Page protected with pending changes

LGBTQ+ representations in hip hop music

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from LGBT hip hop)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

LGBTQ+ representations in hip hop music have existed since the birth of the genre despite blatant discrimination. Hip hop has long been portrayed as one of the least LGBT-friendly genres of music, with a significant body of the genre containing homophobic views and anti-gay lyrics, with mainstream artists like Eminem and Tyler, the Creator having used homophobia in their lyrics.[1][2][3] Attitudes towards homosexuality in hip hop culture have historically been negative. Slang that uses homosexuality as a punchline like "sus", "no homo", and "pause" can be heard in hip hop lyrics from the industry's biggest stars.[4] However, since the early 2000s there has been a flourishing community of LGBTQ+ hip hop artists, activists and performers breaking barriers in the mainstream music industry.[5]

Labels such as homo hop or queer hip hop group all artists identifying as members of the LGBTQ+ community into a subgenre of hip hop based solely on their sexuality. These subgenre labels are not marked by any specific production style, as artists within it may simultaneously be associated with virtually any other subgenre of hip hop, or may also make music that falls outside the subgenre entirely.[6] Rather, the terms are defined by a direct engagement with LGBT culture in elements such as the lyrical themes or the artist's visual identity and presentation.[7][8]

Artists who have been labelled as part of the genre have, however, varied in their acceptance of the terminology. Some have supported the identification of a distinct phenomenon of "LGBTQ+ hip hop" as an important tool for promoting LGBTQ+ visibility in popular music, while others have criticized it for essentially ghettoizing their music as a "niche" interest that circumscribed their appeal to mainstream music fans.

Many artists have contributed to the increased visibility and social acceptance of the LGBTQ+ community's presence in hip hop music, most notably Frank Ocean, who penned an open letter addressing his sexuality in 2012.[5] Artists such as Mykki Blanco, Big Freedia, Le1f, Tyler, the Creator, Backxwash and Cakes da Killa are also at the forefront of creating a more inclusive representation of bodies in the hip hop genre.[original research?] There has also been an increased presence of LGBTQ+ allies in the mainstream hip hop community, such as Jay-Z,[9] Murs, Macklemore and Ryan Lewis.[10]


Origins (1970s)[edit]

Hip-Hop was developed in the late 1970s following the popularity of disco.[11] Disco music, which contains origins within Black American culture, had an impact on hip-hop from samples to early hip-hop fashion. The disco scene which was derived from disco music was known for its vibrant nightlife that was considered a haven for those in the LGBTQ+ community, particularly LGBTQ+ youth of color.

Despite these origins, early hip-hop artists expressed anti-LGBTQ+ sentiments and epithets common of the time in their music. Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight", the first hip hop record to become a top 40 hit, referred to fictional character Superman as a "fairy" for wearing a skin-tight garment.


In 1986, the hip hop trio Beastie Boys originally wanted to name their debut album Don't Be A Faggot, but their record label Columbia Records refused to release it under that title, so it changed the title to Licensed to Ill. Years later, the Beastie Boys formally apologized to the LGBT community for the "shitty and ignorant" things they said on their first record.[12]

During what was considered third-wave feminism, there was an infusion of Black feminist thought into hip-hop by way of Black women in the genre who emphasized issues of race, gender, and sexuality. This included Black LGBTQ+ musicians like Meshell Ndegeocello whose 1993 Plantation Lullabies is considered an example of the evolving attitudes and politics of the hip hop generation, specifically from younger Black feminists. According to Andreana Clay, "Ndegeocello's lyrics are a product of early Black feminism, radical lesbian feminism, and hip-hop feminism."[13]

In her music, Ndegocello has addressed sexuality and Blackness as a Black bisexual woman, garnering a following from LGBTQ+ feminists of color. Her musical content and appearance also drew criticism from certain listeners and radio stations who refused to play her music. The ideas of Black queer and lesbian feminism influenced hip hop during a moment when politics surrounding sexuality, gender, and race were shifting.[14]

Although more radical queer politics were influencing more mainstream areas of music and society, discrimination remained and LGBTQ+ artists continued to face marginalization and barriers in airtime and commercial success.[13]


Kanye West denounced homophobia in hip hop in an August 2005 interview with Sway Calloway for MTV News. He discussed how his environment led him to be homophobic, and how finding out his cousin was gay changed his perspective. This statement was radical at the time; it was the first major statement against homophobia in hip hop by a popular artist.[15]

Homo hop[edit]

The homo hop movement first emerged in the 1990s as an underground movement spearheaded by the hip-hop group Rainbow Flava,[16][17] particularly in California,[18] in part as a reaction to the widespread acceptance of homophobia in the lyrics of mainstream hip hop performers such as Eminem.[19] Lyrics in songs such as "Criminal" on The Marshal Mathers LP demonstrate this homophobia.[20][21][22] Initially coined by Tim'm T. West of Deep Dickollective,[18] the term "homo hop" was not meant to signify a distinct genre of music, but simply to serve as a community building tool and promotional hook for LGBTQ+ artists. According to West:

