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Same-sex adoption

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Same-sex adoption is the adoption of children by same-sex couples. It may take the form of a joint adoption by the couple, or of the adoption by one partner of the other's biological child (stepchild adoption).

Joint adoption by same-sex couples is permitted in 39 countries. Most countries and territories that allow same-sex marriage (exceptions being Aruba, Curaçao and Ecuador), as well as several countries and dependent territories that do not (Bolivia, Croatia, Israel and two UK territories of Bermuda and the Cayman Islands) allow for same-sex joint adoption. In some of the countries with marriage, legislation for adoption preceded that for marriage.

Adoption is only permitted for same sex married couples in 21 of the 31 Mexican states and Mexico City, despite a Supreme Court ruling that requires states to allow it. Stepchild adoption is permitted for same-sex couples in two countries without same-sex marriage - San Marino and Czechia permits step-child adoption in which the registered partner can adopt the biological and, in some cases, the adopted child of his or her partner.

Given that constitutions and statutes usually do not address the adoption rights of LGBT persons, judicial decisions often determine whether they can serve as parents either individually or as couples. Opponents of adoption by same-sex couples have argued that LGBT parenting adversely affects children. However, research consistently shows that gay and lesbian parents are as fit and capable as heterosexual parents, and their children are as psychologically healthy and well-adjusted as those reared by heterosexual parents.[1][2][3]

Same-sex parents pursuing adoption must also contend with social pressures to conform to heteronormative gender roles.[4] The concept of gender role models is necessitated by the bureaucratic organization of foster care and adoption agencies, particularly in the United States.[5]

LGBT parenting[edit]

Lesbian couple with children

The existing body of research on outcomes for children with LGBT parents includes limited studies that consider the specific case of adoption. Moreover, where studies do mention adoption they often fail to distinguish between outcomes for unrelated children versus those in their original family or step-families, causing research on the more general case of LGBT parenting to be used to counter the claims of LGBT-adoption opponents.[6] One study has addressed the question directly, evaluating the outcomes of adoptees less than 3-years old who had been placed in one of 56 lesbian and gay households since infancy. Despite the small sample, and the fact that the children have yet to become aware of their adoption status or the dynamics of gender development, the study found no significant associations between parental sexual orientation and child adjustment.[4]

Scientific research indicates that the children of same-sex couples fare just as well as the children of opposite-sex couples.[7]

In 1979, Reverend John Kuiper of the Metropolitan Community Church and his husband became the first gay men in America to win the right to adopt a child.[5][8]

Debate[edit]

Arguments[edit]

The adoption of children by LGBT people is an issue of active debate. In the United States, for example, legislation to prevent adoption by LGBT people has been introduced in many jurisdictions; such efforts have largely been defeated. Prior to 1973, state courts commonly barred gay and lesbian individuals from holding a parenting role, especially through adoption.[9]

Major professional organizations have made statements in defense of adoption by same-sex couples. The American Psychological Association has supported adoption by same-sex couples, citing social prejudice as harming the psychological health of lesbians and gays while noting there is no evidence that their parenting causes harm.[10][11][12][13] The American Medical Association has issued a similar position supporting second parent adoption by same-sex partner, stating that lack of formal recognition can cause health-care disparities for children of same-sex parents.[14]

The following arguments are made in support of adoption by LGBT parents:

  • The right of a child to have a family, guardians or people who can take care of their wellbeing.[15]
  • Human rights – child's and parent's right to have a family life.[16]
  • There are almost no differences between children raised by same-sex or straight couples.[17][18][19] For that reason, sexual orientation of the parents has almost no relevance when it comes to raising a child.[20]
  • Evidence confirming that, despite the claims of those opposed to LGBT+ parenting,[21] same-sex couples can provide good conditions to raise a child.[22][23]
  • For children, adoption is a better alternative to orphanage.[24][25][26]
  • Fewer formalities for step-parents in everyday life, as well as the situation of a death of a biological parent of a child.[27][28]

Public opinion[edit]

