Ajmer Sharif Dargah

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Ajmer Sharif Dargah
Ajmer dargah.png
The shrine of Moinuddin Chishti is one of India's most important Sufi shrines
Religion
AffiliationIslam
DistrictAjmer district
ProvinceRajasthan
Ecclesiastical or organizational statusShrine
OwnershipGovernment of Rajasthan
Location
LocationAjmer
CountryIndia
Ajmer Sharif Dargah is located in Rajasthan
Ajmer Sharif Dargah
Shown within Rajasthan
Ajmer Sharif Dargah is located in India
Ajmer Sharif Dargah
Ajmer Sharif Dargah (India)
Geographic coordinates26°27′22″N 74°37′41″E / 26.45613°N 74.62817°E / 26.45613; 74.62817Coordinates: 26°27′22″N 74°37′41″E / 26.45613°N 74.62817°E / 26.45613; 74.62817
Architecture
Architect(s)Sunni-Al-Jamaat
TypeMosque, Sufi mausoleum
StyleModern
Date established1236 (AD)
Completed1236 (AD)
Specifications
Direction of façadeWest
Dome(s)1
Minaret(s)1
Website
www.khwajagharibnawazindia.com

Ajmer Sharif Dargah, Ajmer Dargah, Ajmer Sharif or Dargah Sharif[1] is a sufi shrine (dargah) of the revered sufi saint, Moinuddin Chishti, located at Ajmer, Rajasthan, India. The shrine has Chisti's grave (Maqbara).[2]

Location[edit]

Ajmer Sharif Dargah is 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) away from the main central Ajmer Railway station and 500 metres away from the Central Jail and is situated at the foot of the Taragarh hill.

History[edit]

Moinuddin Chishti was a 13th-century sufi mystic saint and philosopher. Born in Sanjar (modern day Iran), or in Sijistan,[3]

Moinuddin chisti is direct decendant of Muhammad by fathers line from imam hassan and mothers from imam hussain also called hasni-hussaini sayyed was sent to India to spread Islam.

Having arrived in Delhi during the reign of the sultan Iltutmish (d. 1236), Moinuddin moved from Delhi to Ajmer shortly thereafter, at which point he became increasingly influenced by the writings of the famous Sunni Hanbali scholar and mystic ʿAbdallāh Anṣārī (d. 1088), whose famous work on the lives of the early Islamic saints, the Ṭabāqāt al-ṣūfiyya, may have played a role in shaping Moinuddin's worldview. It was during his time in Ajmer that Moinuiddin acquired the reputation of being a charismatic and compassionate spiritual preacher and teacher; and biographical accounts of his life written after his death report that he received the gifts of many "spiritual marvels (karāmāt), such as miraculous travel, clairvoyance, and visions of angels" in these years of his life. Mohiuddin seems to have been unanimously regarded as a great saint after his passing.


The tomb (dargāh) of Muʿīn al-Dīn became a deeply venerated site in the century following the preacher's death in March 1236. Honoured by members of all social classes, the tomb was treated with great respect of the era's most important Sunni rulers , the Sultan of Delhi -- Sultan lItutmish who paid a famous visit to the tomb in 1332 to commemorate the memory of the saint. In a similar way, the later Mughal Emperor Akbar (d. 1605) visited the shrine no less than fourteen times during his reign. He also reconstructed the tomb (dargah) sanctum sanctorum in 1579. Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Jahanara later renovated the structure. The dargah was never systematically planned and thus has multiple influences of design and materials used.[4] An elegant covering over the dargah was constructed in 1800 by the Maharaja of Baroda.[5]

Local and national rulers came to pray here, the dargah grew in popularity and size over the years.[6] Rasiya Sultan, Nasiruddin Mahmud, Muhammad bin Tughluq, Sher Shah Suri, and Akbar and his descendants Jahangir, Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb, Dara Shikoh and Jahanara Begum were known to have visited the shrine.[7]

 In the present day, the tomb of Moinuiddin Chisti continues to be one of the most popular sites of religious visitation for Sunni Muslims in the Indian subcontinent, with over "hundreds of thousands of people from all over the Indian sub-continent assembling there on the occasion of [the saint's] ʿurs or death anniversary." Additionally, the site also attracts many Hindus, who have also venerated the Islamic saint since the medieval period.

