Kyirong language

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Kyirong
  • Lende
  • Kyerung
स्युबा
Region Tibet
Native speakers
100 (2002, Ethnologue)
Language codes
ISO 639-3 kgy
Glottolog kyer1238  Kyerung[1]

Kyirong is a language from the subgroup of Tibetic languages[2] spoken in the Kyirung district of the Shigatse prefecture, of the Tibetan Autonomous Region. Language structure

Kyirong has lexical tone, with a three-tone system.[3]

Relationship to other languages[edit]

There is a varying degree of mutual intelligibility between Kyirong and other Kyirong-Yolmo varieties. It is most closely related to the Nubri and Gyalsomdo languages,[4] and more distantly related to other languages in the family.[5]

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

There are 36 consonants in Kyirong, which are summarized in the table below.[3]

Bilabial Apico-Dental Retroflex Lamino-post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Voiceless stop p t ʈ c k
Aspirated stop ʈʰ
Voiced stop b d ɖ ɟ ɡ
Voiceless fricative s ɕ h
Voiced fricative z ʑ ɦ
Voiceless affricate ts
Aspirative affricate tsʰ tɕʰ
Voiced affricate dz
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Voice liquid r
voiced lateral approximant l
unvoiced lateral fricative ɬ
Semivowel w j

Vowels[edit]

There are eight places of articulation for vowels. There is a length distinction at each place of articulation, as well as a long nasalised vowel.[3]

Front I Front II Central Back
Close i iː iː y yː yː u uː uː
Half-close e eː eː ø øː øː ɔ ɔː ɔː
Half-open ɛ ɛː ɛː
Open a aː aː

Tone[edit]

Kyriong has a three tone system; high, medium and low. Low tone is often accompanied by breathy voice.[3]

Sources[edit]

  • Hedlin, M. (2011). An Investigation of the relationship between the Kyirong, Yòlmo, and Standard Spoken Tibetan speech varieties. Masters thesis, Payap University, Chiang Mai.
  • Huber, B. (2005). The Tibetan dialect of Lende (Kyirong). Beiträge zur tibetischen Erzählforschung, 15.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kyerung". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ N. Tournadre (2005) "L'aire linguistique tibétaine et ses divers dialectes." Lalies, 2005, n°25, p. 7–56 [1]
  3. ^ a b c d Huber, Brigitte (2005). The Tibetan dialect of Lende (Kyirong). Bonn: VGH Wissenschaftsverlag. 
  4. ^ Hedlin, Matthew (2011). An investigation of the relationship between the Kyirong, Yòlmo, and Standard Spoken Tibetan speech varieties (unpublished MA thesis). Payap University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. 
  5. ^ Gawne, Lauren (2013). "Report on the relationship between Yolmo and Kagate". Himalayan Linguistics. 12: 1–27.