L. K. Advani
|L. K. Advani|
|7th Deputy Prime Minister of India|
5 February 2002 – 22 May 2004
|Prime Minister||Atal Bihari Vajpayee|
|Preceded by||Chaudhary Devi Lal|
|Minister of Home Affairs|
19 March 1998 – 22 May 2004
|Prime Minister||Atal Bihari Vajpayee|
|Preceded by||Indrajit Gupta|
|Succeeded by||Shivraj Patil|
|Leader of Opposition (Lok Sabha)|
May 2004 – December 2009
|Preceded by||Sonia Gandhi|
|Succeeded by||Sushma Swaraj|
|Minister of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions|
29 January 2003 – 21 May 2004
|Prime Minister||Atal Bihari Vajpayee|
|Minister of Coal and Mines|
1 July 2002 – 25 August 2002
|Prime Minister||Atal Bihari Vajpayee|
|Leader of Opposition (Rajya Sabha)|
January 1980 – April 1980
|Member of Parliament
|Preceded by||Vijay Patel|
|Born||Lal Krishna Advani
لال ڪرشن آڏواڻي
लाल कृष्ण आडवाणी
8 November 1927
Karachi, Bombay Presidency, British India
(now in Sindh, Pakistan)
|Political party||Bharatiya Janata Party (1980–present)|
|Bharatiya Jana Sangh (Before 1977)
Janata Party (1977–80)
|Alma mater||University of Mumbai|
Lal Krishna Advani (born 8 November 1927) is an Indian politician and a senior leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Advani served as Minister of Home Affairs in the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance government from 1998 to 2004. Additionally, he served as Deputy Prime Minister of India from 2002 to 2004 under Atal Bihari Vajpayee. He was the Leader of the Opposition in the 10th Lok Sabha and 14th Lok Sabha. Advani began his political career as a volunteer of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a right-wing Hindu nationalist organisation. In 2015 he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India's second highest civilian honor.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Political career
- 3 Rath Yatras
- 4 Legacy
- 5 Writings
- 6 Positions
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Early life and education
L. K. Advani was born in Karachi in a Hindu family of businessmen to parents Kishanchand D. Advani and Gyani Devi. He completed his early schooling from Saint Patrick's High School, Karachi, and then enrolled in D G National College in Hyderabad, Sindh. His family migrated to India during Partition and settled down in Bombay, where he graduated in Law from the Government Law College of the Bombay University.
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Advani joined the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in 1942. He became a pracharak (full-time worker) of the Karachi branch and developed several shakhas there. After Partition, Advani was sent as a pracharak to Matsya-Alwar in Rajasthan, which had witnessed communal violence following Partition. He worked in Alwar, Bharatpur, Kota, Bundi and Jhalawar districts until 1952.
Bharatiya Jana Sangh
Advani became a member of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, also known simply as the Jana Sangh, a political party founded in 1951 by Syama Prasad Mookerjee in collaboration with the RSS. He was appointed as the secretary to S. S. Bhandari, then General Secretary of the Jana Sangh in Rajasthan. In 1957, he was moved to Delhi to look after the Parliamentary affairs. He soon became the General Secretary and, later, President of the Delhi unit of the Jana Sangh. After the 1967 elections, he became the leader of the city's Metropolitan Council. He also assisted K. R. Malkani in editing the RSS weekly Organiser, and became a member of the national executive in 1966.
He became member of the Rajya Sabha from Delhi for the six-year tenure from 1970. After serving various positions in the Jana Sangh, he became its President in 1973 at the Kanpur session of the party working committee. His first act as president of the BJS was to expel founder member and veteran leader Balraj Madhok from primary membership of the party for supposedly violating the party directives and acting against the interests of the party. He was a Rajya Sabha member from Gujarat from 1976 to 1982. After the Indira Gandhi's Emergency, the Jana Sangh and many other opposition parties merged into the Janata Party. Advani and colleague Atal Bihari Vajpayee fought the Lok Sabha Elections of 1977 as members of the Janata Party.
Janata Party to Bharatiya Janata Party
The Janata Party was formed by political leaders and activists of various political parties who had been united in opposing the state of Emergency imposed in 1975 by then-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. After elections were called in 1977, the Janata Party was formed from the union of the Congress (O), the Swatantra Party, the Socialist Party of India, the Jana Sangh and the Lok Dal. Jagjivan Ram split from the Indian National Congress, bringing a small faction known as the Congress for Democracy with him, and joined the Janata alliance. The widespread unpopularity of Emergency rule gave the Janata Party and its allies a landslide victory in the election. Morarji Desai became the Prime Minister of India, Advani became the Minister of Information and Broadcasting and Vajpayee became the Foreign Minister.
