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|Country of origin||Japan|
|Famous practitioners||Terutomo Yamazaki, Tadashi Nakamura, Shigeru Oyama, Sonny Chiba, Glaube Feitosa, Francisco Filho, Andy Hug, Hajime Kazumi, Katsunori Kikuno, Bobby Lowe, Dolph Lundgren, Cameron Quinn, Akira Masuda, Shokei Matsui, Kenji Midori, Glen Murphy, Andrews Nakahara, Nicholas Pettas, Alex Watz, Jerome Le Banner, Bas Rutten, Semmy Schilt, Peter Graham, Hiroyuki Sanada, Tiger Schulmann, Georges St-Pierre, Konrad Przegon Ewerton Teixeira, Jayson Vemoa Marius Zaromskis, Mariusz Pudzianowski, Michael Jai White, Uriah Hall, Sean Connery, Tenshin Nasukawa, Masahiro Yamamoto, Takayuki Kohiruimaki, Azuma Takashi, Steve Arneil, Maryse Ouellet, Seth Rogen, Judd Reid, Raan Apatu, Nikita Krylov, Tsogto Amara, Leona Pettas|
|Ancestor arts||Gōjū-ryū, Shotokan, Boxing, Taekkyon, Subak|
|Descendant arts||Ashihara, Enshin, Seidokaikan, Shidokan, Kudo|
Kyokushin (極真) is a style of stand-up fighting and was founded in 1964 by Korean-Japanese Masutatsu Oyama (大山倍達, Ōyama Masutatsu). "Kyokushin" is Japanese for "the ultimate truth". It is rooted in a philosophy of self-improvement, discipline and hard training. Its full contact style has international appeal (practitioners have over the last 40+ years numbered more than 12 million).
After formally establishing the Kyokushinkaikan in 1964, Oyama directed the organization through a period of expansion. Oyama hand-picked instructors who displayed ability in marketing the style and gaining new members. Oyama would choose an instructor to open a new dojo. The instructor would move to that town and demonstrate his karate skills in public places. After that, word of mouth would spread through the local area until the dojo had a dedicated core of students. Oyama also sent instructors to other countries such as the Netherlands (Kenji Kurosaki), Australia (Mamoru Kaneko and Shigeo Kato), the United States (Miyuki Miura, Tadashi Nakamura, Shigeru Oyama and Yasuhiko Oyama), Great Britain (Steve Arneil), Canada (Tatsuji Nakamura) and Brazil (Seiji Isobe) to spread Kyokushin in the same way. Many students, including Steve Arneil, Jon Bluming, and Howard Collins, traveled to Japan to train with Oyama directly. In 1969, Oyama staged The First All-Japan Full Contact Karate Open Championships and Terutomo Yamazaki became the first champion. All-Japan Championships have been held at every year. In 1975, The First World Full Contact Karate Open Championships were held in Tokyo. World Championships have been held at four-yearly intervals since.
After Mas Oyama's death, the International Karate Organization (IKO) split into two groups, primarily due to personal conflicts over who should succeed Oyama as chairman. One group led by Shokei Matsui became known as IKO-1, and a second group led by Yukio Nishida and Sanpei became was known as IKO-2. The will was proven to be invalid in the family Court of Tokyo in 1995. Before his death, Oyama named no one as his successor, although he did mention Matsui to be the most eligible one.
In 1995 any new Kyokushin organization that claimed the name IKO, Kyokushinkaikan, were referred to by Kyokushin practitioners by numbers, such as IKO-1 (Matsui group), IKO-2 etc. Due to this break up, many attempted to establish their own leadership. For example, IKO-2 was not organized by Oyama's family, although Chiyako Oyama was asked to succeed after her husband as Kaicho. Chiyako Oyama stepped away from the political fight and founded the Mas Oyama Memorial Foundation with her daughters, still retaining the rights to the companies that managed IKO Kyokushinkaikan during Mas Oyama's leadership.
Oyama's widow died in June 2006 after a long illness. Mas Oyama's youngest daughter, Kikuko (also known as Kuristina) now oversees the management of the original IKO Kyokushin kaikan Honbu. She also published a book in 2010, a collective memoir of Mas Oyama and his teachings.
In May 2012, the Japanese Patent Office granted the Kyokushin related trademarks to Kikuko Kuristina Oyama, after years of long court battle. She has internationally trademarked and copyrighted her father's work and devotes the proceeds to various charities.
