LANICA

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LANICA
Lanica logo.jpg
IATA ICAO Callsign
NI [1] LANICA [2]
Founded June 1945 (1945-06)
Commenced operations 1946
Ceased operations 1981
Hubs Augusto C. Sandino International Airport
Company slogan International Airline of Nicaragua
Headquarters Managua, Nicaragua

Líneas Aéreas de Nicaragua, operating as LANICA, was an airline from Nicaragua. Headquartered in the capital Managua, it operated scheduled passenger flights within South and Central America, as well as to the United States.

History[edit]

LANICA Douglas DC-6B at Miami International Airport in October 1970
BAC 1-11 of LANICA at Miami in October 1970
Convair 880 of LANICA operating a scheduled passenger service to Miami in December 1973

The carrier was founded in June 1945 (1945-06) as a subsidiary of Pan American Airways, with this airline initially holding 40% of the company. Domestic services began in 1946 with Boeing 247 equipment.[3] The company bought the assets of a local airline called Flota Aérea Nicaragüense (FANSA) in 1950, acquiring the control of the lucrative routes to the mining towns of Bonanza and Siuna in the north.[citation needed]

By March 1953 (1953-03), the carrier's route network was 1,000 miles (1,600 km) long.[4] At March 1955 (1955-03), the fleet comprised seven DC-3s and one Navion that operated local routes;[5] that year, the airline carried 21,852 passengers.[6]

LANICA's fleet in April 1965 (1965-04) was composed of one DC-3, one DC-4, one DC-6, and four C-46s, with the DC-6 flying to Miami and San Salvador.[7]

In early 1966, the carrier ordered a BAC One-Eleven 400.[8] Pending delivery of this new aircraft, another BAC One-Eleven, leased from Aer Lingus, was deployed on the Managua–Salvador–Miami sector in November 1966 (1966-11).[9] Starting 19 October 1967 (1967-10-19),[10] LANICA's own BAC One-Eleven was operated on a joint-ownership basis with TAN Airlines.[11] The last BAC 1-11 was disposed of in October 1972.[12]

Starting in May 1972, LANICA operated four examples of the larger four-engined Convair 880 jet airliner on their scheduled passenger services to Miami. The last was disposed of in 1977.[13]

Pan Am's participation in the airline had decreased to 10% by 1975; private investors held 85% of the company until July 1972 (1972-07), when Howard Hughes took control of 25% of it, through Hughes Tool Company, in exchange for the lease of two Convair 880s. By March 1975 (1975-03), LANICA's fleet consisted of two Convair 880s, three C-46s and four DC-6s that served a route network including domestic services, as well as international passenger and cargo services to Mexico City, Miami and San Salvador.[14] Two more Convair 880s were acquired in 1977.[15]

The government of Somoza was overthrown following the rise to power of the Sandinistas in 1979.[16][17] The shares held by the Somoza family —the major stockholders at the time— were seized by the Junta of National Reconstruction,[17] but the airline's debts were not absorbed by the new government.[18] LANICA was declared bankrupt by a Nicaraguan court in March 1981 (1981-03),[18][19] ceasing all operations on 31 August 1981.[20] At May that year, the airline had a fleet of two Boeing 727-100s, three C-46s and one DC-6, and employed a 450-strong staff.[21] LANICA was succeeded by Aeronica as Nicaragua's flag carrier.[22]

Destinations[edit]

LANICA offered scheduled international passenger flights to the following destinations:[23]

Argentina
Chile
Costa Rica
Honduras
Ecuador
Guatemala
México
Panamá
Perú
United States
Uruguay

Fleet[edit]

Over the years of its existence, LANICA operated the following aircraft types:[24]

Aircraft Introduced Retired
Convair 880
Boeing 727
BAC One-Eleven
Vickers Viscount 742-D
Curtiss-Wright C-46 Commando
Douglas DC-3