  Indicates the country/territory has legalized same-sex adoption nationwide
  Indicates that same-sex adoption is legal in certain parts of the country
  Indicates that the country has step-child adoption or partner-guardianship
Opinion polls for same-sex adoption in Europe
Country Pollster Year For Against Don't Know/Neutral/No answer/Other
 Austria Eurobarometer 2023 65%[29] 30% 5%
 Belgium Ipsos 2021 72%[30] 21% 7%
 Bulgaria Eurobarometer 2006 12%[31] 68%[31] 20%[31]
 Cyprus Eurobarometer 2006 10%[31] 86%[31] 4%[31]
Czech Republic Czech Republic CVVM 2019 47%[32] 47% 6%
 Denmark Pew Research Center 2017 75%[33] - -
 Estonia HumanrightsEE 2023 47%[34] 44%[34] 9%[34]
 Finland Taloustutkimus 2013 51%[35] 42%[35] 7%[35]
 France Ipsos 2021 62%[30] 29% 10%
 Germany Ipsos 2021 69%[30] 24% 6%
 Greece KAPA Research 2023 53%[36] 41%[36] 6%[36]
 Hungary Ipsos 2021 59% [30] 36% 5%
 Ireland Red C Poll 2011 60%[37] - -
 Italy Eurispes 2023 50.4% [38] 49.6% 0%
 Latvia SKDS 2023 27%[39] 23%[39] 46%[39]
 Lithuania Eurobarometer 2006 12%[31] 82%[31] 6%[31]
 Luxembourg Politmonitor 2013 55%[40] 44%[40] 1%[40]
 Malta Misco 2014 20%[41] 80%[41] -
 Netherlands Ipsos 2021 83%[30] 12% 5%
 Norway YouGov 2012 54%[42] 34%[42] 12%[42]
 Poland Ipsos 2021 33%[30] 58% 10%
 Portugal Pew Research Center 2017 59%[43] 28%[43] 13%[43]
 Romania Eurobarometer 2006 8%[31] 82%[31] 10%[31]
 Russia Ipsos 2021 23%[30] 67% 10%
 Serbia Civil Rights Defenders 2020 22.5%[44] - -
 Slovakia Eurobarometer 2006 12%[31] 84%[31] 4%[31]
 Slovenia Delo Stik 2015 38%[45] 55%[45] 7%[45]
 Spain Ipsos 2021 77%[30] 17% 6%
 Sweden Ipsos 2021 79%[30] 17% 4%
  Switzerland Pink Cross 2020 67%[46] 30%[46] 3%[46]
 Ukraine Gay Alliance of Ukraine 2013 7%[47] 68%[47] 12%
13% would allow some exceptions[47]
 United Kingdom Ipsos 2021 72%[30] 19% 9%
  Indicates the country/territory has legalized same-sex adoption nationwide
  Indicates that same-sex adoption is legal in certain parts of the country
  Indicates that the country has step-child adoption or partner-guardianship
Opinion polls for same-sex adoption in Americas
Country Pollster Year For Against Don't Know/Neutral/No answer/Other
 Argentina Ipsos 2023 71%[48] 24% 6%
 Brazil Ipsos 2023 69%[48] 22% 9%
 Canada Ipsos 2023 74%[48] 17% 9%
 Chile CADEM 2022 70%[49] 28% 2%
 Colombia Ipsos 2023 53%[48] 40% 7%
 Mexico Ipsos 2023 60%[48] 34% 6%
 Peru Ipsos 2023 51%[48] 42% 7%
 United States Ipsos 2023 64%[48] 26% 10%
 Uruguay Equipos Consultores 2013 52%[50] 39% 9%
 Venezuela Equilibrium Cende 2023 48%[51]
(55%)
39%
(45%)
13%
  Indicates the country/territory has legalized same-sex adoption nationwide
  Indicates that same-sex adoption is legal in certain parts of the country
  Indicates that the country has step-child adoption or partner-guardianship
Opinion polls for same-sex adoption in Oceania
Country Pollster Year For Against Don't Know/Neutral/No answer/Other
 Australia Ipsos 2021 71%[52] 21% 8%
 New Zealand Research New Zealand 2012 64%[53] 31% 5%
  Indicates the country/territory has legalized same-sex adoption nationwide
  Indicates that same-sex adoption is legal in certain parts of the country
  Indicates that the country has step-child adoption or partner-guardianship
Opinion polls for same-sex adoption in Asia
Country Pollster Year For Against Don't Know/Neutral/No answer/Other
 China Ipsos 2021 66%[54] 30% 4%
 India Ipsos 2021 66%[54] 21% 13%
 Israel Midgam Institute 2017 60%[55] - -
 Japan Ipsos 2021 68%[54] 20% 13%
 Malaysia Ipsos 2021 24%[54] 65% 11%
 Russia Ipsos 2021 23%[54] 67% 10%
 South Korea Ipsos 2021 46%[54] 45% 9%
 Turkey Ipsos 2021 39%[54] 44% 18%
  Indicates the country/territory has legalized same-sex adoption nationwide
  Indicates that same-sex adoption is legal in certain parts of the country
  Indicates that the country has step-child adoption or partner-guardianship
Opinion polls for same-sex adoption in Africa
Country Pollster Year For[a] Against[a] Neither[b] Margin
of error
Source
Kenya Kenya Pew Research Center 2023 9% 90% 1% ±3.6% [56]
Nigeria Nigeria Pew Research Center 2023 2% 97% 1% ±3.6% [57]
South Africa South Africa Ipsos 2023 57%
(66%)
29% [10% support some rights]
(34%)
14% ±3.5% [c] [56]
Pew Research Center 2023 38% 58% 4% ±3.6% [57]