Oyama chose the kanji of Kyokushinkai (極真会) to resemble the samurai sword safely placed in its sheath. Translated, kyoku means "ultimate", shin means "truth" or "reality" and kai means "to join" or "to associate". Kyokushinkai, roughly translated, means "Association for Ultimate Truth". This concept has less to do with the Western meaning of truth; rather it is more in keeping with the bushido concept of discovering the nature of one's true character when tried. One of the goals of kyokushin is to strengthen and improve character by challenging one's self through rigorous training.
Techniques and training
Kyokushin training consists of three main elements: technique, forms, and sparring. These are sometimes referred to as the three "K's" after the Japanese words for them: kihon (basics), kata (Imaginary forms of Fight), and kumite (sparring).
Kata is a form of ritualized self-training in which patterned or memorized movements are done in order to practice a form of combat maneuverings. According to a highly regarded Kyokushin text, "The Budo Karate of Mas Oyama" by Cameron Quinn, long time interpreter to Oyama, the kata of Kyokushin are classified into Northern and Southern Kata.
Some areas now phase out the prefix "sono" in the kata names.
The Taikyoku kata were originally created by Gichin Funakoshi, founder of Shotokan karate.
- Pinan Sono Ichi
- Pinan Sono Ni
- Pinan Sono San
- Pinan Sono Yon
- Pinan Sono Go
The 5 Pinan katas, known in some other styles as Heian, were originally created in 1904 by Ankō Itosu, a master of Shuri-te and Shorin ryu (a combination of the shuri-te and tomari-te traditions of karate). He was a teacher to Gichin Funakoshi. Pinan (pronounced /pin-ann/) literally translates as Peace and Harmony.
Some organizations have removed the "Dai" from the name, calling it only "Kanku", as there is no "Sho" or other alternate Kanku variation practiced in kyokushin. The Kanku kata was originally known as Kusanku or Kushanku, and is believed to have either been taught by, or inspired by, a Chinese martialartist who was sent to Okinawa as an ambassador in the Ryukyu Kingdom during the 16th century. Kanku translates to "sky watching".
The Kata Sushiho is a greatly modified version of the old Okinawian kata that in Shotokan is known as Gojushiho, and in some other styles as Useishi. The name means "54 steps", referring to a symbolic number in Buddhism.
A very old Okinawan kata of unknown origin, the name Bassai or Passai translates to "to storm a castle". It was originally removed from the kyokushin syllabus in the late 1950s, but was reintroduced into some kyokushin factions after Oyama's death and the resulting fractioning of the organization.
This kata is a very old Okinawan kata, also known as Tekki in Shotokan. It is generally classified as belonging to the Tomari-te traditions. The name Tekki translates to "iron horse" but the meaning of the name Naihanchi is "internal divided conflict". It was originally removed from the kyokushin syllabus in the late 1950s, but was reintroduced into some kyokushin factions after Oyama's death and the resulting fractioning of the organization.
These three kata were created by Masutatsu Oyama to further develop kicking skills and follow the same embu-sen (performance line) as the original Taikyoku kata. Sokugi literally means Kicking, while Taikyoku translates to Grand Ultimate View. They were not formally introduced into the Kyokushin syllabus until after the death of Oyama.
The southern kata stems from the Naha-te tradition of karate, and are mostly drawn from Goju-ryu karate, which Oyama learned while training under So Nei Chu and Gogen Yamaguchi. One exception may be the kata "Yantsu" which possibly originates with Motobu-ha Shito-ryu.
- Gekisai Dai
- Gekisai Sho
Gekisai was created by Chojun Miyagi, founder of Goju-ryu karate. The name Gekisai means "attack and smash". In some styles (including some Goju-ryu factions) it is sometimes known under the alternative name "Fukyugata".
Tensho draws it origin from Goju-ryu where it was developed by Chojun Miyagi, who claimed credit for its creation. There are however some who claim that it is merely a variation of an old, and now lost, Chinese kata known as "rokkishu" mentioned in the Bubishi (an ancient text often called the "Bible of Karate"). It is based on the point and circle principles of Kempo. It was regarded as an internal yet advanced Kata by Oyama. The name means "rotating palms".
Sanchin is a very old kata with roots in China. The name translates to "three points" or "three battles". The version done in kyokushin is most closely related to the version Kanryo Higashionna (or Higaonna), teacher of Chojun Miyagi, taught (and not to the modified version taught by Chojun Miyagi himself).
- Saifa (Saiha)
Kata with Chinese influences. Its name translates to "smash and tear down". The kata may have been brought from China by Kanryo Higashionna or developed by Chojun Miyagi. Of Kanryo Higashionna's top two students only Chojun Miyagi (the other being Juhatsu Kyoda) taught this kata, leading to debate over the origins.