It reflected an effort to give credence to a subgenre of hip hop that the mainstream was ignoring. It's not a different kind of hip hop, but places identity at the center of production, which is a blessing and curse. I'm a hip hop artist, ultimately, who happens to be queer. Homo Hop, as a mobilizing medium for queer artists, did, in fact, serve a purpose, initially.[18]

West's bandmate Juba Kalamka offered a similar assessment:

Should there be a separate term for female emcees like femcee? Or ones like gangsta? Crunk? Trap music? Snap? Africentrist? Conscious? Whatever. In many cases the terms get created or reappropriated by people because they need something to make them stand out, or to validate their cultural or social space. 'Homohop,' like any other subcultural subgenre designation, gave and still gives a listener or fan something to grab onto. The first person I heard say 'homohop' was my former bandmate Tim'm West in the context of an interview in 2001...and even then it was a big joke, totally tongue-in-cheek. If you called it 'Fruit Rollup,' people would be saying that now.[23]

In a 2001 interview with, West elaborated on the movement's goals:

Ideally, queer hip-hop can create changes. It can be the critical check for all the negative aspects that have come out of the culture in the last few years. You won't be able to assume there isn't a faggot in the room; you won't be able to assume there isn't a feminist in the room. Hip-hop will be different because we decided to participate in it openly and with honor.[24]

The genre received a mainstream publicity boost in 2002 and 2003 when Caushun was widely reported as the first openly LGBTQ+ rapper to be signed to a major label,[25] although Caushun was later revealed to have been a publicity stunt engineered by heterosexual musician Ivan Matias.[19]

Notable events in the 2000s included the PeaceOUT World Homo Hop Festival, which was founded in 2001[26] and mounted annually until 2008, and the 2006 documentary film Pick Up the Mic.[18] However, some music critics in this era dismissed the genre as too often sacrificing musical quality in favour of a "didactic" political agenda.[19]

The most commercially successful LGBTQ+ rapper in the 2000s was Cazwell,[8] who emerged as a popular artist in gay dance clubs, and has scored at least six top 40 hits on Billboard's Hot Dance Club Songs chart, with a hybrid pop-rap style which he has described as "if Biggie Smalls ate Donna Summer for breakfast".[27] Cazwell described his philosophy of music as "create your own space, your own music and have people come to you," and has noted in interviews that he achieved much greater success by "breaking" the rules of the hip hop industry than he ever did in his earlier attempts to pursue mainstream success with the 1990s hip hop duo Morplay.[28]

One of the first mainstream artists to speak out publicly against anti-gay discrimination in hip hop was Kanye West in a 2004 interview with Sway Calloway on MTV News. In the interview Kanye says, "Hip-hop does discriminate against gay people. I want to just come on TV and tell my rappers, my friends, just stop it, fam. Seriously, that's really discrimination". Kanye criticized the hip-hop community, saying, "Hip-hop seemed like it was about fighting for your rights in the beginning, about speaking your mind, and breaking down barriers or whatever, but everybody in hip-hop discriminates against gay people. To me, that's one of the standards in hip-hop is to be like, 'You fag, you gay'".[29][30]

Later negative representations[edit]

In Byron Hurt's 2006 documentary Hip-Hop: Beyond Beats and Rhymes, Hurt explores the nuanced relationships between hip-hop, masculinity, misogyny, and homophobia.[31] Recognizing the presence of these issues in hip-hop, a genre he loves, Hurt felt a sense of hypocrisy and began working on the film.[31] In the documentary Hurt travels around the country and interviews rap and hip hop artists, academics, and fans about their perceptions on these issues in the culture.[31] After conducting dozens of interviews, Hurt sees a continued pattern of homophobia linked to the need to prove one's masculinity.[31]

Through the objectification of women and domination of other men to assert another person's masculinity, a pattern of homophobia occurs in the hip hop and rap community.[31] Rapper Busta Rhymes walks out of his interview when he is asked a question about homophobia in the rap community.[31] Rhymes says, "I can't partake in that conversation," followed by, "With all due respect, I ain't trying to offend nobody. . . What I represent culturally doesn't condone [homosexuality] whatsoever."[31] This reaction from Rhymes exemplifies part of the negative perception of homosexuality in the hip-hop community.[31]

Rapper Boosie Badazz has recently come under fire for his offensive remarks directed towards artist Lil Nas X for joking on Twitter about a song collaboration.[32] The rapper has obsessively made homophobic remarks about Lil Nas X since his rise to superstardom.[33]

Song lyrics[edit]

Ice-T stated on his autobiography that record-label executive Seymour Stein took exception to a line in his song "409": "Guys grab a girl, girls grab a guy / If a guy wants a guy, please take it outside".[34] Ice-T later became one of the first rappers to condemn homophobia on raps such as Straight Up Nigga and The Tower in his album O.G. Original Gangster (1991).