The erstwhile members of the Jana Sangh, quit the Janata Party and they formed the new Bharatiya Janata Party. Advani became a prominent leader of the newly founded BJP and represented the party in the Rajya Sabha (upper house of the Indian Parliament) from Madhya Pradesh for two terms beginning in 1982.
The rise of the BJP
||This article possibly contains original research. (December 2013)|
Atal Bihari Vajpayee was appointed the first president of the new party. Historian Ramachandra Guha writes that despite the factional wars within the Janata government, its period in power had seen a rise in support for the RSS, marked by a wave of communal violence in the early 1980s. Despite this, the BJP under Vajpayee initially took a more moderate approach to Hindutva, to gain a wider appeal. This strategy was unsuccessful, as the BJP won only two Lok Sabha seats in the elections of 1984. A few months prior to the election, Indira Gandhi was assassinated, creating a sympathy wave for the Congress that also contributed to the BJP's low tally, as the Congress won a record number of seats. This failure led to a shift in the party's stance; Advani was appointed party president, and the BJP returned to the hardline Hindutva of its predecessor.
Under Advani, the BJP became the political face of the Ram Janmabhoomi campaign. In the early 1980s, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) had begun a movement for the construction of a temple dedicated to the Hindu deity Rama at the site of the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya. The agitation was on the basis of the belief that the site was the birthplace of Rama, and that a temple once stood there that had been demolished by the Mughal emperor Babur when he constructed the Babri mosque. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has supported the claim that a Hindu structure once stood at the site, without commenting on a possible demolition. The BJP threw its support behind this campaign, and made it a part of their election manifesto, which provided rich dividends in the general elections of 1989. Despite the Congress winning a plurality in the election, it declined to form a government, and so the National Front government of VP Singh was sworn in. The support of the BJP, with its tally of 86 seats, was crucial to the new government.
Advani embarked on a "Rath Yatra," or chariot journey, to mobilise karsevaks, or volunteers, to converge upon the Babri Masjid to offer prayers. This Rath Yatra, undertaken in an air-conditioned van decorated to look like a chariot, began from Somnath in Gujarat and covered a large portion of Northern India until it was stopped by the Chief Minister of Bihar, Laloo Prasad Yadav, on the grounds that it was leading to communal violence. In the 1991 general elections, the BJP won the second largest number of seats, after the Congress.
In 1992, two years after Advani ended his yatra, despite assurances given by the Kalyan Singh led BJP Government to the Supreme Court, the Babri Masjid was demolished by the nationalists with alleged complicity of the Kalyan Singh government. Advani is one of the main accused in the Babri Masjid case.
BJP, under Advani, sat in the opposition from 1991 to 1996 during the reign of P V Narasimha Rao. The Rao regime was repeatedly accused by the BJP of corruption and various scandals.
Home Minister in the NDA government
After the 1996 general elections, the BJP became the single largest party and was consequently invited by the President to form the Government. Atal Bihari Vajpayee was sworn in as Prime Minister in May 1996. However, the Government did not last long and Vajpayee resigned after thirteen days.
Second term 1998–99
After two years in the political wilderness, the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA), came to power with Vajpayee returning as Prime Minister in March 1998, when elections were called after India saw two unstable Governments headed by H. D. Deve Gowda and I. K. Gujral respectively.
After the fall of two United Front government between 1996 and 1998 (H. D. Deve Gowda and I. K. Gujral), the Lok Sabha, (lower house) of India's Parliament was dissolved and new elections were held. Now, a coalition of political parties signed up with BJP to form the Nationwide Democratic Alliance (NDA), headed by A. B. Vajpayee. The NDA won a majority of seats in parliament. However, the govt survived only 13 several months until mid-1999 when All Indian Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) under J. Jayalalitha withdrew its assistance to govt. With the NDA no longer having a majority, India's Parliament was again dissolved and new elections were organised. Vajpayee remained the Prime Minister until elections were organised.
