km2 (80 sq mi)|
|Population (2014 estimate)|
|Time zone||AST (UTC+3)|
Kuwait City (Arabic: مدينة الكويت) is the capital and largest city of Kuwait. It has a population of 2.1 million in the metropolitan area. Kuwait City is the political, cultural and economic center of Kuwait. Kuwait City is considered a global city. Kuwait City's trade and transportation needs are served by Kuwait International Airport, Mina Al-Shuwaik (Shuwaik Port) and Mina Al Ahmadi (Ahmadi Port).
||This section may stray from the topic of the article into the topic of another article, Kuwait. (June 2015)|
In 1613, the town of Kuwait was founded in modern-day Kuwait City. In 1716, the Bani Utubs settled in Kuwait. At the time of the arrival of the Utubs, Kuwait was inhabited by a few fishermen and primarily functioned as a fishing village. In the eighteenth century, Kuwait prospered and rapidly became the principal commercial center for the transit of goods between India, Muscat, Baghdad and Arabia. By the mid 1700s, Kuwait had already established itself as the major trading route from the Persian Gulf to Aleppo.
During the Persian siege of Basra in 1775–1779, Iraqi merchants took refuge in Kuwait and were partly instrumental in the expansion of Kuwait's boat-building and trading activities. As a result, Kuwait's maritime commerce boomed. Between the years 1775 and 1779, the Indian trade routes with Baghdad, Aleppo, Smyrna and Constantinople were diverted to Kuwait. The East India Company was diverted to Kuwait in 1792. The East India Company secured the sea routes between Kuwait, India and the east coasts of Africa. After the Persians withdrew from Basra in 1779, Kuwait continued to attract trade away from Basra.
Kuwait was the center of boat building in the Persian Gulf region. During the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, ship vessels made in Kuwait carried the bulk of trade between the ports of India, East Africa and the Red Sea. Kuwaiti ship vessels were renowned throughout the Indian Ocean. Regional geopolitical turbulence helped foster economic prosperity in Kuwait in the second half of the 18th century. Kuwait became prosperous due to Basra's instability in the late 18th century. In the late 18th century, Kuwait partly functioned as a haven for Basra's merchants fleeing Ottoman government persecution. According to Palgrave, Kuwaitis developed a reputation as the best sailors in the Persian Gulf.
During the reign of Mubarak Al-Sabah, Kuwait was dubbed the "Marseilles of the Gulf" because its economic vitality attracted a large variety of people. In the first decades of the twentieth century, Kuwait had a well-established elite: wealthy trading families who were linked by marriage and shared economic interests. The elite were long-settled, urban, Sunni families, the majority of which claim descent from the original 30 Bani Utubi families. The wealthiest families were trade merchants who acquired their wealth from long-distance commerce, shipbuilding and pearling. They were a cosmopolitan elite, they traveled extensively to India, Africa and Europe. The elite educated their sons abroad more than other Gulf Arab elite. Western visitors noted that the Kuwaiti elite used European office systems, typewriters and followed European culture with curiosity. The richest families were involved in general trade. The merchant families of Al-Ghanim and Al-Hamad were estimated to be worth millions before the 1940s.
In 1937, Freya Stark wrote about the extent of poverty in Kuwait at the time:
Poverty has settled in Kuwait more heavily since my last visit five years ago, both by sea, where the pearl trade continues to decline, and by land, where the blockade established by Saudi Arabia now harms the merchants.
Some prominent merchant families left Kuwait in the early 1930s due to the prevalence of economic hardship. At the time of the discovery of oil in 1937, most of Kuwait's inhabitants were impoverished.