Originally a Chinese kata, regarded as very old. It was also brought to Okinawa by Kanryo Higashionna. The name translates roughly to "grip and pull into battle".
Originally a Chinese kata. It was also brought to Okinawa by Kanryo Higashionna. The name translates to the number 18, which is significant in Buddhism.
Yantsu is an old kata with unknown origin that is alternately classified as belonging to the Naha-te or Tomari-te karate tradition. Outside of kyokushin it is today only is practiced in Motobu-ha Shitō-ryū (that today is part of the Nihon Karate-do Kuniba-kai), where it in a slightly longer variant is called "Hansan" or "Ansan". The name Yantsu translates to "keep pure". How the kata was introduced into Kyokushin is unknown, although it is speculated that it was somehow imported from Motobu-ha Shito-ryu.
- Tsuki no kata
This kata was created by Seigo Tada, founder of the Seigokan branch of Goju-ryu. In Seigokan goju-ryu the kata is known as Kihon Tsuki no kata and is one of two Katas created by the founder. How the kata was introduced into Kyokushin is largely unknown, but since Tadashi Nakamura are often claimed in error as the creator of the kata in Kyokushin, speculations are that he introduced it into Kyokushin after learning it from his Goju-ryu background.
The kata Garyu, is not taken from traditional Okinawan karate but was created by Oyama and named after his pen name (Garyu =reclining dragon), which is the Japanese pronunciation of the characters 臥龍, the name of the village (Il Loong) in Korea where he was born.
Several kata are also done in "ura", which essentially means all moves are done in mirrored form. The ura, or 'reverse' kata, were developed by Oyama as an aid to developing balance and skill in circular techniques against multiple opponents.
- Taikyoku sono ichi ura
- Taikyoku sono ni ura
- Taikyoku sono san ura
- Pinan sono ichi ura
- Pinan sono ni ura
- Pinan sono san ura
- Pinan sono yon ura
- Pinan sono go ura
Sparring, also called kumite, is used to train the application of the various techniques within a fighting situation. Sparring is usually an important part of training in most Kyokushin organizations, especially at the upper levels with experienced students.
In most Kyokushin organizations, hand and elbow strikes to the head or neck are prohibited. However, kicks to the head, knee strikes, punches to the upper body, and kicks to the inner and outer leg are permitted. In some Kyokushin organizations, especially outside of a tournament environment, gloves and shin protectors are worn. Children often wear headgear to lessen the impact of any kicks to the head. Speed and control are instrumental in sparring and in a training environment it is not the intention of either practitioner to injure his opponent as much as it is to successfully execute the proper strike. Tournament fighting under knockdown karate rules is significantly different as the objective is to down an opponent. Full-contact sparring in Kyokushin is considered the ultimate test of strength, endurance, techniques and spirit.
Numerous tournaments are arranged by several Kyokushin organizations. Some of the most prestigious tournaments are:
- Kyokushin World Tournament Open
- Kyokushin World Cup in Weight Categories
- Kyokushin All Japan Openweight Tournament
- Kyokushin All Japan Open in Weight Categories
- Kyokushin European Openweight Championships
- Kyokushin European Championships in Weight Categories
Also known as Goshin Jitsu, the specific self-defense techniques of the style draw much of their techniques and tactics from Mas Oyama's study of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu under Yoshida Kotaro. These techniques were never built into the formal grading system, and as kyokushin grew increasingly sport-oriented, the self-defense training started to fall into obscurity. Today it is only practiced in a limited number of dojos.
Colored belts have their origin in Judo, as does the training 'gi', or more correctly in Japanese, 'dōgi' or 'Keikogi'. The example below uses the rank structure used by Kyokushin Karate's West Los Angeles Branch although the order of belt colors does vary between Kyokushin groups.
- Kyu ranks
|Red Belt||10th kyu||Red|
|Red Belt||9th kyu||Red/Blue tag|
|Blue Belt||8th kyu||Blue|
|Advanced Blue Belt||7th kyu||Blue/Yellow tag|
|Yellow Belt||6th kyu||Yellow|
|Advanced Yellow Belt||5th kyu||Yellow/Green tag|
|Green Belt||4th kyu||Green|
|Advanced Green belt||3rd kyu||Green/Brown tag|
|Brown Belt||2nd kyu||Brown|
|Advanced Brown Belt||1st kyu||Brown/Black tag|
- Dan Ranks
|Shodan (初段 or しょだん)||1st||One|
|Nidan (二段 or にだん)||2nd||Two|
|Sandan (三段 or さんだん)||3rd||Three|
|Yondan (四段 or よんだん)||4th||Four|
|Godan (五段 or ごだん)||5th||Five|
|Rokudan (六段 or ろくだん)||6th||Six|
|Shichidan (七段 or しちだん)||7th||Seven|
|Hachidan (八段 or はちだん)||8th||Eight|
|Kudan (九段 or きゅうだん)||9th||Nine|
|Judan (十段 or ゅうだん)||10th||Ten|
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Kyokushin has had an influence on many other styles. The knockdown karate competition format is now used by other styles. Karate styles that originated in Kyokushin, such as Ashihara Karate, Budokaido, Godokai, Enshin Karate, Seidō juku, Musokai, Shidōkan, World Oyama and Seidokaikan, are also knockdown styles and use slight variations of the competition rules.
