LGBT rights in Africa
LGBT rights in Africa
|Status||Legal in 22 out of 55 countries|
Legal in all 8 territories
|Gender identity||Legal in 4 out of 55 countries |
Legal in 7 out of 8 territories
|Military||Allowed to serve openly in 1 out of 55 countries|
Allowed in all 8 territories
|Discrimination protections||Protected in 7 out of 55 countries |
Protected in all 8 territories
|Recognition of relationships||Recognized in 2 out of 55 countries|
Recognized in all 8 territories
|Restrictions||Same-sex marriage constitutionally banned in 9 out of 55 countries|
|Adoption||Legal in 1 out of 55 countries|
Legal in all 8 territories
With the exception of South Africa and Cape Verde, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights in Africa are limited in comparison to the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Out of the 55 states recognised by the United Nations or African Union or both, the International Gay and Lesbian Association stated in 2015 that homosexuality is outlawed in 34 African countries. Human Rights Watch notes that another two countries, Benin and the Central African Republic, do not outlaw homosexuality, but have certain laws which discriminate against homosexual individuals. Many of the laws that criminalize homosexuality are colonial-era laws.
Homosexuality has never been criminalised in Benin, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Djibouti, Ivory Coast, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Madagascar, Mali, Niger, and Rwanda. It has been decriminalised in Angola, Botswana, Cape Verde, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe, the Seychelles and South Africa. South Africa was the fifth country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage in November of 2006. In May of 2023, the Supreme Court of Namibia ruled foreign same-sex marriages must be recognized equally to heterosexual marriages. LGBT anti-discrimination laws exist in seven African countries: Angola, Botswana, Cape Verde, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, and South Africa. While governments are increasingly enforcing the law, many legislators have recently proposed stricter sentences for same-sex activity. From 2009 and 2014, Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Act, which in its original form would have allowed the death sentence for some same-sex crimes, attracted international attention. 
Since 2011, some developed countries have been considering or implementing laws that limit or prohibit general budget support to countries that restrict the rights of LGBT people. In spite of this, many African countries have refused to consider increasing LGBT rights, and in some cases have drafted laws to increase sanctions against LGBT people. Past African leaders such as Zimbabwe’s Robert Mugabe and Uganda’s Yoweri Museveni claimed that LGBT behaviour was brought into the continent from other parts of the world. Nevertheless, most scholarship and research demonstrates that homosexuality has long been a part of various African cultures.
In a 2011 UN General Assembly declaration for LGBT rights, state parties were given a chance to express their support, opposition or abstention on the topic. Only Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritius, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, and South Africa expressed their support. Majority of the African countries expressed their opposition. State parties that expressed abstention were Angola, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Republic of the Congo, and Zambia.
In southern Somalia, Somaliland, Mauritania, northern Nigeria, and Uganda, homosexuality is punishable by death. In Sudan, Gambia, Tanzania, and Sierra Leone, offenders can receive life imprisonment for homosexual acts, although the law is not enforced in Sierra Leone. In addition to criminalizing homosexuality, Nigeria has enacted legislation that would make it illegal for heterosexual family members, allies and friends of LGBT people to be supportive. According to Nigerian law, a heterosexual ally "who administers, witnesses, abets or aids" any form of gender non-conforming and homosexual activity could receive a 10-year jail sentence.
The Republic of South Africa has the most liberal attitudes toward gays and lesbians, as the country has legalized same-sex marriage and its Constitution guarantees gay and lesbian rights and protections. South Africa is the only country in Africa where any form of discrimination against the LGBT community is constitutionally forbidden. In 2006, South Africa became the first country in Africa and the fifth in the world to enact same-sex marriage. Discrimination is, however, far rarer in bigger cities, and there are large LGBT communities in cities like Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Pretoria, Port Elizabeth, East London, Bloemfontein, Nelspruit, Pietermaritzburg, Kimberley and George. South Africa's three largest cities, Johannesburg, Durban and Cape Town, are considered fairly accepting of the LGBT community and are promoted as tourist destinations for LGBT people. However, despite legal recognition, social discrimination against South African LGBT people does still occur, particularly in rural areas, where it is fueled by a number of religious figures and traditions. Spanish, Portuguese, British and French territories legalised same-sex marriages.
Travel advisories encourage gay and lesbian travelers to use discretion whilst in Africa to ensure their personal safety, including by avoiding public displays of affection (advice which applies to both homosexual and heterosexual couples). South Africa is generally considered to be the most gay-friendly African country in respect of the legal status of LGBT rights, although Cape Verde is also frequently regarded as being very socially accepting of LGBT rights.
History of male homosexuality in Africa
It remains unclear what view the ancient Egyptians fostered about homosexuality. Any document and literature that actually contains sexually oriented stories never names the nature of the sexual deeds but instead uses stilted and flowery paraphrases. Ancient Egyptian documents never clearly say that same-sex relationships were seen as reprehensible or despicable. No ancient Egyptian document mentions that homosexual acts were set under penalty. Thus, a straight evaluation remains problematic.
The best-known case of possible homosexuality in ancient Egypt is that of the two high officials Nyankh-Khnum and Khnum-hotep. Both men lived and served under pharaoh Niuserre during the 5th Dynasty (c. 2494–2345 BC). Nyankh-Khnum and Khnum-hotep each had families of their own with children and wives, but when they died their families apparently decided to bury them together in one and the same mastaba tomb. In this mastaba, several paintings depict both men embracing each other and touching their faces nose-on-nose. These depictions leave plenty of room for speculation, because in ancient Egypt the nose-on-nose touching normally represented a kiss.
