Lý dynasty

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Đại Cồ Việt (1009–1054)
Đại Việt (1054–1225)
Đại Cồ Việt Quốc (大瞿越國)
Đại Việt Quốc (大越國)
1009–1225
Territories of Đại Việt under Lý dynasty before 1069 (dark red) and after 1069 (light red).
Territories of Đại Việt under Lý dynasty before 1069 (dark red) and after 1069 (light red).
Territories of the Đại Việt (Lý dynasty) in 1085
Territories of the Đại Việt (Lý dynasty) in 1085
StatusInternal imperial system within Song tributary[1][2]
CapitalHoa Lư
(1009–1010)

Thăng Long
(1010–1225)
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 1009–1028
Lý Thái Tổ (first)
• 1054–1072
Lý Thánh Tông
• 1072–1128
Lý Nhân Tông
• 1224–1225
Lý Chiêu Hoàng (last)
Chancellor 
• 1058
Lý Thường Kiệt
• 1069–1073
Lý Đạo Thành
• 1140–1158
Đỗ Anh Vũ
• 1158–1179
Tô Hiến Thành
• 1208–1211
Tô Trung Từ
• 1225
Trần Thủ Độ (last)
Historical eraMedieval Asia
• Coronation of Lý Công Uẩn
21 November 1009
• War with Dali kingdom
1014
• Lý Thánh Tông change national name from Đại Cồ Việt to Đại Việt
1054
1075–1077
• Lý Chiêu Hoàng ceded the throne to Trần Cảnh
1225
CurrencyCopper-alloy cash coins
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Early Lê dynasty
Trần dynasty
CountryKingdom of Đại Việt (Vietnam)
Founded10th century
FounderLý Công Uẩn
Final rulerLý Chiêu Hoàng
Titles
TraditionsMahayana Buddhism
Estate(s)Thăng Long
Deposition1225

The Lý dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Lý, Vietnamese pronunciation: [ɲâː lǐ], chữ Nôm: 茹李, chữ Hán: 李朝, Hán Việt: Lý triều) was a Vietnamese dynasty that existed from 1009 to 1225. It was established by Lý Công Uẩn when he overthrew the Early Lê dynasty and ended when Lý Chiêu Hoàng (then 8 years old) was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her husband, Trần Cảnh. During Lý Thánh Tông's reign, the official name of state was changed from Đại Cồ Việt to Đại Việt.

Domestically, while the Lý monarchs were devout to Buddhism, the influence of Confucianism from China was on the rise, with the opening of the Temple of Literature in 1070 for selection of civil servants who are not from noble families. The first imperial examination was held in 1075 and Lê Văn Thịnh became the first Trạng Nguyên (Zhuangyuan) of Vietnam. Politically, they established an administration system based on the rule of law rather than on autocratic principles. The fact that they chose the Đại La Citadel as the capital (later renamed Thăng Long and subsequently Hanoi) showed that they held onto power due to economic strength and were liked by their subjects rather than by military means like previous dynasties. Noblemen scholars such as Lê Văn Thịnh, Bùi Quốc Khái, Doãn Tử Tư, Đoàn Văn Khâm, Lý Đạo Thành, and Tô Hiến Thành made vast contributions culturally and politically, allowing the dynasty to flourish for 216 years.

History[edit]

Founding[edit]

The last emperor of the Early Lê dynasty, the unpopular Lê Long Đĩnh died in 1009. His crown prince of was still very young and he could not take the power from his dad. Members of royal court including the official Đào Cam Mộc and the Buddhist monk Vạn Hạnh decided to install general Lý Công Uẩn to become the new emperor of Đại Cồ Việt.

