Kipchak languages

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Northwestern Turkic
Ethnicity Kipchaks
Linguistic classification Turkic
  • Kipchak–Bolgar
  • Kipchak–Cuman
  • Kipchak–Nogai
  • Kyrgyz–Kipchak
Glottolog kipc1239[1]

 Kipchak–Bolgar   Kipchak–Cuman   Kipchak–Nogai and Kyrgyz–Kipchak 

The Kipchak languages (also known as the Kypchak, Qypchaq, or Northwestern Turkic languages) are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 25 million people in an area spanning from Ukraine to China.

Linguistic features[edit]

The Kipchak languages share a number of features that have led linguists to classify them together. Some of these features are shared with other Turkic languages; others are unique to the Kipchak family.

Shared features[edit]

  • Change of Proto-Turkic *d to /j/ (e.g. *hadaq > ajaq "foot")
  • Loss of initial *h sound (preserved only in Khalaj. See above example.)

Unique features[edit]


The Kipchak languages may be broken down into four groups, based on geography and shared features:[1]

The language of the Mamluks in Egypt appears to have been a Kipchak language, probably one belonging to the Kipchak–Cuman group.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kipchak". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.