Advani assumed the office of Home Minister and was later elevated to the position of Deputy Prime Minister. As Union Minister, Advani had a tough time with India facing a string of internal disturbances in the form of rebel attacks allegedly supported by Pakistan. The NDA government lasted for its full term of five years till 2004, the only non-Congress government to do so.
Advani was charged in a scandal where he allegedly received payments through hawala brokers. He and others were later discharged by the Supreme Court of India, because there was no additional evidence that could be used to charge them. According to the judicial inquiry by Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) they could not find any substantive evidence; the Supreme Court ruling stated that no statement even mentioned Advani's name and that evidence against him was limited to the mention of his name on a few loose sheets of paper.
However, the failure of this prosecution by the CBI was widely criticised. While some believe the CBI probe catapulted his rise through the BJP on his newfound "moral authority", others have claimed the inquiry was a political stunt.
As elections approached in 2004, Advani was supremely confident and conducted an aggressive campaign where he claimed the Congress Party would not get even 100 seats. The BJP suffered a defeat in the general elections held in 2004, and was forced to sit in the opposition. Another coalition, the United Progressive Alliance led by the resurgent Congress came to power, with Manmohan Singh as Prime Minister. The NDA disintegrated with the Telugu Desam Party, which had supported the NDA government from the outside, deserting the alliance.
Vajpayee retired from active politics after the 2004 defeat, putting Advani to the forefront of the BJP. Advani became Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha from 2004 to 2009. During this period, Advani had to deal with rebellion from within the party. His two close associates, Uma Bharati, and Madan Lal Khurana, and longtime rival Murali Manohar Joshi publicly spoke out against him. In June 2005, he drew much criticism when he, while on a visit to the Jinnah Mausoleum at Karachi – his town of birth, endorsed Mohammad Ali Jinnah and described him a "secular" leader. This did not sit well with the RSS either and Advani was forced to relinquish his post as BJP president. However, he withdrew the resignation a few days later.
The relationship between Advani and the RSS reached a low point when the latter's chief K. S. Sudarshan opined that both Advani and Vajpayee give way to new leaders. At the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the BJP in Mumbai in December 2005, Advani stepped down as party president and Rajnath Singh, a relatively junior politician from the state of Uttar Pradesh was elected in his place. In March 2006, following a bomb blast at one of the holiest Hindu shrines at Varanasi, Advani undertook a "Bharat Suraksha Yatra" (Sojourn for National Security), to highlight the alleged failure of the ruling United Progressive Alliance in combating terrorism.
Prime Minister candidacy
In an interview with a news channel in December 2006, Advani stated that as the Leader of the Opposition in a parliamentary democracy, he considered himself the Prime Ministerial candidate for the general elections, ending on 16 May 2009. Some of his colleagues were not supportive of his candidacy.
A major factor in favour of Advani was that he had always been the most powerful leader in the BJP with the exception of Vajpayee, who endorsed Advani's candidacy. On 2 May 2007, BJP President Rajnath Singh stated that: "After Atal there is only Advani. Advani is the natural choice. It is he who should be PM". On 10 December 2007, the Parliamentary Board of BJP formally announced that L. K. Advani would be its prime ministerial candidate for the general elections due in 2009.
However, Indian National Congress and its allies won the 2009 general elections, allowing incumbent Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to continue in office. Following the defeat in the elections, L. K. Advani paved the way for Sushma Swaraj to become the Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha.
Advani unexpectedly resigned from all his posts in the BJP on 10 June 2013 following the appointment of Narendra Modi as the head of the electoral campaign of BJP for the 2014 elections on 9 June 2013. He rued that the BJP was no longer the "same idealistic party" created by Shyama Prasad Mookerjee, Deendayal Upadhyaya, Nanaji Deshmukh and Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The BJP senior committee rejected his resignation on 10 June 2013. Ultimately, Advani withdrew his resignation on 11 June 2013 after Rajnath Singh (BJP President) assured Advani that his concerns about the functioning of the Party would be properly addressed.
Marg Darshak Mandal
Popularly known in India as the Eternal yatri or Eternal Charioteer, L. K. Advani has so far, undertaken 6 yatras throughout India.
- Ram Rath Yatra: Advani started his first Rath Yatra from Somnath, Gujarat on 25 September 1990 to finally reach Ayodhya on 30 October 1990. The yatra has been linked to the Mandir-Masjid dispute centred around Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid site at Ayodhya. The BJP and Advani, however, focused the yatra on the secularism–communalism debate.The yatra was stopped in Bihar by Lalu Prasad Yadav.
