L'Histoire du soldat
L'Histoire du soldat (The Soldier's Tale) is a theatrical work "to be read, played, and danced" (lue, jouée et dansée) by three actors and one or several dancers, accompanied by a septet of instruments. Conceived by Igor Stravinsky and Swiss writer C. F. Ramuz, the piece was based on a Russian folk tale drawn from the collection of Alexander Afanasyev called The Runaway Soldier and the Devil.
The libretto relates the parable of a soldier who trades his fiddle to the devil in return for unlimited economic gain. The music is scored for a septet of violin, double bass, clarinet, bassoon, cornet (often played on trumpet), trombone, and percussion, and the story is told by three actors: the soldier, the devil, and a narrator, who also takes on the roles of minor characters. A dancer plays the non-speaking role of the princess, and there may also be additional ensemble dancers.
A full performance of L'Histoire du soldat takes about an hour.
The music is rife with changing time signatures. For this reason, it is commonly performed with a conductor, though some ensembles have elected to perform the piece without one. The work was premiered in Lausanne on 28 September 1918, conducted by Ernest Ansermet. The British conductor Edward Clark was a friend and champion of Stravinsky and a former assistant conductor to Ansermet at the Ballets Russes. He conducted the British premiere of L'Histoire du soldat in 1926 in Newcastle upon Tyne, and gave three further fully staged performances in London in July 1927.
Stravinsky was assisted greatly in the production of the work by the Swiss philanthropist Werner Reinhart. Reinhart sponsored and largely underwrote the premiere. In gratitude, Stravinsky dedicated the work to Reinhart, and gave him the original manuscript. Reinhart continued his support of Stravinsky's work in 1919 by funding a series of concerts of his recent chamber music. These included a concert suite of five numbers from The Soldier's Tale, arranged for clarinet, violin, and piano, which was a nod to Reinhart, who was regarded as an excellent amateur clarinetist. The suite was first performed on 8 November 1919, in Lausanne, long before the better-known suite for the seven original performers became known.
As the work opens, Joseph, a Russian soldier, marches toward his hometown on leave, pack in tow. ("Marche du soldat"/"The Soldier's March") He rests by a stream and rummages through his pack. First he takes out his lucky St. Joseph medallion, then a mirror, then a photograph of his girlfriend. Finally, he finds what he was searching for: his fiddle. He begins to play. ("Petits airs au bord du ruisseau"/"Airs by a Stream") The devil appears disguised as an old man carrying a butterfly net, but Joseph does not notice him and continues to play. The devil sneaks up on Joseph from behind and startles him.
The devil asks Joseph to sell him his fiddle, and when Joseph refuses, he offers him a book that he says contains untold wealth. Joseph does not understand the book, but the devil convinces him that it's worth more than his cheap fiddle. Joseph then realizes the book contains events that happen in the future. The devil offers to take Joseph home for three days to teach him about the book if Joseph will teach him about the fiddle. After the devil describes the life of luxury he lives, Joseph accepts. After three days pass, the devil takes Joseph home. (Reprise: "Marche du soldat")
As Joseph walks the path towards his town, he notices something strange: everyone runs away as they see him. Finally, he arrives at his fiancée's house only to see her with her husband and children. Finally, he realizes that three years – not three days – have passed, and that the residents of the town think he's a ghost. ("Pastorale")
Joseph sees the devil in disguise as a cattle merchant and confronts him. The devil tries to calm Joseph by reminding him of the power of the book. Joseph started off as a peddler. With the knowledge he gained from the book, he quickly amassed great wealth. Soon, he realizes this material wealth means nothing, and all he wants is the things he had before – the things everyone else has. ("Petite airs au bord du ruisseau (reprise)") He realizes the poor have nothing in terms of material wealth, yet they have it all when it comes to happiness. He gets agitated and starts looking through the book for the solution, yet cannot find anything.
The devil arrives disguised as an old female peddler. He takes some things out to sell to Joseph: first, a lucky medallion; next, a mirror; then, a photograph of a woman; finally, a fiddle. Joseph immediately perks up and tries to buy the fiddle from the devil. The devil hands Joseph the violin, but he can no longer play: the violin makes no sound. ("Petite airs au bord du ruisseau (reprise)") Joseph hurls the violin away and tears the book up.
Joseph leaves his home with nothing. He marches past his old hometown. ("Marche du soldat (reprise)") He arrives at an inn where he hears the news that the king's daughter is sick, and whoever can raise her from her bed will be given her hand in marriage.
He makes his way to the Palace gates. ("Marche Royale"/The Royal March")
When he arrives at the palace, the devil is already there disguised as a virtuoso violinist. Joseph turns over some cards and gets an air of confidence when they are all hearts. Suddenly, the devil makes his presence known, clutching the violin to his chest, and taunts Joseph. The narrator tells Joseph the reason the devil controls him is because Joseph still has the devil's money, and if Joseph loses all his money to the devil in a card game, he will finally be free.
