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Skyline of Kythrea
Kythrea is located in Cyprus
Coordinates: 35°15′N 33°29′E / 35.250°N 33.483°E / 35.250; 33.483Coordinates: 35°15′N 33°29′E / 35.250°N 33.483°E / 35.250; 33.483
Country (de jure) Cyprus
 • DistrictNicosia District
Country (de facto) Northern Cyprus[1]
 • DistrictLefkoşa District
 • MayorAli Karavezirler (CTP)
 • Mayor-in-exilePetros M. Kareklas
 • Total3,284
 • Municipality
WebsiteGreek Cypriot municipality (in exile)
Turkish Cypriot municipality

Kythrea (Greek: Κυθρέα or Κυθραία; Turkish: Değirmenlik) is a small town in Cyprus, 10 km northeast of Nicosia. Kythrea is under the de facto control of Northern Cyprus.


The larger-than-life bronze statue of Septimius Severus, found in Kythrea, now displayed in Cyprus Museum

Kythrea is situated near the ancient city-kingdom of Chytroi, which was founded by Chytros, grandson of the Athenian King Akamas. According to one tradition, the name Kythrea derives from Chytroi (Χύτροι > *Χυτρέα > Κυθρέα). According to another tradition, it derives from the name of the Greek Ionian island Kythera, from where millstones were transferred to Kythrea's watermills. The small town was watered for millennia by the Kefalovrysos spring; however, shortly after the 1974 Turkish invasion, the water stopped flowing. Other forms of the name include Chytri, Cythraia, Cythereia, Cythroi, Chytrides,[4] Chytros and Chytria.[5]

With the spread of Christianity in Cyprus, Chytroi became a bishopric. The first bishop, whose name is known is Pappus, is mentioned in the Life of Epiphanius of Salamis as having been bishop for 58 years of the "miserable town of Chytria", and as having died a martyr at some unspecified date, which must have been under either the pagan emperors Licinius or Maximinus II, or the Arian Constantius II. The acts of the Council of Chalcedon (451) show that Bishop Photinus was represented there by his deacon Dionysius, and those of the Second Council of Nicaea in 767 that Bishop Spyridon attended in person.[5][6]

Contemporary documents are lacking concerning Demetrianus, whom Henri Grégoire described as perhaps the most obscure of the local saints of Cyprus. The medieval Leontios Machairas is the earliest writer to make even a brief mention of his name. According to the oldest Life of Demetrianos, published in the 18th century, he became bishop in around 885, was captured by Arabs and taken to Egypt with many of his faithful, but by his prayers obtained the liberation of all.[7]

No longer a residential bishopric, Chytri is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[8]

Kythrea is a remarkable archaeological area. One outstanding statue discovered in the area is the bronze statue of Roman Emperor Septimius Severus, exhibited in the Cyprus Museum in Nicosia. The Kythrea municipality was established in 1915.[9]


The town is administered by the Turkish Cypriot Municipality of Değirmenlik founded in 1975.[10] The current mayor is Ali Karavezirler from the Republican Turkish Party (CTP). He was elected to the post in 2018, garnering %54.1 of the votes.[11] He replaced Osman Işısal, the mayor elected in 2014 from the same party.[12]

Displaced inhabitants of Kythrea, now located in Nicosia and elsewhere, maintain a municipality in exile. It shares premises with the similarly-displaced municipality of Lapithos at 37 Ammochostou Street, Nicosia.


After its Greek Cypriot inhabitants were displaced in August 1974, the town was repopulated by displaced Turkish Cypriots. The main origin of the Turkish Cypriots that settled in the town is the village of Alaminos, but inhabitants of many other villages were also relocated here. There are some Turkish people that have settled in the town as well, mostly hailing from the Mersin Province.[13]

Culture, sports and tourism[edit]

Prior to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, Kythrea was the home of the football club AEK Kythreas. Değirmenlik Environment and Publicity Association was founded in 2008.[14] Değirmenlik Association of Culture and Arts is a non-governmental organization that is active in the town, and it annually organizes the Festival of Culture and Arts since 2009. The members of the association participate in festivals abroad. The Municipality of Değirmenlik has a folklore group that is open to children.[15]

Değirmenlik Sports Club was founded in 1975,[16][17] and now in Cyprus Turkish Football Association (CTFA) K-PET 1st League.[18] Kythrea's Sadik Cemil Football Stadium has "FIFA Recommended Star 2"-standard.[19]

The town has "Değirmenlik High School".[20]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Kythrea is twinned with:


  1. ^ In 1983, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus unilaterally declared independence from the Republic of Cyprus. The de facto state is not recognised by any UN state except Turkey.
  2. ^ "KKTC 2011 Nüfus ve Konut Sayımı" [TRNC 2011 Population and Housing Census] (PDF) (in Turkish). TRNC State Planning Organization. 6 August 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2013.
  3. ^ "K.K.T.C. POSTA DAİRESİ" [TRNC Postal Department] (in Turkish). Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  4. ^ Sophrone Pétridès, "Chytri" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1908)
  5. ^ a b Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 1067-1070
  6. ^ Raymond Janin, v. Chytri, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XII, Paris 1953, col. 820
  7. ^ Henri Grégoire, Saint Démétrianos, évêque de Chytri, in Byzantinische Zeitschrift 16 (1907), pp. 204–240
  8. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 868
  9. ^ N. G. L. Hammond; C. J. Gadd; I. E. S. Edwards (1970). The Cambridge ancient history (3 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 540. ISBN 0-521-07051-1.
  10. ^ Eastern Mesarya Area Archived 2014-12-30 at the Wayback Machine (EU Aid Programme for Turkish Cypriot Community) Retrieved on 30 December 2014.
  11. ^ "İşte resmi olmayan sonuçlar". Yenidüzen. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  12. ^ Değirmenlik'te Osman Işısal ipi göğüsledi (Kıbrıs Postası) retrieved on 30 December 2014.
  13. ^ Kythrea (Prio Cyprus Centre) Retrieved on 30 December 2014.
  14. ^ TRNC MEBNET Degirmenlik Environment and Publicity Association
  15. ^ Kıbrıs kültürünün yaşatılması önemli (Kıbrıs) Retrieved on 30 December 2014.
  16. ^ Cyprus Turkish Football Federation Degirmenlik Sports Club
  17. ^ Degirmenlik Municipality Archived 2015-06-18 at the Wayback Machine Sports Club Facilities
  18. ^ Northern Cyprus Archived 2015-06-18 at the Wayback Machine Association of Football Clubs
  19. ^ Ada Basini 24 April 2014 Archived 18 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine Isisal: "The most successful is Kythrea"
  20. ^ TRNC MEBNET Degirmenlik High School
  21. ^ "Gebze - Twin Towns". © Retrieved 2013-10-19.
  22. ^ "Kythrea and Canik are Twin Towns". © Kibris Postasi. Retrieved 2015-06-16.