Many songs by rapper Eminem have been considered homophobic for his frequent use of anti-gay slurs, especially the song "Criminal" from his third album The Marshall Mathers LP (2000), which contains lines like: "My words are like a dagger with a jagged edge, That'll stab you in the head, whether you're a fag or les', Or a homosex, hermaph or a trans-a-vest, Pants or dress, hate fags? The answer's 'yes'". In an interview with Anderson Cooper on 60 Minutes, Eminem denied being homophobic and explained the frequent use of the term "faggot" in his lyrics, that this word was "thrown around constantly" in battle rap, and that he does not use it to refer to gay people.[35]

The album The Marshall Mathers LP was nominated for Album of the Year by the Grammy Awards 2001, which led to protests due to the album's controversial content. At the show, Eminem performed "Stan" with openly gay musician Elton John in response.[36] Eminem experienced more backlash in 2018, after he released his surprise album Kamikaze. On December 11, 2017, rapper Tyler, The Creator tweeted "dear god this song is horrible sheesh how the fuck",[37] which fans quickly realised was directed at Eminem's new single at the time, "Walk On Water". On the track "Fall" from Kamikaze, Eminem responded to Tyler, The Creator's criticisms, where he raps "Tyler create nothin', I see why you call yourself a faggot, bitch / It's not because you lack attention, it's because you worship D12's balls, you're sacreligeous".[38]

This is most likely in relation to Tyler's sexuality being a major spectacle within his fanbase, with a lot of his lyrics hinting at homosexuality.[39] Before the album was released, however, the slur was censored. Eminem joined Sway Calloway in a series of interviews after Kamikaze's release, where he explained that he regretted using the slur against Tyler. "In my quest to hurt him, I realised that I was hurting a lot of other people by saying it. At the time, I was so mad, it was just whatever...", " was one of the things I kept going back to, going 'I don't feel right with this.'" Justin Vernon, who provided the chorus for "Fall", publicly condemned Eminem's language on the song, tweeting "Was not in the studio for the Eminem track... came from a session with BJ Burton and Mike Will. Not a fan of the message, it's tired. Asked them to change the track, wouldn't do it...".[40]

In 2020, Eminem released his album Music To Be Murdered By, in which he collaborated on a song with openly queer New York rapper Young M.A. In 2010, while being interviewed by Anderson Cooper for 60 Minutes, Eminem was challenged about his homophobic lyrics, to which he said: "The scene that I came up in, that word was thrown around so much. You know? 'Faggot', it was thrown around constantly to each other, like, in battling." When Anderson Cooper asked Eminem if he 'didn't like gay people', Eminem replied: "I don't have any problem with nobody [sic]."

In 2020, rappers Insane Clown Posse denounced past use of homophobic slurs in their lyrics, saying that their producer Mike E. Clark is gay, and that "We wanted to be like gangsta rap, and gangsta rap said it all the time" but "There was never a time when we had a problem with gay people."[41]

In the lyrics of one song on rapper Trick-Trick's 2008 album The Villain, he refers to Ellen DeGeneres and Rosie O'Donnell as "dyke bitches" and says that he will send a "scud missile right through their fucking cruise ship". Trick-Trick expressed his dislike towards homosexuals in an interview with music site AllHipHop: "Faggots hate me and I don't give a fuck. I don't want your faggot money any goddam way."[42]

The phrase "No Homo" is often used in today's hip hop lyrics and Black culture. It means "no gay things" or "nothing gay". One example of the term's usage is in the Jay-Z song, "Run This Town". Kanye West, one of the featured artists on the song, stated, "It's crazy how you can go from being Joe Blow / to everybody on your homo."[43]


It's not a different kind of hip hop, but places identity at the center of production, which is a blessing and curse. I'm a hip hop artist, ultimately, who happens to be queer.

Tim'm T. West[18]

By the early 2010s, a new wave of openly LGBTQ+ hip hop musicians began to emerge, spurred in part by the increased visibility and social acceptance of LGBTQ+ people,[44] the coming out of mainstream hip hop stars such as Azealia Banks and Frank Ocean,[45] and the release of LGBT-positive songs by heterosexual artists such as Murs, Macklemore, and Ryan Lewis.

Although inspired and empowered by the homo hop movement,[18] this newer generation of artists garnered more mainstream media coverage and were able to make greater use of social media tools to build their audience,[23] and thus did not need to rely on the old homo hop model of community building.[18] Many of these artists were also strongly influenced by the LGBTQ+ African American ball culture,[44] an influence not widely seen in the first wave of homo hop, and many began as performance art projects and incorporated the use of drag.[46] Accordingly, many of the newer artists were identified in media coverage with the newer "queer hip hop" label instead of "homo hop".[18]

In 2008, Jipsta released the single "Middle of the Dancefloor" which spent a total of 14 weeks (peaking at #6 for two consecutive weeks) on the Billboard Dance Club Play chart. This achievement was noteworthy for LGBTQ+ hip-hop as it marked the first time an openly gay white rapper earned a Top 10 single on the Billboard Club Play chart.[47] The following year, Jipsta released a cover of the George Michael song "I Want Your Sex", which rose to the #4 position on the Billboard Dance Club Play chart in only 4 weeks time, resulting in the first Top 5 Billboard charting record by an LGBTQ+ hip-hop artist.[47]

In March 2012, Carrie Battan of Pitchfork profiled Mykki Blanco, Le1f, Zebra Katz and House of Ladosha in an article titled "We Invented Swag: NYC Queer Rap" about "a group of NYC artists [who] are breaking down ideas of hip-hop identity".[46]

In October 2012, Details profiled several LGBTQ+ hip hop artists "indelibly changing the face—and sound—of rap".[48]