The plan works: the devil falls, and Joseph is free. He takes the violin and plays. ("Petit concert"/"The Little Concert") He triumphantly marches into the princess' chambers and starts to play another tune. The princess is miraculously resurrected by the music, and begins to dance. ("Trois danses"/"Three Dances" "1. Tango; 2. Valse; 3. Ragtime")
Joseph and the princess embrace. The devil arrives, and for the first time he is not disguised. As Joseph protects the princess from the devil, he realizes he can defeat the devil by playing his violin. ("Danse du diable"/"The Devil's Dance") The devil cannot resist the music and begins to contort. Exhausted, he falls to the ground. The soldier takes the princess's hand, and together they drag the devil away, then fall into each other's arms. ("Petit choral"/"Little Chorale")
The devil pops his head in and begins to torment the couple, warning them that Joseph may not leave the castle or the devil will regain control of him. ("Couplets du diable"/"The Devil's Song")
Over the "Grand Choral" ("Great Chorale"), the narrator tells the moral of the story:
Il ne faut pas vouloir ajouter
You must not seek to add
The work ends with Joseph crossing the frontier post – a boundary not to be crossed – after being tempted by the ideal of both having his wife and his mother. The devil is found waiting as Joseph turns back to find his bride, now gone. The final piece is "Marche triomphale du diable"/"The triumphal march of the devil" and features violin and percussion entwined in a rhythmic duel with the final measures played solely by the percussionist. The score is marked with a decrescendo to the end of the work from approximately rehearsal number 17. However, this is sometimes changed to a crescendo (especially if performing the Suite).
L’Histoire du soldat shows how Stravinsky was able to incorporate a wide range of influences into his own musical idiom: the pasodoble in “Marche royale”/“The Royal March”; the three dances “Tango – Valse – Ragtime” played by Joseph to heal the princess; klezmer music in the instrumentation and textures; Luther’s Ein feste Burg in “Petit choral”/“Little Chorale”; Bach in “Grand choral”/“Great Chorale”. According to the musicologist Danick Trottier, these influences are linked to a certain extent to Stravinsky’s experiences and first successes in the cosmopolitan Paris of the early 1910s since the capital of France was a confluence point for a variety of artists and musicians during La Belle Époque.
- World premiere
- Lausanne, Switzerland, 28 September 1918, conducted by Ernest Ansermet.
- Concert Suite: 1920, London, conducted by Ernest Ansermet.
- Full staging, 1926, Newcastle upon Tyne, conducted by Edward Clark. Three further fully staged performances in London in July 1927.
- Full staging (by Diaghilev), Paris, 1924.
- 1924: Frankfurt, and Wiesbaden (conducted by Otto Klemperer).
- Ballet version: New York City Opera, New York State Theater, Lincoln Center: 1978: Directed by Frank Corsaro and Gardner Compton (who also choreographed), conducted by Imre Palló. Scenic and costume design by Victor Capecce; lighting design by Ken Billington. Barry Bostwick played the title role, and the Princess was portrayed by Mercedes Ellington. John Lankston and the New York City Opera Dancers completed the cast. (Presented on a triple bill with La voix humaine and The Impresario.)
- Balletmaster Peter Martins created the Suite from L'Histoire du Soldat for New York City Ballet. The premiere was at the New York State Theater, Lincoln Center on 30 January 1981 with the original cast consisting of Darci Kistler, Kyra Nichols, Ib Andersen, Heather Watts, Jean-Pierre Frohlich, Victor Castelli, Bart Cook, and Daniel Duell. The Martins ballet was given again May 1987 and revived in May 1999 when it was reviewed by Jack Anderson.
- Narrated version: Montreal Festivals, 1949.
- Staged version: Stratford Shakespearean Festival, 1955: directed by Douglas Campbell. Costume design by Clarence Wilson. Lillian Jarvis as the Princess, Marcel Marceau as the Devil, Douglas Rain as the Soldier, narrated by William Needles.
- Anthony Nicholls (Narrator), Terence Longdon (Soldier), Robert Helpmann (Devil), Arthur Leavins (violin), Jack Brymer (clarinet), Gwydion Brooke (bassoon), Richard Walton (cornet), Sidney Langston (trombone), Edmond Chesterman (double bass), Stephen Whittaker (percussion), conducted by John Pritchard, based on Glyndebourne Opera production 1954 at Edinburgh Festival, LP HMV ALP 1377.
- L'Histoire du soldat (Suite). Igor Stravinsky conducts the Columbia Chamber Ensemble, 1961, issued as part of "Igor Stravinsky: The Recorded Legacy", Sony, 1991.