The first ruler of the Lý dynasty, Lý Công Uẩn, was of Min Chinese ancestry (from Min kingdom, today's Fujian province).[3][4][5][6] yet the identity of his birth-father was unknown; likewise, little is known about his maternal side except for the fact that his mother was surnamed Phạm.[7] Very few direct details about his parents (unknown birth-father, mother, and adoptive father Lý Khánh Văn) are known,[8] however, the ethnic Chinese background of Lý Công Uẩn, at least on his paternal side, was accepted by Vietnamese historian Trần Quốc Vượng.[9] The Lý clan of Lý Công Uẩn's adoptive father Lý Khánh Văn was a Vietic Tao-hua clan originated from the highland regions in Feng district.[10]

Công Uẩn himself was born in 974 CE in Cổ Pháp region, Bắc Giang circuit (now in Từ Sơn, Bắc Ninh Province, Vietnam). When three-year-old, Công Uẩn was adopted by Lý Khánh Văn, whose surname Công Uẩn inherited. The good-looking and intelligent Công Uẩn was noted as an extraordinary child by Buddhist Zen master Vạn Hạnh. When mature, he joined the palace guard and rose through the ranks to commandership. In 1009, Công Uẩn succeeded Lê Long Đĩnh of the Lê family, thereby founding the Lý dynasty.[11]

Moving the capital[edit]

Ruins of the Lý dynasty Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long.

After a year of enthronement, in 1010, Lý Thái Tổ started to move the capital from Hoa Lư(Ninh Bình) to Đại La (Hà Nội), and renamed it Thang Long. He wrote the Edict on the Transfer of the Capital to announce his plan to move to the new place.

This decision had a marked influence on Vietnam, which opening the flourishing era of the dynasty Following dynasties such as Trần, and Mạc continued to use Thang Long as their capital, as does the Socialist Republic of Vietnam today.

Crisis of the three princes[edit]

In 1028, Lý Thái Tổ died at the age 55 with Posthumous name Thần Vũ hoàng đế (神武皇帝), he was buried at Thọ Lăng royal tomb.

In his funeral, most of his mandarins expected crown prince Lý Phật Mã (Prince Khai Thiên) to take a throne. However, three of his brothers: Prince Đông Chinh (Đông Chinh vương), Prince Dực Thánh (Dực Thánh vương) and Prince Vũ Đức (Vũ Đức vương) rejected the decision and attacked the royal palace with their own armies to take Prince Khai Thiên's throne.

Lý Phật Mã discovered the plot, he ordered all the gates of palace to be closed and arranged guards for protection. However his eunuch Lý Nhân Nghĩa advised him to engage with betrayers. Lý Phật Mã decide to let Lý Nhân Nghĩa to lead the royal army to fight against his brothers. Lý Nhân Nghĩa succeeded in his campaign and caught Vũ Đức Vương, while the two other princes escaped. Lý Phật Mã then enthroned and take the temple name Lý Thái Tông. He grant mercy to all those who tried to opposed him and pardoned his two brothers Đông Chinh vương and Dực Thánh vương.

Golden era[edit]

Statue of emperor Lý Thái Tổ (974–1028), Hanoi

From the reign of Lý Thái Tổ with the other emperors, Lý dynasty began to focus on solving some major and minor situation:

  • Strengthen internal rule: the economy was promoted to high progress, especially agriculture. The government introduced "Hình thư" (Ministry of Punishments) as the first system of law and legislation of Vietnam after gain independence from China and opened the education system based on imperial examination of China
  • Strengthen territory reigning : The royal court tried to expanded their influence to the remote areas by managing the marriage policy such as giving princesses to marry with the other local lords for closer relationships with royal family. To conciliate those who were not loyal mto government, the emperor will order princes to eliminate the revolts.
  • Protecting country from foreigners: Resolve and reconcile some minor issues with Song dynasty, fighting against the invasions of Nanzhao and Champa.

One of the big event of Lý dynasty is changing name of country from Đại Cồ Việt (大瞿越) to Đại Việt (大越) in 1054 under reign of Lý Thánh Tông. During the Lý dynasty, the Vietnamese began their long march to the south (Nam tiến) at the expense of the Chams. In 1069, Champa Kingdom gained support from the Song dynasty and stopped paying tributary to Đại Việt. As the result, the emperor Lý Thánh Tông ordered an expedition against Champa and successfully captured King Rudravarman III of Champa. Rudravarman III had to sign a treaty with Lý Thánh Tông to cede Quảng Trị and Quảng Bình to Đại Việt which massively contributed to the expansion of Đại Việt territory. Champa also had to restore the tributary system to Lý dynasty.