In March 2014, the online magazine published a first overview of queer hip hop videos worldwide. The article talks about topics, aesthetics and challenges of LGBTQ+ hip hop in Angola, Argentina, Cuba, Germany, Israel, Serbia, South Africa and the USA."[49]

Increasingly, focus on the development of Queer voices in the international hip-hop community has gained more precedent with articles published looking at how Queer rappers use the art-form as a type of therapy. A Winter 2016 article from Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education looked at how utilizing the art-form helped challenge traditional notions of hip hop and sexual identity.[50]

In December 2016, Los Angeles-based rapper Thed Jewel, who raps "My skin is black, sexuality is Fuchsia" said: "There are a lot of rappers that are homosexuals and their day to be open with it will come one way or another".[51]

In August 2018, openly gay member of Brockhampton, Kevin Abstract voiced his efforts to change hip hop's issue with homophobia in an interview with the BBC by stating: "I have to exist in a homophobic space in order to make change and that homophobic space would be the hip hop community. So me just existing and being myself is making change and making things easier for other young queer kids".[52]

In June 2019, Lil Nas X, who performed the hit song "Old Town Road", took the opportunity to publicly come out during Pride Month, making him one of the most visible Black queer male singers to do so,[4] especially in country or hip hop genres, which emphasize machismo and "historically snubbed queer artists".[4] Black queer male artists in hip hop gaining mainstream acceptance is relatively new—preceding Nas X by less than a decade—including: Frank Ocean's 2012 Channel Orange, Tyler, the Creator, ILoveMakonnen, Brockhampton frontman Kevin Abstract and Steve Lacy.[4] Black queer female artists have been accepted more readily;[4] while the underground queer hip hop movement goes back to the 1990s.[18]


Some artists, however, have criticized the genre as an arbitrary label that can potentially limit the artist's audience and may not actually correspond to their artistic goals or career aspirations. In 2013, Brooke Candy told The Guardian:

What is so bothersome to me, with these emerging gay rappers, is that they've created a new genre called 'queer hip-hop'. Why the fuck is there a new genre for the same-sounding music? Half of the people rapping up there are gay and people don't even know it.[53]

One unspecified artist declined to be interviewed for the Guardian feature at all, stating that he preferred to be known as a rapper rather than as a "gay rapper".[53] Eric Shorey, author of "Queer Rap is Not Queer Rap," contests "queer rap" labeling, arguing that "comparisons between gay and straight rap (as if they were two distinct genres) simply doesn't make sense without implied bigotry".[54] As Shorey writes, this subversive genre is steeped in racism and homophobia in and of itself, and merely serves to further marginalize the identities and narratives it allegedly gives a voice to.

Though Western society has a predisposition to impose socially construed labels and binaries, Shorey dismisses the notion of heteronormative categorical identification, insisting that listeners ignore these sexuality-based hip hop classifications and listen more closely to the quality of music being produced. He also suggests that queer artists should be booked alongside straight artists, showing that they are equally talented, and deserve the same amount of recognition.

Despite criticism, others have been more circumspect about the dichotomy. British rapper RoxXxan told the Guardian that "I want to be perceived as 'RoxXxan,' but if people label me as 'gay rapper RoxXxan' I'm not offended."[53] Nicky Da B told Austinist that "Basically, I perform for a LGBTQ+ crowd but also for everyone. A lot of the bounce rappers that are rapping and touring at the moment are all gay. The LGBTQ+ community just capitalizes on that I guess, from us being gay, and they support us on it, so that's how it goes I guess."[55]


Another criticism arises from the perceived commercialization of LGBTQ+ representation by hip hop artists. A good example of this is with Nicki Minaj and her approach to presenting sexuality and sexual orientation. She often presents queerness in her music videos and lyrics.[56] This approach has been analyzed by critics of Nicki as "strategic queerness".[57] Fly Young Red went viral on YouTube for his song "Throw That Boy Pussy" in 2014. Other artists, such as Azealia Banks, Angel Haze, and Young M.A. have openly discussed their sexuality in their lyrics and expression of style.[58]