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Date Location Aircraft Tail number Aircraft damage Fatalities Description Refs
27 August 1948 Unknown Douglas C-47-DL AN-ACZ W/O Unknown Unknown [25]
23 January 1957 NicaraguaOmetepe Island Douglas R4D-5 AN-AEC W/O 16/16 Control of the aircraft was lost while flying the last leg of a domestic scheduled Managua–BluefieldsSan Carlos–Managua passenger service. Crashed into Concepción volcano after banking sharply to the left. A fire erupted following the crash, destroying the airframe completely. [26]
February 1960 Unknown Douglas C-47A AN-ADQ W/O Unknown Unknown [27]
5 April 1960 NicaraguaSiuna C-46A AN-AIN W/O 2/18 Crashed on a hillside while operating a domestic Siuna–Bonanza scheduled passenger service. [28]
4 November 1969 Unknown BAC One-Eleven unknown none none Two hijackers commandeered the aircraft during a flight from Managua, Nicaragua, to San Salvador, El Salvador, demanding to be flown to Cuba. Instead, the airliner diverted to Grand Cayman Island in the Cayman Islands. [29]
25 February 1976 NicaraguaManagua C-46D AN-AOC W/O 0 Landing gear collapse during touchdown at Managua Airport. [30][31]
17 March 1976 NicaraguaPuerto Cabezas C-46A AN-BGA W/O 0 Unknown [32]
16 May 1980 NicaraguaBonanza C-46A YN-BVL W/O 0 Crashed at Bonanza-San Pedro Airport after striking a ditch on landing. [33]
13 November 1980 PanamaPanama City Douglas DC-6BF YN-BVI W/O 0 Nosegear collapse. [34]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Eastwood, Tony, and Roach, John. Jet Airliner Production List. 2004. The Aviation Hobby Shop. ISBN none.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Information about LANICA at the Aero Transport Data Bank
  2. ^ Historical ICAO Callsigns
  3. ^ "Airlines of the World – Lineas Aereas de Nicaragua SA—LANICA". Flight. 77 (2665): 503. 8 April 1960. Archived from the original on 1 September 2013. 
  4. ^ "The World's airlines – La Nica (Lineas Aereas de Nicaragua, S.A.)". Flight. LXIII (2302): 312. 6 March 1953. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. 
  5. ^ "World airline directory – La Nica (Lineas Aereas de Nicaragua, S.A.)". Flight. 67 (2407): 306. 11 March 1955. Archived from the original on 11 August 2013. 
  6. ^ "World airline directory – Lineas Aereas de Nicaragua, S.A.—LANICA". Flight. 69 (2465): 473. 20 April 1956. Archived from the original on 24 September 2013. 
  7. ^ "World airline surevy – Lineas Aereas de Nicaragua SA (Lanica)". Flight International. 87 (2927): 589. 15 April 1965. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. 
  8. ^ "Air transport... – One-Eleven for Nicaragua". Flight International. 89 (2979): 562. 14 April 1966. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. 
  9. ^ "World airline survey – Lineas Aereas de Nicaragua SA (Lanica)". Flight International. 91 (3031): 577. 13 April 1967. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. 
  10. ^ "World airline survey – Lanica (Lineas Aereas de Nicaragua SA)". Flight International. 95 (3135): 578. 10 April 1969. Archived from the original on 24 September 2013. 
  11. ^ "Air transport". Flight International. 95 (3132): 431. 20 March 1969. Archived from the original on 24 September 2013. Taxying in at San Salvador's Ilopango Airport is the BAC One-Eleven 400 which was originally bought by Lanica of Nicaragua and which now operates services with TAN Airlines of Honduras on a joint-ownership basis. 
  12. ^ Eastwood and Roach 2004. p. 170
  13. ^ Eastwood and Roach. 2004. pp. 219-222
  14. ^ "World airline survey – Lanica (Lineas Aereas de Nicaragua SA)". Flight International. 108 (3445): 492. 20 March 1975. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. 
  15. ^ "Airliner market". Flight International. 109 (3495): 516. 16 April 1977. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. Lanica of Nicaragua has acquired two more Convair CV-880s. 
  16. ^ "Sandinistas remember their revolt". BBC News. 19 July 2004. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. 
  17. ^ a b Golden, Arthur (1 November 1979). "Flights to Nicaragua resumes as Lanica starts ′from zero′". The Miami News. 
  18. ^ a b "Lanica Airlines files bankruptcy". Boca Raton News. AP. 19 April 1981. 
  19. ^ "Nicaraguan Airline Fails". The New York Times. 18 March 1981. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. 
  20. ^ Historia de LANICA[unreliable source?]
  21. ^ "World airline directory – Lineas Aereas de Nicaragua SA (Lanica)". Flight International. 119 (3758): 1446. 16 May 1981. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 30 July 2013. 
  22. ^ "Air transport". Flight International. 120 (3788): 1738. 12 December 1981. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Aeronica is the new Nicaraguan state carrier, having been formed when Lanica was declared bankrupt. 
  23. ^ Aeronica timetables at timetableimages.com
  24. ^ LANICA at AeroTransport database
  25. ^ Accident description for AN-ACZ at the Aviation Safety Network
  26. ^ Accident description for AN-AEC at the Aviation Safety Network
  27. ^ Accident description for AN-ADQ at the Aviation Safety Network
  28. ^ Accident description for AN-AIN at the Aviation Safety Network
  29. ^ Accident description for BAC One-Eleven at the Aviation Safety Network
  30. ^ Accident description for AN-AOC at the Aviation Safety Network
  31. ^ "World news – Public-transport accidents". Flight International. 111 (3553): 516. 6 March 1976. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. A Lineas Aereas de Nicaragua Curtiss CW-20,AN-AOC, was damaged on landing at Managua on February 25 when the starboard undercarriage collapsed. The aircraft was badly damaged but there were no passenger injures. 
  32. ^ Accident description for AN-BGA at the Aviation Safety Network
  33. ^ Accident description for YN-BVL at the Aviation Safety Network
  34. ^ Accident description for YN-BVI at the Aviation Safety Network