- L'Histoire du soldat (Suite). Gennady Rozhdestvensky conducts a chamber ensemble [no name provided], Angel/Melodiya, 1964.
- L'Histoire du soldat (Suite). Tashi (version for violin, clarinet, and piano), RCA Red Seal, 1977.
- Jean Cocteau (Narrator), Jean-Marie Fertey (Soldier), Peter Ustinov (Devil), Anne Tonietti (Princess), studio ensemble, conducted by Igor Markevitch, Philips Records, 1962 production, recorded at Vevey, Switzerland.
- Brian Phelan (Soldier), Robert Helpmann (Devil), Svetlana Beriosova (Princess), Melos Ensemble, film version 1964, Michael Birkett (director), Dennis Miller and Leonard Cassini (producers), Richard Marden (editor), BHE production.
- Madeleine Milhaud (Narrator), Jean-Pierre Aumont (Soldier), Martial Singher (Devil), instrumental ensemble conducted by Leopold Stokowski, 1967, Vanguard Records, double album, sequential recordings in French and English.
- Gérard Carrat (Narrator), François Berthet (Soldier), François Simon (Devil), conducted by Charles Dutoit, 1970, Erato ECD .88198 (this and the Cocteau/Ustinov Philips version listed above are generally considered the best recordings, the Philips being more theatrical – including a speaking part for the princess – but less realistic in terms of the diction of the characters).
- Glenda Jackson (Narrator), Rudolf Nureyev (Soldier), Micheál Mac Liammóir (Devil), instrumental ensemble conducted by Gennady Zalkowitsch, Argo.
- John Gielgud (Narrator), Tom Courtenay (Soldier), Ron Moody (Devil), Boston Symphony Chamber Players, 1975, Deutsche Grammophon.
- Ian McKellen (Narrator), Sting (Soldier), Vanessa Redgrave (Devil), London Sinfonietta conducted by Kent Nagano, 1990, London: Pangea/MCA, ASIN B000009HYG.
- Frank Zappa recorded the march from The Soldier's Tale on his live album Make a Jazz Noise Here (1991). The same melody was also used at the ending of "Soft-Sell Conclusion" on the second Mothers Of Invention album, Absolutely Free (1967). On 6 September 1972, Zappa narrated in a performance by the Los Angeles Philharmonic under Lukas Foss at the Hollywood Bowl; Ernest Fleischmann as devil and Tim Buckley as soldier.
- Sally Goodwin (Narrator), Ron Bohmer (Soldier), Reed Armstrong (Devil), Solisti New York, conducted by Ransom Wilson, 1993, Chesky Records, also available as a download from HDtracks.
- Aage Haugland, Royal Scottish National Orchestra, conducted by Neeme Järvi (CHAN9189), 1993
- Carole Bouquet (Narrator), Guillaume Depardieu (Soldier), Gérard Depardieu (Devil), Shlomo Mintz (violin and conductor), Pascal Moragues (clarinet), Sergio Azzolini (bassoon), Marc Bauer (cornet), Daniel Breszynski (trombone), Vincent Pasquier (double bass), Michel Cerutti (percussion), CD (B000003I1K) 1997 Auvidis Valois France.
- Jeremy Irons / The Columbia Chamber Ensemble / Igor Stravinsky and Robert Craft. New York: Sony BMG, 2007. 82876-76586-2
- In 2018, Roger Waters recorded a version in which he narrates his adaptation of the story and portrays all characters, recorded with members of the Bridgehampton Chamber Music Festival, released on Sony Classical Masterworks. 
- In 1983, Bil Baird created his final puppeteering work based on L'Histoire before his death in 1987.
- In 1984, animator R. O. Blechman created an animated version for PBS's Great Performances featuring Max von Sydow as the voice of devil. This production was released on VHS the next year and on DVD in 2004.
- In 1993, United States novelist Kurt Vonnegut reworked the libretto into a tale about World War II Private Eddie Slovik, the first soldier in the United States military to be executed for desertion since the Civil War.
- In 2002, Joan Sanmartí recorded a jazz arrangement version scored for a septet of electric guitar, tenor saxophone/clarinet/bass clarinet, trumpet/flugelhorn, cello, accordion, double bass, and drums, including solo improvisations by most of the interpreters.
- In January 2006, Rebecca Lenkiewicz and Abdulkareem Kasid created a version set in Iraq and staged by Andrew Steggall at The Old Vic.
- In 2008, Inuit writer Zebedee Nungak translated the libretto into Inuktitut for performance by the Montreal Symphony Orchestra's tour of Nunavik (the Inuit homeland in Quebec), conducted by Kent Nagano.
- Taruskin 1996, p. 1295.
- Stravinsky & Ramuz 1987.