Legal status[edit]

Legal status of adoption by same-sex couples around the world:
  Joint adoption by same-sex couples allowed
  Only second-parent adoption allowed
  Adoption not available to married same-sex couples
  Neither same-sex adoption nor same-sex marriage allowed

Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in the following 39 countries, Mexico in some states:

Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in the following subnational jurisdictions or dependent territories:

The following countries permit step-child adoption in which the partner in a relationship can adopt the natural and/or the adopted child of his or her partner:

Step-child adoption is legal in the following subnational jurisdictions or dependent territories:

In Italy step-child adoption can only be recognized by court order since 2016.[132]

Africa[edit]

South Africa[edit]

South Africa is the only African country to allow joint adoption by same-sex couples. The 2002 decision of the Constitutional Court in the case of Du Toit v Minister of Welfare and Population Development amended the Child Care Act, 1983 to allow both joint adoption and step-parent adoption by "permanent same-sex life partners".[133] The Child Care Act has since been replaced by the Children's Act, 2005, which allows joint adoption by "partners in a permanent domestic life-partnership", whether same- or opposite-sex, and step-parent adoption by a person who is the "permanent domestic life-partner" of the child's current parent.[134] Same-sex marriage has been legal since 2006, and is equivalent to opposite-sex marriage for all purposes, including adoption.[135]

Americas[edit]

Legal status in the states of Mexico.
  Joint adoption by same-sex couples allowed
  No laws allowing adoption by married same-sex couples
Legal status of adoption by Same sex couples in South America
  Couple adoption legal
  Couple adoption illegal
  Same-sex sexual activity illegal
  Unknown/ambiguous

Argentina[edit]

Argentina allows adoption by same and different-sex marriages, and even by single people, since 2010. The law makes no difference in the requirements for adoption for any of these.[136]

Canada[edit]

Canada has no nation-wide law legalizing same-sex adoption, but rather has smaller provincial laws that cover the entire nation. Same-sex adoption legalization in Canada began with British Columbia in 1996 and was finalized with Nunavut in 2011.[137][138] By 2013, an Ipsos Global poll showed 70% of Canadians approved of same-sex adoption to some degree with 45% strongly approving.[139]

Chile[edit]

Since March 10, 2022 joint parenthood of same-sex couples is legal in Chile after the entry into force of Law 21,400 on Equal Marriage, which explicitly guarantees non-discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity for custody purposes, filiation and adoption whether or not the couples are married or whether or not they had their children through assisted human fertilization. The law amends the Civil Code to recognize the parents of children as their mother and/or father, their two mothers, or their two fathers.[140]

A 2021 survey, shows that 65% of Chileans support same-sex adoption.[141]

Colombia[edit]

On 4 November 2015, in a 6-2 Constitutional Court ruling, Colombia decided to allow adoption by LGBT peoples.[142] The ruling came before same-sex marriage became legal in the country on 28 April 2016.[143]

Cuba[edit]

Cuba allows adoption by same-sex marriages (since September 2022 referendum) and different-sex marriages, and even by single people.

