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Villiaumitic lujavrite, Kvanefjeld. Field of view is 1.75 cm wide. Click for link to additional photos.

Kvanefjeld (or Kuannersuit), in Greenland, is the site of a mineral deposit, which is claimed to be the world's second-largest deposit of rare-earth oxides, and the sixth-largest deposit of uranium.[1] There are also substantial sodium fluoride deposits, and Kvanefjeld is thought to be one of the largest multi-element deposits of its kind in the world.[2]

Tugtupite from Kvanefjeld, Greenland


The Kvanefjeld site is part of the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex.[3] Rare earths and uranium are typically concentrated in lujavrite.[4]

Lujavrite, a dark agpaitic nepheline syenite, occurs as an internal layer in the north Ilimaussaq complex. The uppermost sections generally have the highest rare-earth elements, uranium and zinc grades.

Lujavrite is a rare variety of nepheline syenite having amphibole, aegirine pyroxene, nepheline and feldspar. The red spots in the rock are crystals of the rare halide mineral villiaumite (NaF - sodium fluoride).

Kvanefjeld is already known among mineral collectors as a source of fluorescent minerals such as tugtupite and chkalovite.[5]


The mineral deposit was first discovered in the 1950s. Much of the historical process development focused on uranium extraction. In 1983, the Danish government decided not to pursue the option of nuclear power, and work programs on Kvanefjeld ceased.

Greenland Minerals and Energy acquired the area in 2007.[6]

A 2010 relaxation of regulations by the government of Greenland opened up the possibility of large-scale mining.[7] A mining licence application to the Greenland government was submitted in 2015.[8]

In 2017 the major shareholder of GME was Shenghe Resources Holding Co. Ltd, listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange.[8]

Coordinates: 60°59′N 46°00′W / 60.983°N 46.000°W / 60.983; -46.000


  1. ^ Bennet, Michael (2010-09-10). "Greenland Minerals poised to move on Kvanefjeld rare earths plan". The Australian. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
  2. ^ "Greenland Minerals Ltd - Iimaussaq Complex – Specialty Metals (Kvanefjeld)". Retrieved 2018-04-05.
  3. ^ "Greenland Minerals Ltd". Retrieved 2010-09-13.
  4. ^ "Kvanefjeld Uranium deposit, Kuannersuit (Kvanefjeld) plateau, Ilimaussaq complex, Narsaq, Kitaa (West Greenland) Province, Greenland". Retrieved 2010-09-13.
  5. ^ "LUMINOUS TRAVELS: ILIMAUSSAQ, GREENLAND". Retrieved 2010-09-13.
  6. ^ "Kvanefjeld – A project with a deep history". Retrieved 2018-04-05.
  7. ^ "Mining Journal - Greenland amends law to allow uranium mining". Retrieved 2018-04-05.
  8. ^ a b "Greenland Minerals and Energy Ltd - 2017 Annual report" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-04-05.