Notable artists[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ MacPherson, Alex (May 10, 2011). "Is hip-hop homophobia at a tipping point?". Guardian. London. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  2. ^ Gilchrist, Todd (May 13, 2011). "Odd Future Plays Secret L.A. Show". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
  3. ^ Garcia, Marcelo (2018-01-28). "From Eminem to Offset, an analysis of hip-hop's history of homophobia". Highlander. Archived from the original on 2019-05-07. Retrieved 2019-05-07.
  4. ^ a b c d e Kennedy, Gerrick D. (July 31, 2019). "Lil Nas X came out, but has hip-hop? A macho culture faces a crossroads". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2019-08-01. Retrieved 2019-08-01. ...d one would be hard pressed to not find a gay slur embedded in the lyrics of any of the genre's most famous architects. In fact, an entire lexicon dedicated to pointing out discomfort with gay men has permeated rap lyrics. Slang such as "sus" and "No homo" and "Pause" that use queerness as a punchline have been thrown around casually for years.
  5. ^ a b Julious, Britt (2016-06-24). "A gay man is making the most anticipated album of the year". Esquire. Archived from the original on 2017-03-11. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c "Is British Rap Finally Going to Have a Gay Hip Hop Scene?" Archived 2015-02-25 at the Wayback Machine. Noisey, August 7, 2014.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Homo Hop". Studio 360, June 26, 2009.
  8. ^ a b c d "Underground fruit gangstas: uncovering the hidden subculture of homo-hop music". Columbia Chronicle, September 10, 2012.
  9. ^ Life+Times (2012-07-04). "Thank You, Frank Ocean". Life+Times. Archived from the original on 2019-04-20. Retrieved 2019-05-07.
  10. ^ Grow, Kory (2013-11-26). "UN Names Macklemore "Equality Champion"". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 2019-02-07. Retrieved 2019-02-05.
  11. ^ Alridge, Derrick P.; Stewart, James B. (2005). "Introduction: Hip Hop in History: Past, Present, and Future". The Journal of African American History. 90 (3): 190–195. ISSN 1548-1867.
  12. ^ "Hip-Hop's History Of Homophobia (LIST)". September 18, 2012. Archived from the original on April 17, 2017. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  13. ^ a b Clay, Andreana (2008). ""Like an Old Soul Record": Black Feminism, Queer Sexuality, and the Hip-Hop Generation". Meridians. 8 (1): 53–73. ISSN 1536-6936.
  14. ^ Clay, Andreana (2008). ""Like an Old Soul Record": Black Feminism, Queer Sexuality, and the Hip-Hop Generation". Meridians. 8 (1): 53–73. ISSN 1536-6936.
  15. ^ "Kanye West Addresses Hip-Hop's Homophobia In 2005 Interview | MTV News". Archived from the original on 2019-04-10. Retrieved 2019-05-07.
  16. ^ Wilson, D. Mark (2007). "Post-Pomo Hip-Hop Homos: Hip-Hop Art, Gay Rappers, and Social Change". Social Justice. 34 (1 (107)): 117–140. ISSN 1043-1578.
  17. ^ Smalls, Shanté Paradigm. "Queer Hip Hop: A Brief Historiography". The Oxford Handbook of Music and Queerness.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Homo Hop is dead, Queer hip hop is the real deal" Archived 2013-03-17 at the Wayback Machine. 429 Magazine, March 11, 2013.
  19. ^ a b c d e "Hip-Hop's Great Gay Hope: Rainbow Noise" Archived 2017-08-28 at the Wayback Machine. Spin, April 1, 2011.
  20. ^ Binder, Kevin (2013). Homophobic Hip-Hop Music and Its Effect on Attitudes Toward Homosexuality (PDF) (Thesis). p. 82. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-18. Retrieved 2019-05-07 – via Google Scholar.
  21. ^ Eminem – Criminal, archived from the original on 2019-04-19, retrieved 2019-05-07
  22. ^ Stephens, Vincent (2005). "Pop Goes the Rapper: A Close Reading of Eminem's Genderphobia". Popular Music. 24 (1): 21–36. ISSN 0261-1430.
  23. ^ a b "Homohop's Role Within Hip-Hop: Juba Kalamka Interview" Archived 2013-05-11 at the Wayback Machine. Amoeba Music, July 7, 2009.
  24. ^ Chonin, Neva (2001-12-16). "Hip to homo-hop: Oakland's D/DC fuses gay and black identities with eyebrow-raising rhyme". San Francisco Chronicle. p. PK - 54. Archived from the original on 2008-12-20. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
  25. ^ "Move over, gangstas: Here comes homo-hop" Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine. The Globe and Mail, May 31, 2003.
  26. ^ Thomas, Devon (2004-07-12). "'Homo-Hop' Has a Say". Newsweek. p. PK - 54. Archived from the original on 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
  27. ^ ""Makin' Music with Cazwell". Rage Monthly, August 10, 2012". Archived from the original on February 25, 2015. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
  28. ^ "Rapper Cazwell Opens Up About Being Gay in Hip Hop" Archived 2015-02-25 at the Wayback Machine. NBC Miami, July 6, 2011.
  29. ^ MTV News (2015-08-20), Kanye West Addresses Hip-Hop's Homophobia In 2005 Interview, archived from the original on 2019-04-10, retrieved 2019-05-07
  30. ^ "The Acceptance of Women & LGBTQ Artists in Hip-Hop". 2017-12-07. Archived from the original on 2019-05-07. Retrieved 2019-05-07.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h Hurt, Byron (2007-02-22). "A daring look at hip-hop -". Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2007-02-22. Retrieved 2020-03-21.