Golden Era (1946–1982)
From 1946 to 1982, Kuwait experienced a period of prosperity driven by oil and its liberal atmosphere. In popular discourse, the years between 1946 and 1982 are referred to as the "Golden Era". In 1950, a major public-work programme began to enable Kuwaitis to enjoy a modern standard of living. By 1952, the country became the largest oil exporter in the Persian Gulf region. This massive growth attracted many foreign workers, especially from Palestine, Egypt and India. In June 1961, Kuwait became independent with the end of the British protectorate and the sheikh Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah became an Emir. Under the terms of the newly drafted constitution, Kuwait held its first parliamentary elections in 1963. Kuwait was the first Arab Persian Gulf country to establish a constitution and parliament.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait was the most developed country in the region. Kuwait was the pioneer in the Middle East in diversifying its earnings away from oil exports. The Kuwait Investment Authority is the world's first sovereign wealth fund. From the 1970s onward, Kuwait scored highest of all Arab countries on the Human Development Index. Kuwait University was established in 1966. Kuwait's theatre industry was well-known throughout the Arab world.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait's press was described as one of the freest in the world. Kuwait was the pioneer in the literary renaissance in the Arab region. In 1958, Al Arabi magazine was first published, the magazine went on to become the most popular magazine in the Arab world. Many Arab writers moved to Kuwait for freedom of expression because Kuwait had greater freedom of expression than elsewhere in the Arab world. Kuwait was a haven for writers and journalists from all parts of the Middle East. The Iraqi poet Ahmed Matar left Iraq in the 1970s to take refuge in the more liberal environment of Kuwait.
Kuwaiti society embraced liberal and Western attitudes throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Most Kuwaiti women did not wear the hijab in the 1960s and 1970s. At Kuwait University, mini-skirts were more common than the hijab.
1980s to present day
During the Iran–Iraq War, Kuwait supported Iraq. Throughout the 1980s, there were several terror attacks in Kuwait, including the 1983 Kuwait bombings, hijacking of several Kuwait Airways planes and attempted assassination of Emir Jaber in 1985. Kuwait was a leading regional hub of science and technology in the 1960s and 1970s up until the early 1980s, the scientific research sector significantly suffered due to the terror attacks.
The Kuwaiti government strongly advocated Islamism throughout the 1980s. At that time, the most serious threat to the continuity of Al Sabah came from home-grown secular democrats. The secular Kuwaiti opposition were protesting the 1976 suspension of the parliament. Al Sabah were attracted to Islamists preaching the virtues of a hierarchical order that included loyalty to the Kuwaiti monarchy. In 1981, the Kuwaiti government gerrymandered electoral districts in favor of the Islamists. Islamists were the government's main allies, hence Islamists were able to colonize state agencies, such as the government ministries. In 1983, the parliament banned alcohol consumption. By the mid 1980s, Kuwait was described as an autocracy. In 1986, Emir Jaber suspended the parliament.
After the Iran–Iraq War ended, Kuwait declined an Iraqi request to forgive its US$65 billion debt. An economic rivalry between the two countries ensued after Kuwait increased its oil production by 40 percent. Tensions between the two countries increased further in July 1990, after Iraq complained to OPEC claiming that Kuwait was stealing its oil from a field near the border by slant drilling of the Rumaila field.
In August 1990, Iraqi forces invaded and annexed Kuwait. After a series of failed diplomatic negotiations, the United States led a coalition to remove the Iraqi forces from Kuwait, in what became known as the Gulf War. On 26 February 1991, the coalition succeeded in driving out the Iraqi forces. As they retreated, Iraqi forces carried out a scorched earth policy by setting oil wells on fire. During the Iraqi occupation, more than 1,000 Kuwaiti civilians were killed. In addition, more than 600 Kuwaitis went missing during Iraq's occupation, approximately 375 remains were found in mass graves in Iraq.
In March 2003, Kuwait became the springboard for the US-led invasion of Iraq. Upon the death of the Emir Jaber, in January 2006, Saad Al-Sabah succeeded him but was removed nine days later by the Kuwaiti parliament due to his ailing health. Sabah Al-Sabah was sworn in as Emir. In 2011–2012, there were protests inspired by the Arab Spring. The parliament was dissolved in December 2011 due to protests against the parliament. The prime minister stepped down following protests and allegations of corruption.
||This section may stray from the topic of the article into the topic of another article, Kuwait. (June 2015)|
Kuwait is a constitutional monarchy and has the oldest directly elected parliament among the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. The Al Sabah is Kuwait's ruling family. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly parliament and Emir in accordance with the Constitution of Kuwait. The appointment of a new Emir needs the approval of the Kuwaiti parliament (per article 4 of the Constitution). The parliament effectively removed Saad al-Sabah from his post in 2006 due to his illness. The Constitutional Court and the Emir both have the authority to dissolve the National Assembly but must subsequently call a national election. A cabinet of ministers aid the Prime Minister.