A few styles (Kansuiryu Karate and Byakuren) originated independently of Kyokushin and have adopted the competition format. Kokondo is derived from Kyokushin, albeit without a strong focus on competition with the emphasis rather on realistic goshin-jutsu (self-defense). Some styles originating in Kyokushin (Jushindo, Daido Juku, Kudo, Zendokai) have changed to mixed martial arts rules.
Kickboxing has been seen as a natural progression for kyokushin competitors and many of Japan's top kickboxers[who?] have started in knockdown karate. The influence of Kyokushin can be seen in the K-1 kickboxing tournament that originated out of the Seidokaikan karate organization, which is an offshoot from Kyokushin.
In popular culture
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In Namco's Tekken series, Jin Kazama is said to travel to Brisbane, Australia to learn karate. At the time of Tekken's creation, Cameron Quinn – a well-known instructor of Kyokushin Karate, Mas Oyama's interpreter, and the author of The Budo Karate of Mas Oyama – was teaching students such as Garry O'Neill and Walter Schnaubelt at his well-known Kyokushin dojo in the city of Brisbane.
Jin Kazama uses the art of Kyokushin Karate from Tekken 4 to Tekken 7 (including Tekken Tag Tournament 2); he can be seen practicing Yantsu and Pinan Sono Yon Kata in various demonstration modes in the Tekken series.
Matsuo Shozan's Hokushinkan Karate School and his disciples' fighting style in PS2 games Garouden Breakblow (2005) and Garouden Breakblow Fist or Twist (2007) are heavily based on Kyokushinkaikan and its founder Oyama Masutatsu 'Sosai'.
Kyokugenryu Karate is a fictional martial art from SNK Playmore's Art of Fighting, Fatal Fury, and King of Fighters series. Kyokugenryu (lit. "the extreme style"), which is practiced by Ryo Sakazaki, Robert Garcia, Yuri Sakazaki, Takuma Sakazaki and Marco Rodriguez/Khushnood Butt, is heavily based on Kyokushin Karate.
Ichigeki: Hagane no Hito is a 3D fighting game for the PlayStation that focuses on the International Karate Organization (also known as IKO 1). The game even features real life Kyokushin athletes of the 90's including Francisco Filho, Kazumi Hajime, Nicholas Pettas and even live video segments of IKO head Shokei Matsui.
Karate Master Knock Down Blow a recent game from Crian Soft that is heavily based on Kyokushin Karate.
A trilogy of films starring Sonny Chiba and directed by Kazuhiko Yamaguchi were produced in Japan between 1975 and 1977: Champion of Death, Karate Bearfighter and Karate for Life. Chiba plays Master Oyama, who also appears in two of the films.
The James Bond movie You Only Live Twice, starring Sean Connery, was filmed largely in Japan and featured a karate demonstration by a number of well-known Kyokushin students, including Shigeo Kato (who introduced Kyokushin to Australia and was the original teacher of Shokei Matsui) and Akio Fujihira, who was one of the three fighters who took up the Muay Thai challenge in 1964 and who fought in the ring for many years under the name of Noboru Osawa.
- Terutomo Yamazaki
- Sonny Chiba
- Georges St-Pierre
- Uriah Hall
- Sean Connery
- Dolph Lundgren
- Glen Murphy
- Michael Rooker
- Michael Jai White
- Andy Hug
- Jérôme Le Banner
- Francisco Filho
- Francesco Bellissimo
- Glaube Feitosa
- Semmy Schilt
- Nikita Krylov
- Vladimir Putin
- Mamed Khalidov
- Tiger Schulmann
- Mariusz Pudzianowski
- Gerard Gordeau
- Bas Rutten
- Azuma Takashi
- Hennie Bosman
- Ian Lennox
- Hajime Kazumi
- Maryse Ouellet
- pl:Andrzej Drewniak
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