In 2019, the Hindustan Zinc Limited decided to renovate the complex under the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, including many plans specifically targeted at sanitation and hygiene.[4][8]

Architecture[edit]

The white marble dome of Chisti's shrine, as seen today, was built in 1532. This date is inscribed in golden letters on the Northern wall of the dargah. It is an example of Indo-Islamic architecture and the dome features a lotus and a crown of gold, donated by Rampur's Nawab Haider Ali Khan.[7] It is located in the Ihaata Noorani (transl. Quarter of Light) of the complex.[7] Materials used to build it include marble, brick and sandstone. The dargah has a royal darbar, Mehfil Khana, that was constructed in 1888. It is a square structure and has a patterned ceiling.[4] Jahanara Begum donated the dargah's left facet (Begumi Dalaan),[9] the railing around the dargah and also constructed a small platform, the Begumi Chabutra. The sanctum of the dargah has two doors. The canopy made of mother-of-pearl and silver was commissioned by Jahangir and is visible from the cenotaph's four silver posts.[7] The ceiling is etched with gold and in 1888, the walls were gilded.[9]

The complex has multiple structures and has eight entrance gates. However, only three of these are in use.[10] The Nizam Gate, a yellow structure with floral designs,[7] is the main gate and was donated by the 7th Nizam of Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan in 1911. An older gate, the Shahjahani Gate, was donated by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.[11] It marked the expansion of the shrine complex beyond the Buland Darwaza,[a][4] built by Sultan Mahmud Khalji.[b][11] Other gates include the Madar Gate and the Delhi Gate.[12] The Jannati Darwaza is a door made of silver that is used only on rare occasions.[9] It is also referred to as the Bihisti Darwaza.[13]

The complex has eight tombs besides that of Chishti, belonging to members of his family.[10] Some of these include Chisti's daughter Bibi Hafiza Jamal and Nizam Sikka, who was a water-carrier who saved Humayun's life.[9] A huge chandelier, Sahn Chirag, was commissioned by Akbar. The Ahaat-e-Noor is a large courtyard where religious functions are held and qawwalis are sung.[11] Near the Nizam Gate is the Naqqar Khana (transl. drum house) where music was once played from to greet visitors. A large silver chandelier was donated by the Golden Temple. The Akbari Mosque is made of red sandstone and was probably commissioned by Akbar. A more elegant mosque was commissioned by Shah Jahan in 1637[7] and is called the Jami Masjid. It is made of white marble. The Sandali Masjid was constructed by Aurangzeb. The complex also has a Langar Khana and a Mahfil Khana (assembly hall for qawwals, opened only during the urs).[9] The Jhalara is a natural tank of water that is used by pilgrims. Other tanks were donated by Shah Jahan[12] and Queen Mary of Teck in 1911.[14]

The Jami Masjid is located to the west of the dargah, while the large marble courtyard is located on its eastern side. The Arhat-i-Noor is an enclosure restricted to women that is located on the southern side and houses the tombs of Chisti's daughter and granddaughter. More than 40 graves lie behind the Jami Masjid.[5]

Culture[edit]

The street approaching the dargah

The dargah has been a site for pilgrims belonging to Hinduism and Islam since medieval times[15] and also attracts Jains and Sikhs. Pilgrims come here from around the world[10] and offer chaddars (sacred sheets) to the shrine.[16] Pilgrims also offer rose petals, which total up to seven tonnes per day.[4] Women are allowed to enter the dargah.[7] It has been estimated that around 20,000 pilgrims visit the site every day. After pilgrims exit the shrine, photographers from photo studios offer professional photos of the pilgrims at rates as cheap as 20. Most of these photographers are Hindus who migrated to Ajmer during the Partition of India.[17]

For the langar of the shrine, Akbar and Jahangir donated degh (transl. cauldron) in 1568 and 1614, respectively. These two degh are in use event today,[7] as the dargah is known for its degh ka khana (transl. food from a cauldron). This is made of rice, ghee, cashew nuts, almonds and raisins. People undergo the Islamic ritual purification of wudu, in which pilgrims wash their face, hands and feet prior to offering namaz. The street approaching the dargah is well-known for its food, craft items and gota work.[4]

The daily rituals at the dargah are mainly the five mandatory prayers of Muslims, the namaz. At sunset, there is the ceremony of the Dua-e-Roshni (transl. prayer of lights), in which large yellow candles are carried to the darbar by the khadims. Following the prayers at night, qawwalis are sung, after which all visitors are asked to leave. Three khadims then clean the durbar with brooms made of peacock feathers. After the last person is out of the shrine, the qawwals recite the Karka, which is a musical verse in Sanskrit, Brij and Persian. The dargah is then locked and reopened only for the next day's pre-dawn prayer.[18]

