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LBOZ is a coefficient used in spectrophotometry to estimate selectivity (amount of overlapping of spectra) in a quantitative manner. It is named after its creators: Lorber, Bergmann, von Oepen, and Zinn.


Sample synthetic spectra of four components

Let be a matrix of the spectra (absorbances), where the k rows correspond to the components in mixture and n columns correspond to the sequence of wavelengths. The LBOZ criterion for kth component is calculated from the following formula:

where means a pseudoinverse of the matrix and means an euclidean length of a vector.


The image above show synthetic gaussian spectra. The LBOZ criteria are: 0.561 for black compound, 0.402 for red compound, 0.899 for green and 0.549 for blue. LBOZ always lie in range <0,1> and has strong mathematical sense - it presents the amount of spectral signal which is not overlapped by the others. Hence, the uncertainty of a compound quantity increases by in presence of the other compounds. In this case, the highest uncertainty is expected during determination of red compound - theoretically 2.38 times greater than during determination of its compound alone.


  • A. Lorber, Anal. Chem. 58 (1986) 1167.
  • A. Lorber, A. Harel, Z. Goldbart, I.B. Brenner, Anal. Chem. 59 (1987) 1260.
  • G. Bergmann, B. von Oepen, P. Zinn, Anal. Chem. 59 (1987) 2522.