- Janadesh Yatra: Four Yatras named Janadesh Yatra started on 11 September 1993 from four corners of country. Advani led this yatra from Mysore. Travelling through 14 States and two Union Territories, the yatris congregated at Bhopal on 25 September in a massive rally. The purpose of Janadesh Yatrawas to seek the people's mandate against the two Bills, the Constitution 80th Amendment Bill and the Representation of People (Amendment) Bill.
- Swarna Jayanti Rath Yatra: The Swarna Jayanti Rath Yatra by Mr. Advani travelled across India between May and July 1997. According to Mr.Advani, the yatra was conducted in celebration of 50 years of Indian Independence and also to project the BJP as a party committed to good governance.
- Bharat Uday Yatra: The Bharat Uday Yatra took place in the run-up to the 2004 Lok Sabha Elections.
- Bharat Suraksha Yatra: The BJP launched a nationwide mass political campaign in the form of the Bharat Suraksha Yatra from 6 April to 10 May 2006. It consisted of two yatras – one led by Advani, Leader of the Opposition (Lok Sabha), from Dwaraka in Gujarat to Delhi; and the other led by Rajnath Singh, then the President of the BJP, from Jagannath Puri in Orissa to Delhi. The yatra was focused on left wing terrorism, minority politics, corruption, protection of democracy and price rise.
- Jan Chetna Yatra: The Jan Chetna Yatra was launched on 11 October 2011 from Sitab Diara, Bihar. The BJP states the purpose of Jan Chetna Yatra is to mobilise public opinion against corruption of the UPA government and put BJP agenda of good governance and clean politics before the people of India.
Khuswant Singh described Advani as "really one of the most able, cool-headed, courteous and clean politicians left today", and added that he is "pretty certain that he will never be unfair to Muslims if he becomes minister". 
My Country My Life is an autobiographical book by L. K. Advani. The book was released on 19 March 2008 by Abdul Kalam, the eleventh President of India. The book has 1,040 pages and narrates autobiographical accounts and events in the life of Advani. The book became a best seller in the non-fiction category. The book website claims that more than 1,000,000 copies have been sold. The book includes mentions of events in Indian politics and India's history from 1900 till 2007.
- As I See It: LK Advani's Blog Posts (2011). ISBN 978-8129118769.
- My Country My Life (2008). ISBN 978-81-291-1363-4.
- New Approaches to Security and Development (2003). (Paperback) ISBN 978-981-230-219-9.
- A Prisoner's Scrap-Book (2002). (Hardcover) ISBN 978-81-88322-10-7.
- 1967–70: Chairman, Metropolitan Council, Delhi
- 1970–72: President, Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Delhi
- 1970–89: Member, Rajya Sabha (four terms)
- 1973–77: President, Jana Sangh
- 1977: General-Secretary, Janata Party
- 1977–79: Union Cabinet Minister, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting
- 1977–79: Leader of the House, Rajya Sabha
- 1980–86: General Secretary, Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
- 1980-86: Leader, BJP, Rajya Sabha
- 1986–91: President, BJP
- 1989: Elected to 9th Lok Sabha(1st term) New Delhi
- 1989–91: Leader of Opposition, Lok Sabha
- 1991–93: Leader of Opposition, Lok Sabha
- 1991: Elected to 10th Lok Sabha (2nd term)
- 1993–98: President, Bharatiya Janata Party
- 1998: Elected to 12th Lok Sabha (3rd term)
- 1998–99: Union Cabinet Minister, Home Affairs
- 1999: Elected to 13th Lok Sabha (4th term)
- 1999–2004: Union Cabinet Minister, Home Affairs
- 2002–2004: Deputy Prime Minister of India
- 2002: Union Cabinet Minister, Coal and Mines
- 2004: Elected to 14th Lok Sabha (5th term)
- 2009: Elected to 15th Lok Sabha (6th term)
- 2014: Elected to 16th Lok Sabha (7th term)
- "Members Bioprofile". Lok Sabha of India/National Informatics Centre, New Delhi. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- "Padma awards 2015 announced: Advani, Amitabh among 104 awardees", Zee News, 26 January 2015.
- Friday Times : Analysis: Trading with India
- "Detailed Profile: Shri Lal Krishna Advani". India.gov.in. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- Malik, Yogendra K.; Singh, V.B. (1994). Hindu Nationalists in India: The Rise of the Bharatiya Janata Party. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. pp. 40–43. ISBN 0-8133-8810-4.