The National Assembly consists of fifty elected members, who are chosen in elections held every four years. Government ministers are also granted membership in the parliament and can number up to sixteen excluding the fifty elected members. According to the Constitution of Kuwait, nomination of a new Emir or Crown Prince by the Al-Sabah family has to be approved by the National Assembly. Any amendment to the Constitution can be proposed by the Emir but it needs to be approved by more than two-thirds of the elected members of the National Assembly before being implemented.
Human rights in Kuwait has been the subject of criticism, particularly regarding migrant workers rights and the Bedoon. 60% of Kuwait's population is Arab (including Arab expats), the remaining 40% consists of non-Arab expatriates, mainly South Asian migrant workers. The kafala system leaves migrant workers prone to exploitation. Many human rights organizations have criticized Kuwait for failing to protect migrant workers from exploitation.
Kuwait follows the "civil law system" modeled after the French legal system, Kuwait's legal system is largely secular. Sharia law governs only family law for Muslim residents, non-Muslims in Kuwait have a secular family law. For the application of family law, there are three separate court sections: Sunni, Shia and non-Muslim. According to the United Nations, Kuwait's legal system is a mix of British common law, French civil law, Egyptian civil law and Islamic law.
The court system in Kuwait is secular. Unlike other Gulf states, Kuwait does not have Sharia courts. Sections of the civil court system administer family law. Kuwait has the most secular commercial law in the Persian Gulf.
Foreign affairs relations of Kuwait is handled at the level of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The first foreign affairs department bureau was established in 1961. Kuwait became the 111th member state of the United Nations in May 1963. It is a long-standing member of the Arab League and Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf.
Before the Gulf War, Kuwait was the only "pro-Soviet" state in the Persian Gulf. Kuwait acted as a conduit for the Soviets to the other Persian Gulf states and Kuwait was used to demonstrate the benefits of a pro-Soviet stance. Between 1961 and 1991, Kuwait had an uneasy relationship with the United States characterized by mistrust and hostility. In July 1987, Kuwait refused to allow U.S. military bases in its territory. As a result of the Gulf War, Kuwait currently hosts thousands of US military personnel and contractors within active U.S. facilities.
The Military of Kuwait traces its original roots to the Kuwaiti cavalrymen and infantrymen that used to protect Kuwait and its wall since the early 1900s. These cavalrymen and infantrymen formed the defense and security sources in metropolitan areas; charged with protecting outposts outside the wall of Kuwait.
The Military of Kuwait consists of several joint defense forces. The governing bodies are the Kuwait Ministry of Defense, the Kuwait Ministry of Interior, the Kuwait National Guard and the Kuwait Fire Service Directorate. The Emir of Kuwait is the commander-in-chief of all defense forces.
||This section may stray from the topic of the article into the topic of another article, Kuwait. (June 2015)|
Kuwait City is located on Kuwait Bay, a natural deep-water harbor. 90% of Kuwait's population live within the Kuwait Bay coast. The country is generally low lying, with the highest point being 306 m (1,004 ft) above sea-level. It has nine islands, all of which, with the exception of Failaka Island, are uninhabited. With an area of 860 km2 (330 sq mi), the Bubiyan is the largest island in Kuwait and is connected to the rest of the country by a 2,380 m (7,808 ft) long bridge. The land area is considered arable and sparse vegetation is found along its 499-kilometre (310 mi) long coastline.
Kuwait's Burgan field having a total capacity of approximately 70 billion barrels (1.1×1010 m3) of proven oil reserves. During the 1991 Kuwaiti oil fires, more than 500 oil lakes were created covering a combined surface area of about 35.7 km2 (13.8 sq mi). The resulting soil contamination due to oil and soot accumulation had made eastern and south-eastern parts of Kuwait uninhabitable. Sand and oil residue had reduced large parts of the Kuwaiti desert to semi-asphalt surfaces. The oil spills during the Gulf War also drastically affected Kuwait's marine resources.
