Kyozan Joshu Sasaki
Kyozan Joshu Sasaki
|Died||July 27, 2014 (aged 107)|
|Teacher||Joten Soko Miura Roshi|
|Based in||Mount Baldy Zen Center|
Bodhi Manda Zen Center
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Kyozan Joshu Sasaki (佐々木承周 Sasaki Jōshū), Roshi (April 1, 1907 – July 27, 2014) was a Japanese Rinzai Zen teacher who sought to tailor his teachings to westerners, he lived in Los Angeles, United States. Joshu Sasaki opened dozens of centres and was founder and head abbot of the Mount Baldy Zen Center, near Mount Baldy in California, and of the Rinzai-Ji order of affiliated Zen centers.
Joshu Sasaki became an ordained monk at age thirteen under his teacher, Joten Soko Miura. Soon after, he followed Joten Soko Miura to Myoshin-ji, the head temple of one of the largest branches of Rinzai. Having been awarded the title of roshi in 1947, Kyozan Joshu Sasaki took the position of an abbot at Yotoku-in. In 1953 he was appointed abbot of Shojuan.
Joshu Sasaki regularly offered formal training sessions at both the Mount Baldy Zen Center and the Bodhi Manda Zen Center, occasionally offering sesshin at the Rinzai-Ji Zen Center in Los Angeles and Haku-un-ji Zen Center in Tempe, Arizona, as well as at numerous other centers on the American East Coast, and in Europe. Roshi's teaching schedule greatly depended on his health, however. In early February 2012 Joshu Roshi became ill with aspiration pneumonia and did not teach at MBZC (or any affiliate Zen Center) again. On November 10, at a dedication ceremony for the Zendo remodel, Joshu Roshi officially resigned as abbot of the Mount Baldy Zen Center for health reasons.
Joshu Sasaki has given full Rinzai priest ordination to approximately 20 students, which grants them the title oshō. But Kyozan Joshu Sasaki did not give dharma transmission, which is in Rinzai the qualification needed to train students in a training hall to become a priest. Nevertheless, several of his students are recognized by their community "as wise guides of various communities".
One of his best known students was Canadian poet and singer-songwriter Leonard Cohen, who served as personal assistant to Joshu Sasaki during his 1990s seclusion to the Mt. Baldy monastery. Many of the poems in Cohen's 2006 Book of Longing refer to Mt. Baldy and Joshu Sasaki (mostly referred to as "Roshi").
Writing under the pen name Shozan Jack Haubner, another student of Sasaki Roshi's has published partially fictionalized books and essays which refer to Sasaki Roshi's teachings and describe everyday life in Rinzai-Ji affiliated Zen centers.
In a 24 December 2009 interview Eshin Godfrey, Abbot of the Zen Centre of Vancouver and a student of Sasaki-roshi, said of his teacher,
He has become a precious golden Buddha! You can only have great gratitude for your teacher, even though I've found it a bitter-sweet relationship. As the western styles of Zen develop I'm grateful to have started study in the traditional way.
Sasaki Roshi was among a generation of missionary Buddhist teachers accused of improper relations with his students. The complex roots of such behavior in the social dynamics of Buddhist religious communities remains under investigation. The complicit, sometimes active, role of some students in abetting such abuse has been acknowledged but less examined. The blogger Matthew Remski has raised a sharper critique by questioning students who repudiate such teachers only to uncritically invoke the same teacher's spiritual authority in order to validate a student's own ordination and claim to knowledge. In light of these complicated dynamics, the broader Buddhist community in the United States has responded to improper teacher behavior by developing statements on ethics and various guidelines for prospective students to apply in choosing a teacher.
As early as 1997, it was put forth by members of his Mt. Baldy Zen Center that Sasaki Roshi was engaging in sexual misconduct with his female students. Sasaki was 90 years old at that point. The issue was not resolved at that time. Part of a letter written by the monks, nuns, and students of Mt. Baldy Zen Center reads as follows:
With sadness and confusion we have struggled with your sexual behavior toward women. In the past open discussion was discouraged, and people were left feeling afraid to raise their concerns about this matter. But this fall we have been meeting to air our concerns and to try to come to a better understanding of the problem.
Awareness of Joshu Roshi's sexual misconduct existed since the early 1970s. Stephen Wilder trained at Mt. Baldy from 1974–75 and was ordained as a monk in 1977. During that time he had heard rumors of Joshu Roshi's sexual misconduct. Finally, in January 1982 he resigned because he could no longer tolerate the duplicity. He writes:
It wasn't until his Inji, who was engaged to be married, came bursting into my room at Bodhi Mandala in New Mexico after lunch one day during an autumn sesshin, sobbing and saying, "He won't leave me alone", that it finally dawned on me that this was real. Until then I truly did not believe any of the rumors because of my own conditioned ignorance.
A student of Joshu Roshi, Giko David Rubin, raised concerns about Roshi's sexual conduct to Joshu Roshi himself as well as his inner circle, and this was part of the response:
Joshu Roshi told me I would never get enlightened if I thought about these things. I was told by one Osho and one senior student I would be blamed for Joshu Roshi's death if I tried to make him change his behavior, and that I would be responsible for ruining his legacy. "You are killing him!" was shouted at me more than once.
In 2012, Eshu Martin, a former monk in the Rinzai-ji community and student of Sasaki, also publicly accused Sasaki, who was then 105 years old, of sexual misconduct with students. As an example of a student who appears to utilize a repudiated teacher's Buddhist credentials as a foundation for their own claim to legitimacy, in 2013, Martin published on the internet videos of his ordination by Sasaki with little explanation.
Capping off a series of revelations in 2012, and as reported in a February 2013 article in the Albuquerque Journal:
In early January, the senior teachers of Sasaki's community admitted in an on-line statement that the community "has struggled with our teacher Joshu Sasaki Roshi's sexual misconduct for a significant portion of his career in the United States."
- Buddhism in the United States
- List of Rinzai Buddhists
- Timeline of Zen Buddhism in the United States
- Cayuga Press of Ithaca (2007). The 100th Year of Joshu Sasaki Roshi. Publisher: paperMoon Design.
- Ford 2006, p. 111.
- Borup 2008, p. 13.
- Jack., Haubner, Shozan. Zen confidential : confessions of a wayward monk (First ed.). Boston. ISBN 1611800331. OCLC 822560081.
- Jack,, Haubner, Shozan. Single white monk : tales of death, failure, and bad sex (although not necessarily in that order) (First ed.). Boulder. ISBN 1611803632. OCLC 965533042.
- Tebbe, Adam. "Eshin Godfrey interview". Sweeping Zen. Retrieved 24 December 2009.
- "Joshu Sasaki Dies". Patheos.com. July 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-28.
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- Rubin, Giko David. "Some Reflections On Rinzai-Ji By Giko David Rubin".
- Eshu Martin (2013-12-04), Eshu Martin Ordination (Part 1) - Mount Baldy Zen Center January 17, 1999, retrieved 2019-06-20
- "Zen 'Master' Molested Students in N.M."
- Blumenthal, Ralph (December 9, 2007). "A Very Old Zen Master and His Art of Tough Love". U.S. New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-25.
- Borup, Jørn (2008), Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism: Myōshinji, a Living Religion, Brill
- Ford, James Ishmael (2006), Zen Master Who?: A Guide to the People And Stories of Zen, Wisdom Publications
- Vitello, Paul (August 4, 2014). "Obituary: Joshu Sasaki, 107, Tainted Zen Master". U.S. New York Times. Retrieved 2014-09-28.
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