Honduras[edit]

As of May 2019, the Honduras Supreme Court is expected to rule on a decision regarding both same-sex marriage and adoption.[144]

Mexico[edit]

Same-sex couples are able to adopt in Mexico City (since 2010), Coahuila (2014), Campeche (2016), Colima (2016), Michoacán (2016), Morelos (2016), Veracruz (2016), Baja California (2017), Chihuahua (2017), Querétaro (2017), Puebla (2018), Chiapas (2018), Nayarit (2019), Aguascalientes (2019), Hidalgo (2019), San Luis Potosí (2019), Quintana Roo (2022) and Durango (2022).

In Mexico City, the Legislative Assembly of the Federal District passed legislation on 21 December 2009 enabling same-sex couples to adopt children.[145] Eight days later, Head of Government ("Mayor") Marcelo Ebrard signed the bill into law, which officially took effect on 4 March 2010.[119][146]

On 24 November 2011, the Coahuila Supreme Court struck down the state's law barring same-sex couples from adopting, urging the state's legislature to amend the adoption law as soon as possible.[147] On 12 February 2014, the state's congress overwhelmingly approved the measure more than two years following the supreme court decision.[117]

On 3 February 2017 the SCJN emitted tesis 08/2017 in which it is stated that the family of the LGBT community doesn't end with a couple, but that it also extends onto the right to have and raise children. Therefore, LGBT couples wishing to form a family and adopt children will be legally protected and can't be limited by any governmental entity.[148]

In October 2021, a bill was introduced to the legislature of Baja California Sur.[149]

In September 2022, a bill was passed in Quintana Roo.[123]

United States[edit]

Adoption by LGBT individuals or same-sex couples is legal in all fifty states as of June 2017.

Uruguay[edit]

A government-sponsored adoption law in Uruguay allowing LGBT adoption was approved by the lower house on 28 August 2009, and by the Senate on 9 September 2009. In October 2009, the law was signed by President and took effect.[104] According to Equipos Mori Poll's, 53% of Uruguayans are opposed to same sex adoption against 39% that support it. Interconsult's Poll made in 2008 says that 49% are opposed to same sex adoption against 35% that support it.[103][150]

Asia[edit]

LGBT rights for adoption of children in Asia are almost nonexistent, except in Israel, Thailand (TBD) and Taiwan. Some Asian countries still criminalize same-sex activities and do not have anti-discrimination laws, which are obstacles for legislating for LGBT adoption.[151]

Israel[edit]

The issue of same-sex adoption has been the subject of a long-running political and legal battle in Israel that was resolved on December 2023, when the Israeli Supreme Court interpreted existing law to allow same-sex adoptions, as the law gives absolute priority to the welfare of the child and not to the gender of its parents.[152][153]

Legal status of adoption by same-sex couples in part of West Asia and in Egypt
  Gay adoption legal
  Same-sex sexual activity illegal
  Neither/unknown/ambiguous

Taiwan[edit]

Until 2023, members of same-sex couples could only adopt the biological child of their spouse (so-called stepchild adoptions). Taiwan law allowed for opposite-sex married people to jointly adopt, and also allowed single individuals to adopt, depending on the circumstances, including individual LGBT people. The same-sex marriage law only granted same-sex couples the right to adopt children genetically related to one of the spouses.[154]

Europe[edit]

Legal status of adoption by same-sex couples in Europe:
  Joint adoption legal
  Stepparent adoption legal
  No laws allowing adoption by same-sex couples

In February 2006, France's Court of Cassation ruled that both partners in a same-sex relationship can have parental rights over one partner's biological child. The result came from a case where a woman tried to give parental rights of her two daughters to her partner, with whom she was in a civil union.[155] In the case of adoption, however, in February 2007, the same court ruled against a lesbian couple where one partner tried to adopt the child of the other partner. The court stated that the woman's partner cannot be recognized unless the mother withdrew her own parental rights.[156][157] On 17 May 2013, French President François Hollande signed into law the bill that opened marriage and adoption rights linked to it for same sex couples.[158]