Kuwait City has a hot desert climate (Köppen: BWh) and is one of the hottest cities in summers on earth. Summer temperatures regularly exceed 45 °C (113 °F), and temperatures over 50 °C (122 °F) are not uncommon in the summer, especially in heat waves; nighttime lows often remain above 30 °C (86 °F). In winter, nighttime temperatures frequently drop below 8 °C (46 °F). Considering its coastal position and relative distance to the equator in comparison with the hot desert climates in Africa and Saudi Arabia, the heat in the city is rather extreme - being surrounded in almost every direction by the hot desert.
Sand storms occur at times during summer from the shamal wind. Sand storms can occur any time of year but occur mostly during summer, and less frequently during autumn.
|Climate data for Kuwait City|
|Record high °C (°F)||29.8
|Average high °C (°F)||19.5
|Average low °C (°F)||8.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−4.0
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||30.2
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||5||3||3||1||0||0||0||0||0||1||3||3||19|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||198.1||222.5||217.6||229.3||272.5||304.5||307.1||301.6||285.1||252.2||216.5||193.5||3,000.5|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||7.1||7.7||7.5||7.9||9.4||10.5||10.6||10.8||10.2||9.0||7.7||6.9||8.8|
|Percent possible sunshine||68||69||63||62||69||77||76||78||77||79||72||67||72|
|Source #1: World Meteorological Organization (temperature and rainfall 1994–2008)|
|Source #2: NOAA (sunshine and records, 1961–1990)
source 3 = Wundergound (2012 records)
Kuwait has a petroleum-based economy, petroleum and fertilizers are the main export products. The Kuwaiti dinar is the highest-valued currency unit in the world. Petroleum accounts for nearly half of GDP and 90% of export revenues and government income. The Kuwait Stock Exchange is the second-largest stock exchange in the Arab world.
Kuwait is known for its home-grown tradition of theatre. Kuwait is the only Arab country in the Persian Gulf with a theatrical tradition. The Arabic theatrical movement in Kuwait constitutes a major part of the country's Arabic cultural life. Theatrical activities in Kuwait began in the 1920s when the first spoken dramas were released. Theatre activities are still popular today.
Kuwaiti soap operas (المسلسلات الكويتية) are the among the most-watched soap operas in the Arab world. Most Khaleeji soap operas are based in Kuwait. Although usually performed in the Kuwaiti dialect, some Kuwaiti soap operas have been shown with success as far away as Tunisia.
Built in 1979, the Kuwait Towers are the most famous landmark in Kuwait City.
Al Hamra Tower is the tallest sculpted tower in the world.
- "Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City: The Socio-cultural Dimensions of the Kuwait Courtyard and Diwaniyya". Mohammad Khalid A. Al-Jassar. 2009. p. 64.
- Shadows on the Sand: The Memoirs of Sir Gawain Bell. Gawain Bell. 1983. p. 222.
- ʻAlam-i Nisvāṉ – Volume 2, Issues 1–2. p. 18.
Kuwait became an important trading port for import and export of goods from India, Africa and Arabia.
- "Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City". Mohammad Khalid A. Al-Jassar. 2009. p. 66.
- "Beyond the Storm: A Gulf Crisis Reader". Phyllis Bennis. p. 42.
- The Kuwait Crisis: Basic Documents. 1991. p. 4.
- Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City. 2009. p. 67.
- Thabit Abdullah. Merchants, Mamluks, and Murder: The Political Economy of Trade in Eighteenth-Century Basra. p. 72.
- The impact of economic activities on the social and political structures of Kuwait (1896–1946) (PDF). p. 108.
- Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East: Cultural depth and diversity. p. 156.
The port of Kuwait was then, and is still, the principal dhow- building and trading port of the Persian Gulf, though offering little trade itself.
- M. Nijhoff (1974). Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde, Volume 130. p. 111.
- Indian Foreign Affairs. 1965. p. 29.