Some attribute the influence of Islam on Indian culture to have begun from the dargah, including in Tansen's music; the tolerance practiced by Salim Chishti, Abul Fazl and Abul Faizi; and in Indo-Saracenic architecture. It has been the tradition to source the incense, sandalwood paste and ittar used in the dargah from a Brahmin family, right from the times of Chishti. One shrine in the dargah complex is revered by Sikhs.[19]

Urs festival[edit]

The death anniversary of Moinuddin Chishti, the urs, is not mourned and is celebrated since it is the day the disciple is reunited with his maker (Allah).[14] The celebrations begin with the end of the Islamic month of Jumada al-Thani and conclude on the sixth day of the month of Rajab, a total of six days.[13] Members of Bhilwara's Gori family march through the city towards the Nizam gate and hoist the flag on the Buland Darwaza, marking the beginning of the death anniversary rituals. Following this, the urs rituals begin with the sighting of the moon. This is followed by the Aser ki Namaz.[20] Every night a mehfil-i-sama takes place at the Mahfil Khana of the complex, in which women are allowed to participate (which is not common in a dargah).[21] The urs end with the Qul, the final prayer.[18] During this period, pilgrims attempt to enter the dargah as many times as possible and make their prayers. The Bihisti Darwaza is made of silver and it is washed with rose water by pilgrims in the afternoon. It is believed that touching it guarantees one a place in Heaven.[13] It is believed that roses offered to the dargah during the festival are sourced from Pushkar, a site deemed holy for Hindus.[19]

About five lakh people, the approximate population of the city of Ajmer, come to attend the urs. About 2700 buses of pilgrims enter the city.[22] The Indian Railways launches a special train service, the Garib Nawaz trains, to facilitate transport for pilgrims around the country.[12] Vishram Sthali in the Kayad locality of Ajmer serves as a place for lakhs of pilgrims to stay during this time,[23] although every kind of accommodation is occupied with the sheer number of pilgrims.[18] In March 2020, it was announced that a large guest house, Rubath, would be constructed in Ajmer for the same.[24]

Management[edit]

The dargah (shrine) of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti is an international waqf (endowment), managed under The Dargah Khwaja Saheb Act, 1955 of Government of India. The Dargah Committee, appointed by the Government, takes care of the maintenance of the shrine, and runs charitable institutions like dispensaries, and guest houses for the devotees but do not care take the rituals of the main shrine (Mazar sharif/Astana e Alia) which is under the custody of hereditary priests known as Khadims.[18]

Dewan Syed Zainul Abedin at his office in the Dewan Haweli, Ajmer Sharif

Dewan Syed Zainul Abedin is the direct descendant in the 22nd generation of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti. Meanwhile, according to the Supreme Court of India he is the Hereditary Sajjadanashin Spiritual Head of the shrine of Ajmer Dargah. On the other hand, in the aspect of genealogical lineage (family tree), presently he is the most direct descendant of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti. He is the successor of Khwaja Gareeb Nawaz.[25][26][27][28][29]

2007 bombing[edit]

On 11 October 2007, an explosion occurred in Dargah Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti's courtyard in Ajmer in Rajasthan. It was the holy fasting period of Ramazan and evening prayers had just ended. A crowd had gathered at the courtyard to break their fast. A bomb was placed inside a tiffin carrier went off. Reports said the blast claimed 7 lives and injured 17.[30][31]

Special Judge Dinesh Gupta's nearly 500-page judgment was based on testimonies of 149 witnesses and 451 document submitted to his court.[30][31]

On 22 March 2017, the National Investigation Agency (NIA) Special Court, sentenced two murderers named Bhavesh Patel and Davendra Gupta to life imprisonment, who were convicted for the 2007 Ajmer Dargah Blasts, in which three people were killed.