The Lý Emperors supported the improvement of Vietnam's agricultural system by constructing and repairing dikes and canals and by allowing soldiers to return to their villages to work for six months of each year. As their territory and population expanded, the Lý Emperors looked to China as a model for organizing a strong, centrally administered state.

Statue of emperor Lý Thánh Tông (1054–1072)

In 1070, Lý Thánh Tông ordered the construction the Imperial Academy (Quốc Tử Giám) and the confucian Văn Miếu Temple to boost education. Minor officials were chosen by examination for the first time in 1075, and a civil service training institute was set up in 1076. In 1089 a fixed hierarchy of state officials was established, with nine degrees of civil and military scholar officials. Examinations for public office were made compulsory, and literary competitions were held to determine the grades of officials.[12]

Emperor Lý Thánh Tông died in 1072, the crown prince Càn Đức was enthroned at 7 as emperor Lý Nhân Tông. Empress Thượng Dương became regency but was toppled the next year by a plot by Lý Nhân Tông's mother, Concubine Ỷ Lan. She ordered the former Empress to be buried alive in the emperor's mausoleum along with 76 other servants. Ỷ Lan then became regency with help of Chancellor Lý Thường Kiệt.

In the 1050s, tensions between Đại Việt and the Song dynasty became high. In 1075, Wang Anshi, the chancellor of the Song dynasty, told Emperor Shenzong that Đại Việt was destroyed by Champa, with less than ten thousand soldiers surviving, so it would be a good occasion to annex the country. The Song emperor then mobilized his troops, this prompted the Emperor Lý Nhân Tông to authorize a preemptive invasion into Song territory. Lý Thường Kiệt lead an army to capture Qinzhou, Lianzhou and laid siege to Yongzhou (present day Nanning). Yongzhou fell in 1076, its populace of 58,000 were massacred. The Song sent a great army to invade Đại Việt but Lý Thường Kiệt managed to stop them at the Battle of Như Nguyệt (1077). The Song and Dai Viet would then made a peace treaty.

Succession crises and regencies[edit]

Emperor Lý Nhân Tông was the longest reigned ruler in the history of Vietnam. As he was childless, #his nephew Lý Dương Hoán (李陽煥), who he adopted, was chosen to be the crown prince. Lý Nhân Tông died in 1128. Lý Dương Hoán was enthroned at age 11 and took temple name Lý Thần Tông. The death of Lý Nhân Tông had marked the transition of succession from the main line to the cadet line. Lý Thần Tông would die young after ruling for 10 years. Crown prince Lý Thiên Tộ then enthroned as Emperor Lý Anh Tông at 3 year old.

Wars fought between 1069–1203 by Đại Việt

Thần Tông's Empress Cảm Thánh became regency. Her lover Commandant Đỗ Anh Vũ (杜英武) would rise into power in the court. This was met with opposition from other mandarins and royal members, who staged to arrest Đỗ Anh Vũ. However, by the empress's intervention, he was not killed but instead banished as a peasant. The empress dowager used her influence to restore the position for Anh Vũ, he was subsequently pardoned and took revenge on the people who tried to arrest him. The emperor unwillingly had to approve it and Anh Vũ's enemies were impeached then executed. Đỗ Anh Vũ died in 1158. Tô Hiến Thành (蘇憲誠), a relative of Anh Vũ, later become the chancellor. Different from his brother in law, Tô Hiến Thành was loyal to the Lý court, his skills and talents were proven in organizing successful military campaigns against Champa and Lan Xang.

In 1174, Lý Anh Tông's crown prince Lý Long Xưởng was involved in debauchery with a concubine of the emperor, he was made retired from the titled and replaced by Lý Long Cán. In 1175, emperor Anh Tông died at aged 40, the young Lý Cao Tông was enthroned with Tô Hiến Thành again holding the regency.

Lý Cao Tông became the emperor at three. His mother, Concubine Đỗ became Chiêu Thiên Chí Lý Empress dowager. Her younger brother Đỗ An Di became Consort kin and Tô Hiến Thành was still a regent and teacher to teach the emperor. Empress Chiêu Linh, mother of the deposed Prince Lý Long Xưởng tried to take the throne back for his son but failed because of Tô Hiến Thành's determination.