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (1996). The Hindu Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 237. ISBN 978-1850653011.
- "List of Rajya Sabha members Since 1952".
- Guha, Ramachandra (2007). India After Gandhi. MacMillan. pp. 563–564.
- Malik, Yogendra K.; V. B. Singh (April 1992). "Bharatiya Janata Party: An Alternative to the Congress (I)?". Asian Survey 32 (4): 318–336. doi:10.2307/2645149. JSTOR 2645149.
- Guha, Ramachandra (2007). India After Gandhi. MacMillan.
- "In the times of Yakub Memon, remembering the Babri Masjid demolition cases".
- "Evidence of temple found: ASI". 25 August 2003.
- "Layers of truth". The Week. Archived from the original on 23 March 2005.
- Guha, Ramachandra (2007). India After Gandhi. MacMillan. pp. 582–598.
- "Muslims can never forgive Kalyan over Babri issue". Express India. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- "Babri demolition & failure of Muslim leadership". Zee News India. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- "SC notice to Advani, Thackeray in Babri demolition case". The Times of India. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- "SC clears Advani, Shukla in hawala case", The Indian Express, 3 March 1998.
- Advani has hit bull's eye each time Times of India – 30 March 2004
- "Advani's influence in the BJP sprang from his moral authority", The Telegraph, Calcutta, 30 December 2005.
- "Which Jain? What Hawala?", The Indian Express, 15 September 1998.
- "Ex-official says hawala probe was manipulated". Times of India. 27 November 2006. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "Atal, Advani should step aside, let young rise: RSS chief". The Indian Express. 11 April 2005.
- "I'll be candidate for PM: Advani". Times of India. 11 December 2006.
- "Advani opens his heart, and a can of worms". Economic Times (India). 11 December 2006.
- Mohua Chatterjee, TNN (2 May 2007). "LK 'natural' choice for PM: Rajnath". Times of India.
- "New India opposition leader named". BBC News. 18 December 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "Advani quits as Leader of Opposition". Retrieved 18 December 2009.
- "No Advani, Joshi, Vajpayee in BJP Parliamentary Board, party makes Marg Darshak Mandal for them", IBN Live, 26 August 2014.
- "The Eternal Charioteer | Prarthna Gahilote". Outlookindia.com. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- "LK Advani – Portal – Ram Rath Yatra". Lkadvani.in. 25 September 1990. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- "LK Advani – Portal – Janadesh Yatra". Lkadvani.in. 11 September 1993. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- "Janadesh Yatra : Shri L K Advani". Bjp.org. 11 September 1993. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- "Swarna Jayanti Rath Yatra : Shri L K Advani". Bjp.org. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- Press Trust India (10 March 2004). "Advani kickstarts Bharat Uday Yatra". Express India. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- "Advani to begin from Gujarat; Rajnath from Orissa – Rediff.com India News". In.rediff.com. 17 March 2006. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- "Bharat Suraksha Yatra : Shri L K Advani". Bjp.org. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- "About Jan Chetna Yatra |". Janchetnayatra.com. 20 November 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- Khuswant Singh, quoted in Y. K. Malik and V. B. Singh, Hindu Nationalists in India, p. 42.
- "As I See it: LK Advani's Blog Posts", Amazon.
- Atmaram Kulkarni. The Advent of Advani: An Authentic Critical Biography (1995). (Hardcover) ISBN 978-81-85345-22-2.
- Sudheendra Kulkarni. Swarna Jayanti Rath Yatra: The story of Lal Krishna Advani's patriotic pilgrimage (1997). ASIN: B0000CPBO7.
- Pentagon Press. Lal Krishna Advani: Today's Patel (2002). (Paperback) ISBN 978-81-86830-57-4.
- Gulab Vazirani: Lal Advani, the Man and his Mission (1991)
- G. Katyal, K. Bhushan. Lal Krishna Advani: Deputy Prime Minister. (Hardcover) ASIN: B001G6MAZA
- Pentagon Press. Lala Krishna Advani (2007). (Paperback) ISBN 978-81-86830-59-8.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lal Krishna Advani.|
- Official site
- Profile on website of BJP
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- Profile at BBC News
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|Minister of Home Affairs
Chaudhary Devi Lal
|Deputy Prime Minister of India