LGBT in the Middle East
The rights and freedoms of homosexuals in the Middle East have rarely received much attention among the region's predominantly conservative societies. Several Middle Eastern countries have received strong international criticism for persecuting homosexuality by imprisonment and death. However, a number of Middle Eastern countries have also occasionally made small reforms. Israel has generally been the notable exception within the region of recognising LGBT rights.
More recently in the medieval period and the early modern age, Middle Eastern societies saw a flourishing of homo-erotic literature. Shusha Guppy of the Times Higher Education Supplement has argued that "It has long been assumed that the Arab-Islamic societies have always been more tolerant of homosexuality than the West." In the 19th and early 20th century, homosexual sexual contact was considered as relatively common in the Middle East. Not least strengthened by the fact that there was significant sex segregation between men and women, which made heterosexual encounters outside marriage more difficult. According to Guppy, "In the pre-modern era, Western travellers were amazed to find Islam "a sex-positive religion" and men openly expressing their love for young boys in words and gestures." Georg Klauda wrote that "Countless writers and artists such as André Gide, Oscar Wilde, Edward M. Forster, and Jean Genet made pilgrimages in the 19th and 20th centuries from homophobic Europe to Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, and various other Arab countries, where homosexual sex was not only met without any discrimination or subcultural ghettoization whatsoever, but rather, additionally as a result of rigid segregation of the sexes, seemed to be available on every corner."
Arab and Muslim views of homosexuality as a purely "Western" creation have been explored in the film Dangerous Living: Coming Out in the Developing World. The starting line of the dialogue spoken by an as yet unseen gay Egyptian man stating "I was accused of being Westernized."
According to Country Reports of the US Department of State, in Saudi Arabia there are no established LGBT organizations. Furthermore reports of official and social discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation remains unclear because of strong social pressure of not to discuss LGBT matters.
A report of Human Rights Watch in relation to LGBT rights in the Middle East notes:
In a few places, like Egypt and Morocco, sexual orientation and gender identity issues have begun to enter the agendas of some mainstream human rights movements. Now, unlike in earlier years, there are lawyers to defend people when they are arrested, and voices to speak up in the press. These vital developments were not won through identity politics. Those have misfired disastrously as a way of claiming rights in much of the Middle East; the urge of some western LGBT activists to unearth and foster ‘gay’ politics in the region is potentially deeply counterproductive. Rather, the mainstreaming was won largely by framing the situations of LGBT (or otherwise-identified) people in terms of the rights violations, and protections, that existing human rights movements understand. (Human Rights Watch 2009, p. 18)
Klauda wrote that the Europeans had "have brought about and sorted out" homosexuals "as a distinct "minority" through a centuries-long process of normalization in the first place". By the late 20th century attitudes towards homosexuals were negative in the Middle East in Arab and Persian countries.
LGBT rights by country
- LGBT rights in Algeria
- LGBT rights in Bahrain
- LGBT rights in Egypt
- LGBT rights in Iran
- LGBT rights in Iraq
- LGBT rights in Israel
- LGBT rights in Jordan
- LGBT rights in Kuwait
- LGBT rights in Lebanon
- LGBT rights in Libya
- LGBT rights in Morocco
- LGBT rights in Oman
- LGBT rights in the Palestinian territories
- LGBT rights in Qatar
- LGBT rights in Saudi Arabia
- LGBT rights in Sudan
- LGBT rights in Syria
- LGBT rights in Tunisia
- LGBT rights in Turkey
- LGBT rights in United Arab Emirates
- LGBT rights in Yemen
- Williams, Sean (2010-02-22). "Alternative sexuality in ancient Egypt? Follow the LGBT Trail at the Petrie Museum - History - Life & Style". The Independent. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
- Guppy, Shusha. "Veiled might of the harem.(American University Press)(Before Homosexuality in the Arab-Islamic World, 1500-1800)(Book review)" (Archive only available to researchers and legal). Times Higher Education Supplement, June 9, 2006, Vol.0(1746), p.33(1). ISSN 0049-3929. Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
- Klauda, Georg (English translation by Angelus Novus). "Globalizing Homophobia" (Archive). MRZine, Monthly Review. 08.12.10. Previous version appeared in Phase 2 No. 10 (December 2003). Also published as the first chapter of Die Vertreibung aus dem Serail: Europa und die Heteronormalisierung der islamischen Welt (Berlin: Männerschwarm-Verlag, 2008). Start page 15.Retrieved on June 26, 2014.
- Pullen, Christopher (2012). LGBT Transnational Identity and the Media. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 44.
- Linda A. Mooney; David Knox; Caroline Schacht. Understanding Social Problems, 8th ed. Cengage. p. 373.
- Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2009, p. 2414
- "The use of equality and anti-discrimination law in advancing LGBT rights", by Dimitrina Petrova. PDF (Archive) - Chapter 18, Human Rights, Sexual Orientation, and Gender Identity, p. 477-505
- Klauda, Georg. "With Islamophobia against Homophobia?" (Archive). MRZine, Monthly Review. 12/11/07. Originally published in German in: Arranca! (Für eine linke Strömung, DE) 37 (October 2007) as "Mit Islamophobie contra Homophobie?" (Archive). Retrieved on August 26, 2014.
- "Three-in-Five Israelis Back Same-Sex Marriage". Angus Reid Public Opinion. Retrieved 1 June 2011
- Beirne, Rebecca and Samar Habib. "Trauma and Triumph: Documenting Middle Eastern Gender and Sexual Minorities in Film and Television" (Chapter 2). In: Pullen, Christopher. LGBT Transnational Identity and the Media. Palgrave Macmillan. 29 February 2012. ISBN 0230353517, 9780230353510.
- El-Rouayheb, Khaled. Before Homosexuality in the Arab-Islamic World, 1500-1800, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. See profile page
- Habib, Samar. Female Homosexuality in the Middle East: Histories and Representations. Routledge, July 18, 2007. ISBN 0415956730, 9780415956734. View pages at Google Books.
- Labi, Nadya. "The Kingdom in the Closet." The Atlantic. May 1, 2007.
- Patanè, Vincenzo. "Homosexuality in the Middle East and North Africa" in: Aldrich, Robert (ed.) Gay Life and Culture: A World History, Thames & Hudson, London, 2006
- Whitaker, Brian. Unspeakable Love: Gay and Lesbian Life in the Middle East. University of California Press, 2006. ISBN 0520250176, 9780520250178. See pages at Google Books.
- Wright, J. W., Jr. and Everett K. Rowson (editors). Homoeroticism in Classical Arabic Literature. Columbia University Press, 1997.