- Richard Harlakenden Sanger (1970). The Arabian Peninsula. p. 150.
- "The Postal Agencies in Eastern Arabia and the Gulf". Neil Donaldson. 2008. p. 93.
- "Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City". Mohammad Khalid A. Al-Jassar. p. 68.
- "Waqai-i manazil-i Rum: Tipu Sultan's mission to Constantinople". Mohibbul Hasan. 2007. p. 18.
For owing to Basra's misfortunes, Kuwait and Zubarah became rich.
- "The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf, 1745–1900". Hala Mundhir Fattah. 1997. p. 114.
- "Seafaring in the Arabian Gulf and Oman: People of the Dhow". Dionisius A. Agius. 2012. p. 48.
- Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. 2009. p. 321.
- "The Persian Gulf in History". Lawrence G. Potter. 2009. p. 272.
- "Oil and Politics in the Gulf: Rulers and Merchants in Kuwait and Qatar". Jill Crystal. 1995. p. 37.
- Al Sager, Noura, ed. (2014). Acquiring Modernity: Kuwait's Modern Era Between Memory and Forgetting. National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters. p. 7. ISBN 9789990604238.
- Al-Nakib, Farah, ed. (2014). "Kuwait's Modernity Between Memory and Forgetting". Academia.edu. p. 7.
- Farid, Alia (2014). "Acquiring Modernity: Kuwait at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition". aliafarid.net.
- Gonzales, Desi (November–December 2014). "Acquiring Modernity: Kuwait at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition". Art Papers.
- "Looking for Origins of Arab Modernism in Kuwait". Hyperallergic.
- Al-Nakib, Farah (1 March 2014). "Towards an Urban Alternative for Kuwait: Protests and Public Participation". Built Environment 40 (1): 101–117.
- "Cultural developments in Kuwait". March 2013.
- Chee Kong, Sam (1 March 2014). "What Can Nations Learn from Norway and Kuwait in Managing Sovereign Wealth Funds". Market Oracle.
- al-Nakib, Farah (17 September 2014). "Understanding Modernity: A Review of the Kuwait Pavilion at the Venice Biennale". Jadaliyya (Arab Studies Institute).
- "Kuwait Literary Scene A Little Complex".
A magazine, Al Arabi, was published in 1958 in Kuwait. It was the most popular magazine in the Arab world. It came out it in all the Arabic countries, and about a quarter million copies were published every month.
- News Media in the Arab World: A Study of 10 Arab and Muslim Countries. p. 24.
- Sager, Abdulaziz; Koch, Christian; Tawfiq Ibrahim, Hasanain, eds. (2008). Gulf Yearbook 2006-2007. Dubai, UAE: I. B. Tauris. p. 39.
The Kuwaiti press has always enjoyed a level of freedom unparalleled in any other Arab country.
- Kinninmont, Jane (15 February 2013). "The Case of Kuwait: Debating Free Speech and Social Media in the Gulf". ISLAMiCommentary.
- Muslim Education Quarterly 8. Islamic Academy. 1990. p. 61.
Kuwait is a primary example of a Muslim society which embraced liberal and Western attitudes throughout the sixties and seventies.
- Rubin, Barry, ed. (2010). Guide to Islamist Movements. Volume 1. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. p. 306. ISBN 9780765641380.
- Wheeler, Deborah L. The Internet In The Middle East: Global Expectations And Local Imaginations. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 99. ISBN 9780791465868.
- Osnos, Evan (11 July 2004). "In Kuwait, conservatism a launch pad to success". Chicago Tribune.
In the 1960s and most of the '70s, men and women at Kuwait University dined and danced together, and miniskirts were more common than hijab head coverings, professors and alumni say.
- "Kuwait's Souk al-Manakh Stock Bubble". Stock-market-crash.net. 23 June 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- Hunter, Shireen T. (1990). Iran and the world : continuity in a revolutionary decade. Indiana University Press. p. 117.
- "Frankenstein's Lament in Kuwait".