  32. ^ Love, Bettina L. (2017). "A Ratchet Lens: Black Queer Youth, Agency, Hip Hop, and the Black Ratchet Imagination". Educational Researcher. 46 (9): 539–547. ISSN 0013-189X.
  33. ^ "Boosie Badazz Targets Charlamagne tha God and Lil Nas X With Latest Homophobic Remarks". Complex. Retrieved 2021-11-18.
  34. ^ Marrow, Tracy; Century, Douglas (2011). Ice: A Memoir of Gangster Life and Redemption—from South Central to Hollywood. Random House. pp. 100–101. ISBN 978-0-345-52328-0.
  35. ^ "Eminem Discusses Homophobic Lyrics With Anderson Cooper- News - Towleroad". 24 October 2012. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  36. ^ Sieczkowski, Cavan (24 March 2017). "Elton John Defends Eminem Against Charges Of Homophobia". Huff Post. Archived from the original on 21 December 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  37. ^ "Tyler The Creator Disses Eminem Says "Walk On Water" Is Trash". Urban Islandz. 2017-11-14. Archived from the original on 2021-01-17. Retrieved 2021-03-27.
  38. ^ ago, Music-3 years (2018-09-14). "Eminem Reveals Tyler, The Creator Diss Was Because Tyler And Earl Sweatshirt Criticized His Music". Okayplayer. Archived from the original on 2020-11-11. Retrieved 2021-03-27.
  39. ^ "Tyler the Creator has been 'coming out' as gay or bisexual for years and no-one cared". The Independent. 2018-11-23. Archived from the original on 2021-01-22. Retrieved 2021-03-27.
  40. ^ "Bon Iver's Justin Vernon Says 'We Are Gonna Kill' Eminem Track With Homophobic Slur". Billboard. Archived from the original on 2020-11-11. Retrieved 2021-03-27.
  41. ^ a b Breihan, Tom (May 18, 2020). "We've Got A File On You: Insane Clown Posse". Stereogum. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
  42. ^ "U.S. Rapper Trick Trick Tells Gays Not to Buy His Homophobic Album - Towleroad". November 12, 2008. Archived from the original on September 7, 2018. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  43. ^ "No Homo? Hip-Hop and Homophobia (Park 1)". Archived from the original on August 14, 2020. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
  44. ^ a b c d e "Zebra Katz, Mykki Blanco and the rise of queer rap" Archived 2017-06-22 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian, June 9, 2012.
  45. ^ "Hip-Hop's Bustin' out the Closet" Archived 2012-10-31 at the Wayback Machine. David Atlanta, August 1, 2012.
  46. ^ a b c d e "We Invented Swag: NYC's Queer Rap" Archived 2013-04-17 at the Wayback Machine. Pitchfork, March 21, 2012.
  47. ^ a b c "Jipsta - Chart history - Billboard". Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  48. ^ "Hip Hop's Queer Pioneers" Archived 2013-05-28 at the Wayback Machine. Details, October 2012.
  49. ^ "Queer Hip Hop Clips From 8 Countries" Archived 2014-03-27 at the Wayback Machine. Norient, March 2014.
  50. ^ Adam J. Kruse (2016). ""Therapy Was Writing Rhymes": Hip-Hop as Resilient Space for a Queer Rapper of Color". Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education (207–208): 101. doi:10.5406/bulcouresmusedu.207-208.0101.
  51. ^ "Newcomer: Los Angeles-based rapper Thed Jewel shared debut track "Fuchsia"". HighClouds. 2016-12-21. Archived from the original on 2016-12-22. Retrieved 2016-12-21.
  52. ^ Blake, Jimmy (2018-08-31). "The rapper taking on hip hop's 'homophobic space'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2019-02-17. Retrieved 2020-04-16.
  53. ^ a b c "Gay rap, the unthinkable becomes reality" Archived 2016-01-20 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian, July 13, 2013.
  54. ^ "Queer Rap is Not Queer Rap - Pitchfork". Archived from the original on 13 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  55. ^ "Drop It Hot Potato Style: An Interview with Nicky Da B" Archived 2015-01-12 at the Wayback Machine. Austinist, November 1, 2012.
  56. ^ Smith, Marquita R. (2014-05-27). ""Or a Real, Real Bad Lesbian": Nicki Minaj and the Acknowledgement of Queer Desire in Hip-Hop Culture". Popular Music and Society. 37 (3): 360–370. doi:10.1080/03007766.2013.800680. ISSN 0300-7766.
  57. ^ Shange, Savannah (2014). "A king named Nicki: strategic queerness and the black femmecee". Women & Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory. 24 (1): 29–45. doi:10.1080/0740770X.2014.901602. S2CID 191486577.
  58. ^ Oware, Matthew (2018-07-11), The Queer Emcee: Gender, Race, and Social Consciousness in Rap Music, pp. 153–180, ISBN 978-3-319-90453-5, retrieved 2021-11-18
  59. ^ "Get to Know 070 Shake, G.O.O.D. Music's Shape-Shifting Secret Weapon". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on 2019-07-26. Retrieved 2020-01-30.
  60. ^ "Push and slay: Abdu Ali finds his voice" Archived 2015-02-26 at the Wayback Machine. Baltimore Sun, November 5, 2013.
  61. ^ a b c d e "12 Must-Know LGBTQ Hip Hop Acts" Archived 2015-02-25 at the Wayback Machine. Fuse, May 29, 2014.
  62. ^ Simon, Mashaun D. (February 16, 2007). "Hearts A- Phyre': African-American Organizers Want to Make First Black Gay History Week an Annual Event". Southern Voice. Archived from the original on November 6, 2007. Retrieved July 2, 2008.
  63. ^ Ellis, Anye (June 24, 2008). "Gay 101 Honors: In The Margins". Gay 101 Honors. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved July 2, 2008.
  64. ^ Jesse Locke, "Montreal rapper Backxwash invokes self-altering fury" Archived 2020-06-21 at the Wayback Machine. Daily Xtra, May 25, 2020.