In 1179, Chancellor Tô Hiến Thành died when emperor Cao Tông was only six and Đỗ An Di replaced him as regent. In 1188, Đỗ An Di died and Ngô Lý Tín replaced him until his death in 1190. Then, Đàm Dĩ Mông (譚以蒙), the younger brother of Empress An Toàn, became regent.

Emperor Lý Cao Tông pursued a corrupted policy in which rich people could buy themselves to become high rank officials, which led the nation into crisis. He enjoyed the luxury life and exploit his people to build him palaces, resulting in the hatred of people being cumulated and revolts happened.

Rebellions and civil war[edit]

The Quách Bốc rebellion was the main reason of weakening the dynasty. In 1207, the Governor Đoàn Thượng (段尚) of Hồng Châu (now Hải Dương and Hải Phòng provinces) began the revolt against the court. The emperor ordered generals Phạm Bỉnh Di (范秉異), Phạm Du (范兪), Đàm Dĩ Mông and the others to lead army to suppress the revolt. Nevertheless, Đoàn Thượng corrupted Phạm Du to retreat his infantry and persuade emperor to retreat all soldiers.

Phạm Du was then sent to train the military in Nghệ An but he started to recruit criminals for his own agenda. Emperor Cao Tông dispatched Phạm Bỉnh Di to capture Phạm Du, Du lost the battle and fled to Hồng province.

The expansion of Vietnamese territory under the Lý dynasty between 1009–1225

In 1209, Phạm Bỉnh Di had victory over the Đoàn Thượng rebels. The emperor then summoned Du back to Thăng Long but Du slandered Phạm Bỉnh Di to prove himself innocent. Cao Tông trusted Du's accusation and ordered to capture Phạm Bỉnh Di and his son (Phạm Phụ). Upon the capture of his lord, Quách Bốc (郭卜), a general of Bỉnh Di, decided to assault the royal palace to rescue his master. Emperor Cao Tông had Bỉnh Di and his son killed and they both fled to Phú Thọ. Quách Bốc captured the royal palace and installed Prince Lý Thầm to be the new emperor.

Prince Lý Hạo Sảm (李日旵) fled to Hải Ấp with his mother Empress An Toàn, where they met the leader of Trần clan, Trần Lý (陳李) and general Tô Trung Từ, both support Lý Hạo Sảm as the emperor. Lý Hạo Sảm was then married to the daughter of Trần Lý, Trần Thị Dung (陳氏庸). Emperor Lý Cao Tông put a fight against Sảm but failing to reclaim the throne. Finally, Trần Lý led the army against Quách Bốc and ended the rebellion. However the Đại Việt kingdom was already in partition by many warlords.

In 1210, Lý Cao Tông died. Lý Hạo Sảm was enthroned as Emperor Lý Huệ Tông. General Tô Trung Từ gained too much power that he was killed by other officials. His nephew Trần Tự Khánh, amassed an army and threatened the capital. Emperor Huệ Tông then turned to warlord Đoàn Thượng who rebelled earlier for help, but they were defeated by Tự Khánh. The emperor had to escape to Lạng Sơn.

In 1214, Tự Khánh installed the Emperor Lý Nguyên Hoàng as a puppet ruler. At the same time, Nguyễn Nộn, a warlord attacked the capital and burnt all the palaces, forcing Tự Khánh and Emperor Nguyên Hoàng to move to Hà Nam. The country is again divided by multiple warlords, the major ones being Nguyễn Nộn, Tự Khánh and Đoàn Thượng.

In late 1214, Trần Tự Khánh forces retook the capital and gradually managed to conquered the warlords. In 1217, Đoàn Thượng surrendered to the court, he was pardoned and granted title of Prince of Hồng. By the end of 1220, all the minor warlords excepts Nguyễn Nộn, were subdued. Nguyễn Nộn himself later died of illness in 1229.

Rise of Trần clan[edit]

In winter 1216, Trần Thị Dung was granted the title Empress. People of Trần clan were then promoted to several important positions in the court: Trần Tự Khánh became chancellor, his brother Trần Thừa was titled Marquis, Trần Thừa's son Trần Liễu was titled Prince of Phụng Cần.

