Kyushu K10W

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Kyushu K10W1 side.jpeg
Role Intermediate trainer (K10W1)
First flight 1941
Introduction 1943
Retired 1945
Status retired
Primary user Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service
Produced February 1943 - August 1944
Number built 176 [1]

The Kyushu K10W Type 2 Land based intermediate trainer (Code Named Oak by the Allies) was a single engine low wing fixed undercarriage monoplane training aircraft which served in the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service in the latter part of World War II.

Design and development[edit]

It was designed by the Kyushu Aircraft Company to the 14-Shi Intermediate Trainer specification of mid 1939 which required a design similar to the NA-16 following the Mitsubishi's purchase of an NA-16-4R and an NA-16-4RW on behalf of the Japanese Navy. Design work commenced in January 1940 and the first prototype was ready by April 1941.[2] Despite the similarity of the K10W to other contemporary Japanese aircraft such as the Tachikawa Ki-55 and Mitsubishi Ki-51, it suffered from stall and stability problems that resulted in 16 pre-production testing aircraft being built.[2] Work at Kyuhsu on the Q1W maritime patrol bomber and K11W carrier crew trainer were given a higher priority. Kyushu would build only nine production aircraft before production was transferred in 1943 to Nippon Hikoki K.K. (a small company that did a lot of subcontract work), who in turn built 150 examples before production ended in August 1944.[2]

The Japanese had purchased two NA-16's and western sources have long believed that the K10W1 was a development of these, however a close study of the Oak, as it was code named by the Allies, shows that they shared nothing beyond a similar configuration.[1]

Whereas the NA-16's featured a steel tube structure covered with metal or fabric panels, the K10W1 was of flush riveted stressed skin construction throughout (excepting the fabric covered control surfaces) with a slightly smaller wingspan, narrower chord wings, a longer fuselage and a higher aspect tailplane. The entire cockpit was further forward and the wings were swept forward rather than aft as on the NA-16.[3] In addition, controls were run internally, and footrests retracted rather than being fixed.[2] A version of the K10W built from wood was planned as the K10W2 but was never built.[2]

Operational service[edit]

The K10W1 was not popular with crews possibly due to ongoing handling problems and only served with a number of units which included the Oi, Go, Takarazuka and 81st Kokutais (Naval Air Groups) as trainers. Japanese records do not show that any were used for Kamikaze attacks, although a small number were definitely used as target tugs for gunnery training and as unit hacks attached to operational bases where they probably assisted in getting new pilots up to speed.[2]

Specifications (K10W1)[edit]

Data from Arawasi - From American Acorn to Japanese Oak[2]

General characteristics



  • Guns: 1 x 7.7mm Machine Gun
  • Bombs: 4 small practice bombs

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists



  1. ^ a b Hagedorn, 1997,
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Starkings, 2007, pp.26–31
  3. ^ Fletcher, 2011, pp.82-83