  65. ^ Nika, Colleen (September 10, 2012). "Q&A: Azealia Banks on Why the C-Word Is 'Feminine'". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on October 27, 2018. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  66. ^ Fulton, Nick (2018-05-18). "bali baby makes cathartic emo rap about queer heartbreak". I-d. Archived from the original on 2018-10-08. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  67. ^ "Life Tips with BbyMutha". Office Magazine. 2018-02-28. Archived from the original on 2018-11-20. Retrieved 2018-11-20.
  68. ^ "Bear Rapper Big Dipper: I Won't Sleep With My Fans" Archived 2015-02-25 at the Wayback Machine. Out, March 10, 2014.
  69. ^ "Free Download + Interview: Big Momma Goes Hard on Infectious LP 'The Plague'" Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine. AFROPUNK, June 24, 2014.
  70. ^ "Meet Brooke Candy: Rapper, Stripper, Warrior" Archived 2013-03-14 at the Wayback Machine. LA Weekly, August 28, 2012.
  71. ^ Burke, Minyvonne (2016-04-14). "D. Smith Explains Why She Wanted To Share Her Story As A Transgender Woman On 'Love & Hip Hop: Atlanta'". International Business Times. IBT Media Inc. Archived from the original on 2016-05-19. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  72. ^ Ho, Rodney. "Talk with D Smith first transgender cast member on 'Love & Hip Hop Atlanta'". Cox Media Group. Archived from the original on May 17, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
  73. ^ Chonin, Neva (2001-12-16). "Hip to homo-hop: Oakland's D/DC fuses gay and black identities with eyebrow-raising rhyme". San Francisco Chronicle. p. PK - 54. Archived from the original on 2008-12-20. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
  74. ^ Sharma, Nitasha Tamar (2010). Hip Hop Desis: South Asian Americans, Blackness, and a Global Race Consciousness. Durham and London: Duke University Press. pp. 48, 158. ISBN 978-0822392897. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  75. ^ "Drebae Interview: Femme, Queer Rapper Insists 'I Deserve to Exist After Pride Month'". Billboard. 2018-07-18. Archived from the original on 2020-07-05. Retrieved 2020-07-05.
  76. ^ 2014, Robert Longfellow Apr 12; This, 12:14pm Share This Tweet This Email (12 April 2014). "Gay Rapper Fly Young Red Discusses Career & Girls vs Boys [VIDEO]". Archived from the original on 25 November 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2016.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  77. ^ "Frank Ocean Interview: Happy To Wake Up Without 'This Freakin' Boulder On My Chest'". Instinct Magazine. July 21, 2012. Archived from the original on August 20, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  78. ^ "Hip Hop Homos : Overview | Logo Online". Archived from the original on 2010-02-19. Retrieved 2020-10-24.
  79. ^ Herdandez, Greg (20 January 2017). "Atlanta rapper iLoveMakonnen comes out as gay on Twitter". Gay Star News. Archived from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  80. ^ "The Dark Knight Rises." The Challenge: Rivals II. MTV. 24 July 2013. Television.
  81. ^ "Rapper Jipsta Returns After Surviving Anti-Gay Hate Crime, Talks Support From RuPaul, Willam & Pandora Boxx". Archived from the original on 13 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  82. ^ Gross, Dan (January 9, 2008). "VIP Party Boys to visit Tyra". Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on 2020-10-27. Retrieved 2020-10-24.
  83. ^ Kregloe, Karman (14 May 2007). "Interview With Jonny McGovern". Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  84. ^ BiNetUSA (2019). "BiNet USA". Archived from the original on 2019-12-30. Retrieved 2020-05-22.
  85. ^ Sawyer, Terry, "Queering the Mic" Archived 2011-06-04 at the Wayback Machine, Pop Matters, March 18, 2004, accessed November 7, 2009
  86. ^ Beaumont-Thomas, Ben (6 August 2020). "Kate Tempest announces they are non-binary, changes name to Kae". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  87. ^ Frank, Alex (April 5, 2016). "Kaytranada Is Reaching 100%". The Fader. Archived from the original on April 6, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  88. ^ "Kehlani Clarifies Her Sexuality Once and for All: I'm Queer". E!. April 23, 2018. Archived from the original on July 15, 2018. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
  89. ^ "How Many Times Does Kevin Abstract Need to Rap About Being Gay?". DJBooth. Archived from the original on 2018-05-01. Retrieved 2018-04-30.
  90. ^ "Introducing rapper and alum K.Flay". 2010-12-06. Archived from the original on 2019-12-25. Retrieved 2019-12-25.
  91. ^ "K.Flay instagram". Non-loginwalled link at
  92. ^ Bark, Theo (17 May 2010). "Lady Sovereign Comes Out in Lesbian Magazine". The Boombox. Archived from the original on 10 July 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  93. ^ "Too Gay for Hip-Hop? Le1f Takes On Traditionally Homophobic Genre" Archived 2013-04-04 at the Wayback Machine. The Daily Beast, August 10, 2012.
  94. ^ {{Cite web|url= Lil Darkie gay? A closer look at his sexuality|website=StylesRant|language=en=US|access-date=2021-05-17
  95. ^ "Lil Nas X Comes Out on Last Day of Pride Month". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2019-07-01. Retrieved 2019-07-01.
  96. ^ "Lil Peep Reveals He's Bisexual - XXL". XXL Mag. Archived from the original on 2017-08-09. Retrieved 2017-08-10.