- "Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait; 1990". Acig.org. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Derek Gregory (2004). The Colonial Present: Afghanistan …. Wiley. ISBN 978-1-57718-090-6. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- "Iraq and Kuwait: 1972, 1990, 1991, 1997". Earthshots: Satellite Images of Environmental Change. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "The Use of Terror During Iraq's Invasion of Kuwait".
- "Iraq and Kuwait Discuss Fate of 600 Missing Since Gulf War". Los Angeles Times. 9 January 2003.
- "Kuwait Constitution: Part V General And Transitional Provisions". National Assembly – Kuwait. 11 November 1962. Archived from the original on 21 August 2004. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "Kuwaiti Constitution". World Intellectual Property Organization.
The Kuwait Legal system is based on civil law jurisdiction; it is derived from Egyptian and French laws.
- "Doing business in Kuwait". Practical Law. Thomson Reuters.
- Tarakji, Ziad (September 2011). "Kuwait Legal Provisions" (PDF). Switzerland Global Enterprise. Embassy of Switzerland. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- Nyrop, Richard F. (1985). "Persian Gulf states: Country Studies". Department of the Army Area Handbook Series 550 (185). Washington, D.C.: American University Foreign Area Studies: 80.
In addition, Kuwait has established a secular legal system, unique among the Gulf states.
- Hopkins, Nicholas S.; Ibrahim, Saad Eddin, eds. (1997) [First edition published 1997]. Arab Society: Class, Gender, Power, and Development (3rd. ed.). Cairo, Egypt: American University of Cairo. p. 417. ISBN 9789774244049.
- Maddex, Robert L. Constitutions of the World. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. p. 153. ISBN 9781136217890.
- Liebesny, Herbert J. (1974). The Law of the Near and Middle East: Readings, Cases, and Materials. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 110. ISBN 9780873952569.
- "Kuwait, State of". Law.emory.edu.
- "State of Kuwait, Public Administration Country Profile" (PDF). United Nations. September 2004. p. 7.
- "State of Kuwait". London School of Economics. 21 March 2011.
The court system in Kuwait is secular and tries both civil and criminal cases.
- Price, David (2009). The Development of Intellectual Property Regimes in the Arabian Gulf States: Infidels at the Gates. Abingdon, UK: Routledge-Cavendish. p. 23. ISBN 9781134024964.
- Hafeez, Zeeshan Javed. Islamic Commercial Law and Economic Development. San Fabcisco, California: Heliographica. p. 10. ISBN 9781933037097.
- Yetiv, Steve (1995). America and the Persian Gulf: The Third Party Dimension in World Politics. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 51. ISBN 9780275949730.
- Panaspornprasit, Chookiat (2005). US-Kuwaiti Relations, 1961–1992: An Uneasy Relationship. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. p. 75. ISBN 9781135767228.
- Wallace, Charles P. (20 July 1987). "No Military Bases for U.S., Kuwait Says". Los Angeles Times.
- "Kuwait". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 10 April 2015.
- "Bubiyan (island, Kuwait)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- "Structurae [en]: Bubiyan Bridge (1983)". En.structurae.de. 19 October 2002. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Pendick, Daniel. "Kuwaiti Oil Lakes". Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009.
- "The Economic and Environmental Impact of the Gulf War on Kuwait and the Persian Gulf". American.edu. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- "Kuwait (country)". Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009.
- "World Weather Information Service – Kuwait City". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- "Kuwait International Airport Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- "Dr.Jeff Masters' article published January 2013". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
- "10 Most Valuable Currencies in the World". Silicon India.
- "The World Factbook". CIA Factbook.
- "Reviving Kuwait's theatre industry". BBC News.
- Popular Culture in the Arab World: Arts, Politics, and the Media. p. 277.
- The World of Theatre: An Account of the Theatre Seasons 1996–97, 1997–98 and 1998–99. p. 147.
- The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: The Arab world.
- "Entertainment gets soapy during Ramadan in Kuwait".
- Kuwait: vanguard of the Gulf. p. 113.
Some Kuwaiti soap operas have become extremely popular and, although they are usually performed in the Kuwaiti dialect, they have been shown with success as far away as Tunisia.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kuwait City.|
- Kuwait City travel guide from Wikivoyage