In 1998, a nursery school teacher from Lons-le-Saunier, living as a couple with another woman, had applied for an authorization to adopt a child from the département (local government) of Jura. The adoption board recommended against the authorization because the child would lack a paternal reference, and thus the president of the département ruled against the authorization.[159] The case was appealed before the administrative courts and ended before the Council of State, acting as supreme administrative court, which ruled against the woman.[160] The European Court of Human Rights concluded that these actions and this ruling were a violation of Article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights taken in conjunction with Article 8.[159][161]

On 2 June 2006, the Icelandic Parliament unanimously passed a proposal accepting adoption, parenting and assisted insemination treatment for same-sex couples on the same basis as heterosexual couples. The law went into effect on 27 June 2006.

In Bulgaria, according to the Ministry of Justice the laws regarding adoption "lack a norm, concerning the sexual orientation of the individuals". Therefore, a single gay person or same-sex couples may adopt.[162][163]

On 17 May 2013, the Portuguese parliament approved a bill in first reading allowing "co-adoption" of the biological or adopted child of the same-sex spouse or partner, where that spouse or partner is the only legally recognized parent of the child (e.g. the mother with the natural father not being registered). However, in October 2013 members of parliament opposed to the bill proposed a referendum on the issue and killed a motion to have the second vote in the plenary;[164][165] the motion on the possible referendum was then considered,[166] but the Constitutional Court declared it unconstitutional.[167] On 14 March 2014, the original bill was rejected in second reading.[165] On 20 November 2015, 5 proposals from several left-wing parties were voted favourably by the new parliament as result of 4 October General Elections.[165]

In July 2014 through Life Partnership Act Croatia recognized an institution similar to step-child adoption called partner-guardian. A partner who is not a biological parent of a child can share parental responsibilities with a biological parent or parents if they agree to it, or if the court decides it is in the best interest of a child. Additionally, a biological parent or parents can temporarily give a partner who is not a biological parent full parental responsibilities. A partner who is not a biological parent can also gain permanent parental responsibilities through an institution of partner-guardian if both biological parents of a child have died, or exceptionally if a second biological parent of a child is unknown, and if the court decides it is in the best interest of a child.[168]

In January 2015, the Constitutional Court of Austria found the existing laws on adoption to be unconstitutional and ordered the laws to be changed by 31 December 2015 to allow joint adoption by same-sex couples in Austria.[169][170]

On 6 April 2015, the Children and Family Relationships Bill 2015 passed by Parliament in March 2015 which extends full adoption rights to cohabiting couples and those in civil partnerships was promulgated by the President of Ireland. The law went into effect a year later on 6 April 2016.[171][172][173][174]

On 20 November 2015 the Portuguese Parliament approved; by 141 votes against 87 with 2 abstentions; a diploma presented by all the parties (except the right-wing PàF) to allow same-sex adoption. On 26 January 2016, the conservative Portuguese President Aníbal Cavaco Silva vetoed the bill and a week later the Portuguese Parliament overridden the veto. The law went into effect on 1 March 2016.[175][176][177]

On 22 June 2016 the Italian Supreme Court of Cassation upheld a lower court's decision to approve a request for a lesbian to adopt her partner's daughter. Prosecutors had appealed against the decision by the Rome court of appeal. Decisions by the supreme court set a precedent.[178]

In December 2020, Hungary explicitly legally banned adoption for same-sex couples within its constitution.[179][180]

In April 2021, a court in Croatia ruled that same-sex partners have the right to adopt children.[181] In May 2022, the High Administrative Court affirmed the ruling and rejected the appeal of the responsible Ministry.[182]

In June 2022, the Constitutional Court of Slovenia ruled that same-sex partners have the right to jointly adopt.[183] On 4 October 2022, the National Assembly (lower chamber of Slovenian parliament) passed the relevant act implementing this judgement, but a week later, the act was vetoed by the National Council (upper chamber of the parliament). This is to be followed by another vote on the act in the National Assembly and potentially a national referendum.[184]

Estonia and Greece since 2024, allows full-joint adoption of children by same-sex couples - along with same-sex marriage being legalized at the same time.[185]

Effective from 1/1/2025, the Czechia will allow same-sex couples “partial adoption” of their own biological child or children - but not full joint adoption.[186]

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

In Australia, same-sex adoption is legal in all states and territories since April 2018.