- Gareth James Thomas, The Impact of Russian Music in England 1893–1929
- Ragtime Ensemble presents The Soldier's Tale
- Concert artists guild Archived 2008-12-17 at the Wayback Machine
- Stephen Walsh, "The composer, the antiquarian and the go-between: Stravinsky and the Rosenthals, The Musical Times, [northern] Spring 2007, from findarticles.com, retrieved 14 July 2009
- Dr. Richard E. Rodda, "Three Pieces for Clarinet", Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center program notes, 2007 Archived 2009-06-21 at the Wayback Machine on chambermusicsociety.org, retrieved 14 July 2009
- Robert Bridge, "L'Histoire Du Soldat (The Soldier's Tale): A Brief Historical Overview", 17 May 1994 Archived 22 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine on sunyocc.edu, retrieved 14 July 2009
- Susan Halpern, "Recital Notes for January 29, 2008" from A Musical Feast Archived December 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine on amusicalfeast.com, retrieved 14 July 2009
- Trottier, Danick (12 March 2020). "1918. Histoire du soldat, la France dans le rétroviseur de Stravinski". Nouvelle histoire de la musique en France (1870-1950).
- Harold C. Schonberg (April 24, 1977). "Opera: 'Trilogy' by City Company". The New York Times.
- "Historic Soldat, New Work by Martins" by Anna Kisselgoff, The New York Times, 31 January 1981. Retrieved 18 October 2009
- Jennifer Dunning, "The City Ballet in Histoire du Soldat, The New York Times, 17 May 1987. Retrieved 18 October 2009
- "Dance; Bouncy Stravinsky Music For a Playful Conversation", The New York Times, 17 May 1999. Retrieved 18 October 2009
- Soldier's tale, The, directed by Michael Birkett
- "Rim Buckley – A Chronology, 1971–1973" by Robert Niemi
- "Music News Digest – September 12, 2018". FYI Music News. 12 September 2018. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- "Rock Legend Roger Waters Has Adapted the Narration and Recorded Stravinsky's The Soldier's Tale – He Narrates the Whole of this Harrowing Modern Fairy Tale Himself". 26 October 2018. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
- "Bil Baird and his marionettes are busy with Stravinsky now" by Mark Steinbrink, The New York Times, 26 June 1983
- The Soldier's Tale at IMDb
- The Soldier' Tale Archived 2005-03-06 at the Wayback Machine, review at DVD Verdict review
- Joan Sanmarti: Improvisacions amb la història d'un soldat d'Igor Stravinsky Archived 2011-07-13 at the Wayback Machine – listen
- The Soldier's Tale Archived 2008-03-28 at the Wayback Machine, The British Theatre Guide review by Philip Fischer of The Old Vic production, 2006
- The OSM Nunavik Tour
- Stravinsky, Igor; Ramuz, Charles Ferdinand (1987). John Carewe; James Blades (eds.). Histoire du Soldat. English version by Michael Flanders and Kitty Black, German version by Hans Reinhart. London: Chester Music. ISBN 0-7119-3841-5.
- Taruskin, Richard (1996). Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works Through Mavra. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
- Bailey, Kathryn. "Melodic Structures in the Overture and Scene-Music of Histoire du soldat". Canadian Association of University Schools of Music Journal/Association Canadienne des Écoles Universitaires de Musique Journal 4, nos. 1–2 (Fall 1974): 1–7.
- Craft, Robert. "Histoire du soldat (the Musical Revisions, the Sketches, the Evolution of the Libretto)". The Musical Quarterly 66, no. 3 (July 1980): 321–38.
- Loeffler, Peter. Die Geschichte vom Soldaten: Strawinsky, Ramuz, Auberjonois, Ansermet. Das Profil der Uraufführung in Lausanne im September 1918, rendered in German by Hans Reinhardt. Basel: Springer, 1994. ISBN 978-3-7643-2958-7.
- Marti, Christoph. "Zur Kompositionstechnik von Igor Strawinsky: Das Petit concert aus der Histoire du soldat". Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 38, no. 2. (1981): 93–109.
- Ramuz, Charles-Ferdinand. Histoire du soldat, illustrée de lithographies originales par Hans Erni. Lausanne: André et Pierre Gonin. 326 copies signed by author and artist. 73 black-and-white lithographs within the text and 2 on the wrappers. 100 pages + 2 leaves. A livre d'artiste printed on Arches paper and housed in a vellum and board folder and matching slipcase.
- Vaccaro, Jean-Michel. "La musique dans l'Histoire du soldat". Voies de la création théâtrale 6 (1978): 55–76.
- Zur, Menachem. "Tonal Ambiguities as a Constructive Force in the Language of Stravinsky". The Musical Quarterly 68, No. 4 (October 1982): 516–526.