  97. ^ Tracer, Dan (9 August 2017). "Rapper Lil Peep comes out as bi on Twitter". Archived from the original on 10 August 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  98. ^ Tenbarge, Kat. "How an internet comedian pivoted to a career in music with in-your-face gay rap that has teens traveling for hours to see his shows". Insider. Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  99. ^ "Montreal Musician Lucas Charlie Rose Explains the Politics of Appearing in Trans Photo Series". 2015-10-05. Archived from the original on 2017-02-19. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  100. ^ "The Multiplicities of Mykki Blanco". Interview Magazine. Alex Chapman. 2012-04-04. Archived from the original on 2016-04-08. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  101. ^ "Oliver Twixt is bringing queer Black Boy Joy to hip-hop". Music. 2 October 2017. Archived from the original on 2020-10-31. Retrieved 2020-10-24.
  102. ^ Caramanica, Jon (August 28, 2020). "'WAP' Is Good, Raunchy Fun. On TikTok, It's at Home". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on September 1, 2020. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  103. ^ "How Princess Nokia Achieved the 'Gay New York Dream'". Out. 2 October 2017. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  104. ^ Bendix, Trish (4 July 2010). "Samantha Ronson: "I'm Not Gay. I'm an Equal Opportunity Player."". After Ellen. Archived from the original on 15 March 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  105. ^ Timberg, Scott (June 2, 2016). "How Saul Williams found courage: "Prince and Bowie liberated me as an artist to be queer"". Salon. San Francisco, California: Salon Media Group. Archived from the original on October 14, 2016. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
  106. ^ Times-Picayune, Alison Fensterstock, NOLA com | The. "New Orleans Jazz Fest gets shaking with Big Freedia and Sissy Nobby at Congo Square". Archived from the original on 2020-10-31. Retrieved 2020-10-28.
  107. ^ "Página/12 :: No". Archived from the original on 2019-12-05. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  108. ^ "Sasha Sathya: Nuestra MIA". 2018-03-18. Archived from the original on 2019-12-05. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  109. ^ "TRANSTORTA: Sasha Sathya en el marco de SATII por primera vez en Uruguay". Archived from the original on 2019-12-05. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  110. ^ "SHE PROPOSED... (STORY TIME)". YouTube. Archived from the original on 2020-04-27. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  111. ^ Radner, Ronni (October 2005). "Magic Man". Out Magazine. Archived from the original on 2018-11-16. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
  112. ^ "Solomon to Head to NYC for Shade 45 Show". June 2008. Archived from the original on 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2020-10-27.
  113. ^ Frank, Alex. "Men: Steve Lacy — FANTASTIC MAN". Fantastic Man. Archived from the original on August 27, 2018. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  114. ^ Domanick, Andrea (2012-01-12). "Odd Future's Syd the Kyd Joins The Internet". L.A. Weekly. Archived from the original on 2019-05-09. Retrieved 2019-05-09.
  115. ^ "Chance The Rapper's Brother Taylor Bennett Reveals He's Bisexual". Billboard. January 19, 2017. Archived from the original on October 1, 2017. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
  116. ^ "NewBlackMan (in Exile): DeepDickollective Co-Founder Tim'm West on Frank Ocean". Archived from the original on 2014-01-05. Retrieved 2019-11-07.
  117. ^ "Titica". Okay Africa. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  118. ^ Tori Fixx interview, Queer Music Heritage radio show, April 2007 Archived 2012-02-05 at the Wayback Machine, produced by JD Doyle
  119. ^ Sun, Brandon Weigel, Special To The Baltimore. "Baltimore gay rappers are loud and proud". Archived from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  120. ^ "Tyler the Creator has been 'coming out' as gay or bisexual for years and no-one cared". The Independent. July 11, 2017. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
  121. ^ Murray, Daisy (August 17, 2017). "Tyler The Creator Is The Latest Male Celebrity To Reveal He's Bisexual". ELLE. Archived from the original on February 1, 2018. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
  122. ^ "Tyler the Creator Likes Girls But 'Ends Up F**king Their Brother'". November 20, 2019. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
  123. ^ Henderson, Taylor (June 25, 2019). "Willow Smith Comes Out: 'I Love Men and Women Equally'". Archived from the original on September 8, 2019. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
  124. ^ "Interview by Jim Buzinski in interview: Will Sheridan talks about being gay and a basketball player and now a role model". Archived from the original on 2011-05-22. Retrieved 2020-10-27.
  125. ^ Dionne, Evette (2017-06-15). "Young MA: 'Music is where I'm going to speak about my sexuality'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 2021-02-15. Retrieved 2019-04-10.
  126. ^ "Young MA rapper comes out as a lesbian: 'I just need to be myself'". PinkNews. UK. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  127. ^ "Yves Tumor — Serpent Music (PAN)". dusted. Archived from the original on 2020-10-31. Retrieved 2020-10-28.