New Zealand[edit]

The Marriage (Definition of Marriage) Amendment Act 2013, which came into force on 19 August 2013, allowed same-sex marriage and permitted married same-sex couples to jointly adopt children. Previously, an LGBT individual was able to adopt children, but same-sex couples could not adopt jointly.[187]

Currently, there are no specific barriers preventing an LGBT individual from adopting children, except that male individuals cannot adopt a female child. Same-sex marriage law became effective from 19 August 2013, and since then married same-sex couples were able to adopt children jointly. Unmarried couples of any sex and couples in a civil union can now jointly adopt children, under a New Zealand High Court ruling in December 2015. The ban breached the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990.[188] The minimum age to adopt in New Zealand is 20 years for a related child, and 25 years or the child's age plus 20 years (whichever is greater) for an unrelated child.

Summary of laws by jurisdiction[edit]

European laws on adoption by same-sex couples
Country LGBT individual may petition to adopt Same-sex couple may jointly petition Same-sex partner may petition to adopt partner's child Same-sex couples are allowed to foster or stepchild foster
Andorra Yes Yes Yes Yes
Austria Yes Yes Yes Yes[d]
Belgium Yes Yes Yes Yes
Belarus No No No No
Bulgaria Yes No No No
Croatia Yes Yes[e][182] Yes Yes[189]
Czech Republic Yes No Yes (Effective from 1/1/2025) Yes[190]
Cyprus Yes No No No
Denmark Yes Yes Yes Yes
Estonia Yes Yes[191] Yes Yes
Faroe Islands Yes Yes Yes Yes
Finland Yes Yes Yes Yes
France Yes Yes Yes Yes
Germany Yes Yes Yes Yes
Gibraltar Yes Yes Yes Yes
Greece Yes Yes Yes Yes
Guernsey Yes Yes Yes Yes
Hungary No(constitutional ban) No(constitutional ban)[192] No(constitutional ban) No(constitutional ban)
Iceland Yes Yes Yes Yes
Ireland Yes Yes Yes Yes
Isle of Man Yes Yes Yes Yes
Italy No[f] No Yes Yes
Jersey Yes Yes Yes Yes
Latvia Yes No No No
Liechtenstein Yes Yes Yes Yes
Lithuania No[g] No No No
Luxembourg Yes Yes Yes Yes
Malta Yes[194] Yes Yes Yes
Monaco No No No No
Netherlands Yes Yes Yes Yes
Norway Yes Yes Yes Yes
Poland Yes No No No
Portugal Yes Yes Yes Yes
Romania No No No No
San Marino Yes No Yes[128] No
Slovakia Yes No No No
Slovenia Yes Yes Yes Yes
Spain Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sweden Yes Yes Yes Yes
Switzerland Yes Yes Yes[195][196] Yes
United Kingdom Yes Yes Yes Yes
  1. ^ a b Because some polls do not report 'neither', those that do are listed with simple yes/no percentages in parentheses, so their figures can be compared.
  2. ^ Comprises: Neutral; Don't know; No answer; Other; Refused.
  3. ^ [+ more urban/educated than representative]
  4. ^ except state of Lower Austria
  5. ^ by a final court ruling
  6. ^ single people may adopt only in exceptional circumstances, independently of their sexual orientation
  7. ^ a b but exceptions are made
American laws on adoption by same-sex couples
Country LGBT individual adoption Same-sex couple joint petition Same-sex stepparent adoption
Argentina Yes Yes Yes
Belize No No No
Bermuda Yes Yes Yes
Bolivia Yes Yes Yes
Brazil Yes Yes Yes
Canada Yes Yes Yes
Chile Yes Yes Yes
Colombia Yes Yes Yes
Costa Rica Yes Yes Yes
Cuba Yes Yes Yes
Dominican Republic No No No
Ecuador Yes No[a] No[a]
El Salvador No No No
Falkland Islands Yes Yes Yes
French Guiana Yes Yes Yes
Guatemala No No No
Guyana No[b] No[b] No[b]
Honduras No[a] No[a] No[a]
Mexico Yes Yes (some states) Yes
Nicaragua No No No
Paraguay Yes No No
Peru No No No
Puerto Rico Yes Yes Yes
Suriname No No No
United States Yes Yes Yes
Uruguay Yes Yes Yes
Venezuela No No No
  1. ^ a b c d e constitutional ban
  2. ^ a b c Gay sex illegal