Those convicted, Bhavesh Patel and Devendra Gupta,allegedly owed allegiance to Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.[32] Both were held guilty under the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, Explosives Act and various sections of Indian Penal Code.[30][31][32]

Controversies[edit]

Main article: Ajmer rape case

In 1992, the Ajmer Serial Gang Rape & Blackmailing Case was one of India's biggest cases of coerced sexual exploitation. All of 18 accused charged with abduction and gang rape belonged to the clan of caretakers of sufi shrine of Ajmer Sharif Dargah of Moinuddin Chishti. Main accused Farooq Chishty was president of the Ajmer Youth Congress. Nafis Chishty was the vice-president of Ajmer Indian National Congress (INC) and Anwar Chishty was the joint secretary of INC.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ This "high gate" or "buland darwaza" should not be confused with Akbar's more famous Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikri.
  2. ^ Sultan Mahmood Khilji II (Shihab-ud-Din Mahmud Shah II) ruled Malwa from 1510 to 1531.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "Barack Obama offers 'chadar' at Ajmer Dargah Sharif for Chishty's 803rd Urs". DNA India. 19 April 2015.
  2. ^ "797th Urs of Khawaja Moinuddin Chisty begins in Ajmer". Sify. Archived from the original on 1 October 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  3. ^ Srivastava, Ashirbadi Lal (1964). Medieval Indian Culture. Shiva Lal Agarwala. p. 80. Born in Sijistan about 1141.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Tankha, Madhur (3 September 2019). "The future of the Ajmer dargah". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  5. ^ a b Huda (2003), p. 64
  6. ^ Rippin, Andrew, ed. (15 April 2008). The Blackwell Companion to the Qur'an. John Wiley & Sons. p. 357. ISBN 978-1-4051-7844-0.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Safvi, Rana (17 February 2019). "In the Chishti shrine in Ajmer". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  8. ^ Mazumdar, Rakhi (1 September 2018). "Ajmer Sharif Dargah to be revamped into a Swacch Iconic Place". The Economic Times. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d e "Quick Guide: Ajmer, Rajasthan". Outlook Traveller. 10 July 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  10. ^ a b c "The journey to Ajmer Sharif - from Akbar to Zardari". Deccan Herald. 5 April 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  11. ^ a b c Peer, Basharat (16 July 2001). "Musharraf seeks brush with the divine in Ajmer". Rediff. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  12. ^ a b c "Preparations for Urs in full swing at Ajmer dargah". The Times of India. Jaipur. 13 May 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  13. ^ a b c Huda (2003), pp. 68-70
  14. ^ a b Murshed, Meher (16 March 2012). "Why these two shrines of Moinuddin Chishti in Ajmer and Nizamuddin Auliya in Delhi are glorious symbols of tolerance in India". Gulf News. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  15. ^ Khan (2010), p. 232
  16. ^ Grewal, Kairvy (2 March 2020). "Over 200 Pakistani pilgrims visit Ajmer Sharif dargah for Urs after two years". ThePrint. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  17. ^ Akbar, Sohail (3 February 2018). "Ajmer Sharif's Photo Booths Capture an Islam that is Diverse and Local". Economic and Political Weekly. 53 (5). ISSN 2349-8846.
  18. ^ a b c d Soofi, Mayank Austen (3 February 2012). "The sufi solution". Livemint. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  19. ^ a b Ghosh, Arun (1992). "Travel Diary: A Rajasthan Scenario". Economic and Political Weekly. 27 (5): 185–186. ISSN 0012-9976.
  20. ^ "Ajmer Urs begins as Gori family hoists flag". The Times of India. Jaipur. 15 March 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  21. ^ Pemberton, Kelly (2013). Women Mystics and Sufi Shrines in India. University of South Carolina Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-1-61117-232-4.
  22. ^ Saran, Mitali (12 August 2015). "The heart of Sufis: Ajmer-Sharif". Outlook Traveller. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  23. ^ "Rajasthan falls short of 3,000 quarantine beds". The Times of India. Jaipur. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  24. ^ Khan, Asif Yar (1 March 2020). "Rubath works in Ajmer to begin soon". Telangana Today. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  25. ^ "AIR 1987 SUPREME COURT 2213 ::(1987) 3 JT 509 (SC)". AIR 1987. Supreme Court: 2213.
  26. ^ "AIR 1961 SUPREME COURT 1402". AIR 1961. Supreme Court: 1402.
  27. ^ "AIR 1938, PC 71, Raj". AIR 1938. Privy Council: 71.
  28. ^ "AIR 1947, PC 1, Raj". AIR 1947. Privy Council: 1.
  29. ^ "RLW 69, RLW 317". RLW. Rajasthan High Court: 69, 317.
  30. ^ a b c "What is the Ajmer Dargah blast case?". The Indian Express. 22 March 2017.
  31. ^ a b c "Ajmer Blast Case: NIA Court Awards Life Imprisonment to Devendra Gupta, Bhavesh Patel". News18. 22 March 2017.
  32. ^ a b "Bhavesh Patel and Devendra Gupta owed their allegiance to RSS in the past as per media trials". The Hindu. 22 March 2017.

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]