In 1217, Emperor Lý Huệ Tông suffered a serious illness and became mentally ill. He occasionally called himself the Heaven General and would dance all day long holding his sword and shield. By this time, most of the court matters are managed by chancellor Trần Tự Khánh and not by the emperor anymore, the court power base gradually switched to the Trần clan. In 1223, the chancellor Trần Tự Khánh died, Trần Thừa replaced his position and was given even more privileges from the Emperor.

Abdication of Lý Chiêu Hoàng[edit]

Emperor Huệ Tông did not have a son as heir. Captain Trần Thủ Độ (Trần Thừa's cousin) then decided the emperor's second daughter Princess Chiêu Thánh will be crowned as Queen of Đại Việt. In 1224, Huệ Tông abdicated and gave the throne to the crowned princess. Lý Chiêu Hoàng, at 6 years old, became the first reigning queen of Vietnam.

Trần Thủ Độ took on his hand all the daily handling of the Lý court. He brought his nephew Trần Cảnh (the second son of Trần Thừa) to become the confidant of young Queen. Both of them then had blossom closed relationship. In aim to overthrow the rule of Lý dynasty, Trần Thủ Độ arranged their marriage in the next year. Trần Cảnh later became the Consort of Lý dynasty. In 1226, Trần Thủ Độ forced Lý Chiêu Hoàng to give the throne to Trần Cảnh, Trần Thừa became the Regent Retired Emperor. The rule of Lý was formally transferred to Trần. The former emperor Huệ Tông was forced to commit suicide at Chân Giáo Temple. The Lý aristocrats were then massacred in 1232 by Thủ Độ. The Lý dynasty ceased to exist and Trần dynasty was officially established.

After the Lý dynasty was toppled, some royal members of the clan escaped to Korea and became generals of Goryeo dynasty.

Civil service system[edit]

Terracotta dragon head, used as architectural decoration (11th–13th century)

At the central level, under the king were the Thái positions: Tam thái for the three literary mandarins (Thái sư, Thái bảo and Thái phó), and Thái úy for the martial mandarin. Under the Tháis were the Thiếu positions like Thiếu sư, Thiếu bảo, Thiếu phó, and Thiếu úy.

Administration division[edit]

In 1010, Lý Thái Tổ changed the 10 đạo subdivisions into 24 lộ. The lộ was possibly subdivided into châu (in mountainous areas) or phủ (in the lowlands). The châu and phủ were further subdivided into huyện and giáp, and under them hương and ấp.

Law[edit]

During the Lý dynasty, laws in Đại Việt were primarily based on royal proclamations, although a body of law composing of civil laws, criminal laws, litigation laws, and laws dealing with marriage existed. However, because the Lý rulers were devout Buddhists, the punishments during this era were not very severe.

Foreign relations[edit]

The Lý dynasty has maintained trade relationships with China, the Dali Kingdom, and other Southeast Asian kingdoms.[13]

Song dynasty[edit]

The tributary mission of Đại Việt (right) and delegation of Western Xia (left) to Song China

In foreign relations with the Song dynasty, Vietnam acted as a vassal state, although at its zenith it had sent troops into Chinese territory to fight the Song during the Lý–Song War.[1][2]

In 1016, Lý Công Uẩn was appointed as Jinghai Junjie Dushi (Military Commissioner of Jinghai) and was crowned Giao Chi Quan Vuong (King of Giao Chi) by the Song emperor.[2] For the first time in the Song dynasty's relations with Vietnam, the Song dynasty reciprocated Lý tributes in 1028 as recognition of the political power of the Lý.[2] The Song dynasty also deployed officers to attend the funeral of a deceased Vietnamese king for the first time during the Lý dynasty.[2]

Tensions between the Lý and Song increased during the reign of Lý Nhân Tông (1072–1128), whose military seized Qinzhou, Lianzhou, and Yongzhou along the Lý-Song border after his attack on Champa.[2] In 1075, Song prime minister Wang Anshi informed the Song emperor of the decline in the Lý's power following its defeat by the Champa, prompting the Lý-Song War during which the Song launched a failed invasion.[2] The conflict ended after Lý Nhân Tông sought reconciliation following Lý military successes.[2]

During the era of Lý Anh Tông (1138–1175), the Song dynasty changed its name for Vietnam from Jiaozhi (Giao Chi) to Annan (Annam).[2]