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Elizabeth Short, Damien W. Riggs, Amaryll Perlesz, Rhonda Brown, Graeme Kane: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Parented Families – A Literature Review prepared for The Australian Psychological Society" (PDF). Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  3. ^ "Brief of the American Psychological Association, Kentucky Psychological Association, Ohio Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, Michigan Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, National Association of Social Workers, National Association of Social Workers Tennessee Chapter, National Association of Social Workers Michigan Chapter, National Association of Social Workers Kentucky Chapter, National Association of Social Workers Ohio Chapter, American Psychoanalytic Association, American Academy of Family Physicians, and American Medical Association as Amici Curiae in Support of Petitioners" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  4. ^ a b Farr, Rachel H; Forssell, Stephen L; Patterson, Charlotte J (2010). "Parenting and Child Development in Adoptive Families: Does Parental Sexual Orientation Matter?" (PDF). Psychology Press. Applied Developmental Science. 14 (3): 164–178. doi:10.1080/10888691.2010.500958. ISSN 1088-8691. S2CID 12851671. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 August 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
  5. ^ a b "Key Moments in Fight for Gay Rights". ABC News.
  6. ^ Charlotte Patterson, et al., "Adolescents with Same-Sex Parents: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 7 November 2007, pg. 2
  7. ^ Pawelski, J. G.; Perrin, E. C.; Foy, J. M.; Allen, C. E.; Crawford, J. E.; Del Monte, M.; Kaufman, M.; Klein, J. D.; Smith, K.; Springer, S.; Tanner, J. L.; Vickers, D. L. (2006). "The Effects of Marriage, Civil Union, and Domestic Partnership Laws on the Health and Well-being of Children". Pediatrics. 118 (1): 349–364. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1279. PMID 16818585. S2CID 219194821. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
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    "Position Statement on Support of Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Civil Marriage" (PDF). American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
    "Statement on Marriage and the Family". American Anthropological Association. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
    "Position Statement on Adoption and Co-parenting of Children by Same-sex Couples" (PDF). American Psychiatric Association. 2002. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
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    "Elizabeth Short, Damien W. Riggs, Amaryll Perlesz, Rhonda Brown, Graeme Kane: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Parented Families – A Literature Review prepared for The Australian Psychological Society" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
    Brief of the American Psychological Association, Kentucky Psychological Association, Ohio Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, Michigan Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, National Association of Social Workers, National Association of Social Workers Tennessee Chapter, National Association of Social Workers Michigan Chapter, National Association of Social Workers Kentucky Chapter, National Association of Social Workers Ohio Chapter, American Psychoanalytic Association, American Academy of Family Physicians, and American Medical Association as Amici Curiae in Support of Petitioners Archived 12 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine
    Herek GM (September 2006). "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: a social science perspective" (PDF). The American Psychologist. 61 (6): 607–21. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.61.6.607. PMID 16953748. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 June 2010.
    Biblarz, Timothy J.; Stacey, Judith (2010). "How Does the Gender of Parents Matter?". Journal of Marriage and Family. 72: 3–22. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.593.4963. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00678.x. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
    Brief presented to the Legislative House of Commons Committee on Bill C38 by the Canadian Psychological Association – June 2, 2005. Archived 13 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
    Davis, Annie (22 October 2017). "Children raised by same-sex parents do as well as their peers, study shows". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
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  195. ^ "Droit de l'adoption Echec du référendum contre l'homoparentalité" [Failure of the referendum against homosexuality]. Le Matin (in French). 4 October 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
  196. ^ "Swiss Parliament votes in favour of stepchild adoption" (PDF). Brussels: NELFA. 17 June 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2017.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]