Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv
Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv (Ukrainian: Кий, Щек, Хорив) are the three legendary brothers, sometimes mentioned along with their sister Lybid (Ukrainian: Либідь), who, according to the Primary Chronicle, were the founders of the medieval city of Kiev – now the capital of Ukraine. The legend is widely recognized as a source of Kiev's mythology and urban naming.
Historical background for the legend
Archaeological excavations have shown there indeed was an ancient settlement from the 6th century. Some speculate that Kyi was a real person, a knyaz (prince) from the tribe of Polans. According to legend, Kyi was a Polianian Prince, and the city was named after him, the eldest brother.
The legend of Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv, and their sister Lybid, can be interpreted as an example of a common mythological process whereby geographical names are personified and incorporated into the foundation myths of a place or people, often as eponymous ancestors.
There are numerous different theories concerning the origin of the names; among the most popular is that legend of three brothers and their sister is an attempt to explain the local names. Kyi appears to be derived from Slavic kij or kiy, which means "bat". Shchek and Khoryv, according to this theory, represent the actual Shchekavytsia and Khorevytsia mountains in the center of Kiev, while Lybid is the actual river, a right tributary of the Dnieper and an important landscape factor in the city. Lybid means "swan" in Slavic. Goddess Zorya (Danica) was identified with white swan, white bird.
In addition to the respective hills and the river, there are Shchekavytska and Khoryva Streets in Kiev's ancient neighborhood of Podil.
In 1982, Kyi, Shchek, Khoryv and Lybid were depicted (standing on an ancient riverboat) in a sculpture at the river-side of Navodnytsky Park. The monument, created by Vasyl Borodai, soon became iconic for the city and has been used as Kiev's unofficial emblem. In the 2000s another statue was installed at the central square, Maidan Nezalezhnosti.
- "An Armenian historian of the seventh century, Zenob Glak, knew of a similar legend concerning the founding of the city of Kuar (Kyiv) in the land of Poluni (Polianians) by three brothers Kuar, Mentery, and Kherean." [in:] Medieval Rus' epics, chronicles, and tales. 1974; "Similarly to Nestor's story about Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv, the Armenian legend of Kuar and his brothers says (in the 6th or in the 7th century). [in:] Киев, анциент анд модерн киты. 1983
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- G.V. Vernadsky "Ancient Rus" (Russian)