Jin dynasty[edit]

Doãn Tử Tư (尹子思) envoy of Đại Việt to Southern Song. The Emperor Xiaozong of Song granted the title of king of Annam (An Nam quốc vương (安南國王).) to emperor Lý Anh Tông in September 1164)

In 1168, Jin Emperor Shizong sent an envoy to Thăng Long to establish relationship. Both Jin and Song ambassadors visited Lý court in the same time, but emperpor Lý Anh Tông ordered do not let them face together to avoid tension.[14][citation needed]

Dali kingdom[edit]

In 1013, administration in mountain prefecture Vị Long (now in southeast Yunnan) was Hà Trắc Tuấn allied with Dali kingdom started rebelling against the Lý government. Dali forces and Tuấn with tribal supports invaded Đại Cồ Việt in spring 1014. According to An Nam chí lược by 14th-century historian Lê Tắc, Dali and rebel forces numbered about 30,000 troops.[15] They occupied Bình Nguyên province (southeast Yunnan and Hà Giang province), stationed there and waited for the Lý reinforcement were coming. Lý Thái Tổ sent an army and crushed the rebels. Dali general Yang Zhanghe was captured. Peace was restore in mountainous border next few years.[citation needed]

Champa[edit]

The Lý had trade relationships with Champa and fought them in 2 battles in 1044 and 1069 of Cham-Vietnamese wars.[2]

Religion[edit]

(Replica) Amitabha statue at Phật Tích temple, carved in 1057 during the Ly dynasty

The main religion in Đại Việt during the Lý dynasty was Mahayana Buddhism. The first Ly emperor was a Buddhist monk, and was patroned by Buddhist leaders. Ly emperors were fundraisers and sponsors of the Buddhist sangha. Buddhism became the state religion as members of the royal family and the nobility made pilgrimages, supported the building of pagodas, sometimes even entered monastic life, and otherwise took an active part in Buddhist practices. The kingdom was governed according to Buddhist ideas and laws.[16] Along with Buddhism, the emperors also participated in other religious ceremonies involving local spirits, gods of Indra and Brahma. Temples were built dedicating to the Trung sisters and the king-of-king Phung Hung.[16] Bonzes became a privileged landed class, exempt from taxes and military duty. A stone inscription dated 1209 from Bao An Temple retells the emperor donated 126 acres of land to the clergy, three to pagoda keepers and spiritual festivals.[17] Other inscriptions and runic stones also describe the important role of Buddhism in the monarchy and Vietnamese society. [17]

Fashion[edit]

Nobility[edit]

The Emperor wore a golden robe, purple trousers and wore his hair in a bun fastened with a golden brooch. The court officials and aristocrats wore a dark tunic having four flaps, closely buttoned collar, dark trousers, and wore a bun with an iron brooch. On their heads they wore a black gauze chuddar and peaked cap. They also wore leather sandals and carried fans of stork feathers. The military uniforms were “dau mau” cap covering the ears, knee-length tunic, neatly sewn sleeves tightly fitted around the wrist. The whole of the frock was covered with small pieces of armor plate full of spiral designs, or patterns of multiple large petalled flowers at the chest. In addition, there were patterns of parallel curved brims or spiral designs below which hung small bells, drooping fringes, and finally a line of bells. For some other kinds of frocks, the shoulder straps were adorned with bells, and the two shoulder bands and waistband decorated with tiger-face designs. The surface of the frock was decorated with prominent small multi-petalled flowers. The fabric had a tiled or scaled pattern, which might have been embroidered or woven into the fabric. A waistband made of cloth was tied with the ends dropping to the front. If a leather waistband was worn, it would be tightly fastened around the belly to reveal the body muscles. The boots reached up to the knee and were simply decorated.

Vietnamese terracotta head of Buddha

Female dancers had a “skyward” bun, a decorative fringe of hair on the forehead, with flowers adorning the hair. They wore bracelets, strings of beads, as well as multi-pleated short skirts. The musician's costumes were quite original. A cap fully covered the hair, with a high and zigzag-fringed top. The inner shirt was with long sleeves, tight at the wrist. Added to that, there was a short-sleeved shirt, with vân kiên shards. They wore wide embroidered and fringed strips of cloth around the waist. On their calves were leggings, and covering the feet were pointed-toe canvas shoes.

Tattooing remained a custom during this period, a common practice for the King and his soldiers as well. The Imperial Guards tattooed distinctive marks on their chest and legs, as well as dragon patterns. Similar to the Anterior Lê Dynasty, they would brand the three words Thiên tử quân on the forehead. The armor of military leaders was also decorated with attached bells, which signaled that they were highly grateful to their benefactors. This was done in a spirit of national pride and the continuing development of traditional customs. There is a special statue from this period which shows a very refined dress style. The Buddha Amitabha statue, sometimes known as Buddhalokanatha statue, in Phật Tích Pagoda is a breathtakingly beautiful stone sculpture with sophisticated costuming. The ritual robe has curved, straight, zigzag or drooping fringes which make it full of movement. The robe's pleats rise like the veins of a lotus leaf, closely fitted to the body, and drop either vertically as a spring stream, or pliantly like waves in the ocean, even expanding horizontally in a gentle way. Although the statue is made of stone, the above features show that the robe was broad and made of smooth and delicate fabrics. The inner garment, a kind of tunic has a broad collar with crossed edges. The sleeves are very wide. The waistband, worn outside the tunic is tied into the shape of a horizontal Figure 8, with dropping straps.

Common people[edit]

Costumes of the common people.[18]

Chronicle[edit]

Lý Chiêu HoàngLý Huệ TôngLý Cao TôngLý Anh TôngLý Thần TôngLý Nhân TôngLý Thánh TôngLý Thái TôngLý Thái Tổ
Thái Tổ
Thái Tông
Thánh Tông
Nhân TôngSùng Hiền hầu
Thần Tông
Anh Tông
Cao Tông
Huệ Tông
Chiêu Hoàng

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Anderson, James A. (2008). "'Treacherous Factions': Shifting Frontier Alliances in the Breakdown of Sino-Vietnamese Relations on the Eve of the 1075 Border War", in Battlefronts Real and Imagined: War, Border, and Identity in the Chinese Middle Period, 191–226. Edited by Don J. Wyatt. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-6084-9.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Dar, Ku Boon (2019). "The Tributary Relations between China's Song Dynasty and Vietnam's Dinh, Le and Ly Dynasties: Effects on Their Political Sustainability". Sejarah: Journal of the History Department, University of Malaya. 28 (1): 1–13.
  3. ^ Shen Kuo, Dream Pool Essays Ch. 25 text: "桓死,安南大亂,久無酋長。其後國人共立閩人李公蘊為主。" translation: "(Lê) Hoàn died. Annam became immensely chaotic; there was no chieftain for a long time. Later on, the country's folks together elected a Min man [named] Lý Công Uẩn as [their] ruler."
  4. ^ (in Chinese) 千年前泉州人李公蕴越南当皇帝 越南史上重要人物之一
  5. ^ (in Chinese) 两安海人曾是安南皇帝 有关专家考证李公蕴、陈日煚籍属晋江安海
  6. ^ Lynn Pan (1998). The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas. Harvard University Press. p. 228. ISBN 0674252101.
  7. ^ Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư "Basic Annals", vol. 2 text: "其母范氏"
  8. ^ Frank Ra Zen: from China to Cyberspace
  9. ^ Cuong Tu Nguyen (1997). Thiền Uyển Tập Anh. University of Hawaii Press. p. 371. ISBN 978-0-8248-1948-4.
  10. ^ Fan 1961, p. 48.
  11. ^ Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư "Basic Annals", vol. 2
  12. ^ The Ly dynasty Countrystudies.us
  13. ^ Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993, Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, volume 4, records IV-V, pp. 138
  14. ^ Ngô Thì Sĩ, Khâm định Việt sử thông giám cương mục, volume 5. p. 350.
  15. ^ Lê Tắc 1961, pp. 102
  16. ^ a b Miksic & Yian 2016, p. 430.
  17. ^ a b Miksic & Yian 2016, p. 431.
  18. ^ Fan 2011, p. 201.
  19. ^ Miksic & Yian 2016, p. 433.

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