Egyptologists and historians disagree about how to interpret the paintings of Nyankh-khnum and Khnum-hotep. Some scholars believe that the paintings reflect an example of homosexuality between two married men and prove that the ancient Egyptians accepted same-sex relationships. Other scholars disagree and interpret the scenes as an evidence that Nyankh-khnum and Khnum-hotep were twins, even possibly conjoined twins. No matter what interpretation is correct, the paintings show at the very least that Nyankh-khnum and Khnum-hotep must have been very close to each other in life as in death.
The Roman Emperor Constantine in the 4th century AD is said to have exterminated a large number of "effeminate priests" based in Alexandria.
North Africa contained some of the most visible and well-documented traditions of homosexuality in the world – particularly during the period of Mamluk rule. Arabic poetry emerging from cosmopolitan and literate societies frequently described the pleasures of pederastic relationships. There are accounts of Christian boys being sent from Europe to become sex workers in Egypt. In Cairo, cross-dressing men called "khawal" would entertain audiences with song and dance (potentially of pre-Islamic origin).
The Siwa Oasis in Egypt was described by several early twentieth century travellers as a place where same-sex sexual relationships were quite common. A group of warriors in this area were known for paying reverse dowries to younger men; a practice that was outlawed in the 1940s.
Siegfried Frederick Nadel wrote about the Nuba tribes in Sudan the late 1930s. He noted that among the Otoro, a special transvestitic role existed whereby men dressed and lived as women. Transvestitic homosexuality also existed amongst the Moru, Nyima, and Tira people, and reported marriages of Korongo londo and Mesakin tubele for the bride price of one goat. In the Korongo and Mesakin tribes, Nadel reported a common reluctance among men to abandon the pleasure of all-male camp life for the fetters of permanent settlement.
Gender-nonconforming and homosexuality has been reported in a number of East African societies. In pre-colonial East Africa there have been examples of male priests in traditional religions dressing as women. British social anthropologist Rodney Needham has described such a religious leadership role called "mugawe" among the Meru people and Kikuyu people of Kenya, which included wearing women's clothes and hairstyle. Mugawe are frequently homosexual, and sometimes are formally married to a man.
Such men were known as "ikihindu" among the Hutu and Tutsi peoples of Burundi and Rwanda. A similar role is played by some men within the Swahili-speaking Mashoga—who often take on women's names and cook and clean for their husbands.
In Ethiopian history, the recognition of same-sex activity is generally obscure, which means no rare evidence left to scholarly research. However, The Life and Struggles of Our Mother Wälättä P̣eṭros (1672) is the first reference of homosexuality between nuns in Ethiopian literature. Homosexuality, meanwhile, was faded out through much of its history until in Meles Zenawi administration in 2008, followed by rapid growth of communal upheaval in the country into suppression. However with negative public attitude and legal codification in Constitution's Article 629, same-sex activity is criminalized up to 15 years life imprisonment.
According to 2007 Pew Research Center, 97% of Ethiopians said that homosexuality is the way of life that society should not accept, becoming the highest level of rejection after Mali. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church plays a significant role in maintaining society against homosexuality, and some members form anti-gay movements. One of them is "Zim Anlem" founded by Dereje Negash, who strongly affiliated with the Church.
Among the Maale people of southern Ethiopia, historian Donald Donham documented "a small minority [of men] crossed over to feminine roles. Called "ashtime", these (biological) males dressed like women, performed female tasks, cared for their own houses, and apparently had sexual relations with men". They were also protected by the king.
In Uganda, religious roles for cross-dressing men (homosexual priests) were historically found among the Bunyoro people. Similarly, the kingdom of Buganda (part of modern-day Uganda) institutionalized certain forms of same-sex relations. Young men served in the royal courts and provided sexual services for visitors and elites. King Mwanga II of Buganda had several such men executed when they converted to Christianity and refused to carry out their assigned duties (the "Uganda Martyrs"). The Teso people of Uganda also have a category of men who dress as women.
Swedish anthropologist Felix Bryk reported active (i.e., insertive) Kikuyu pederasts called onek, and also mentioned "homo-erotic bachelors" among the pastoralist Nandi and Maragoli (Wanga). The Nandi as well as the Maasai would sometimes cross-dress as women during initiation ceremonies.
The Dagaaba people, who lived in Burkina Faso, believed that homosexual men were able to mediate between the spirit and human worlds. They also believed that gender was based on the energy of a person rather than that of anatomy.
Writing in the 19th century about the area of today's southwestern Zimbabwe, David Livingstone asserted that the monopolization of women by elderly chiefs was essentially responsible for the "immorality" practised by younger men. Edwin W. Smith and A. Murray Dale mention one Ila-speaking man who dressed as a woman, did women's work, lived and slept among, but not with, women. The Ila label "mwaami" they translated as "prophet". They also mentioned that pederasty was not rare, "but was considered dangerous because of the risk that the boy will become pregnant".
Marc Epprecht's review of 250 court cases from 1892 to 1923 found cases from the beginnings of the records. The five 1892 cases all involved black Africans. A defense offered was that "sodomy" was part of local "custom". In one case a chief was summoned to testify about customary penalties and reported that the penalty was a fine of one cow, which was less than the penalty for adultery. Over the entire period, Epprecht found the balance of black and white defendants proportional to that in the population. He notes, however, only what came to the attention of the courts—most consensual relations in private did not necessarily provoke notice. Some cases were brought by partners who had been dropped or who had not received promised compensation from their former sexual partner. And although the norm was for the younger male to lie supine and not show any enjoyment, let alone expect any sexual mutuality, Epprecht found a case in which a pair of black males had stopped their sexual relationship out of fear of pregnancy, but one wanted to resume taking turns penetrating each other.
Legislation by country or territory
|List of countries or territories by LGBT rights in Africa|
Indian Ocean states
Views of African leaders on homosexuality
The former president of Zimbabwe, Robert Mugabe, was uncompromising in his opposition to LGBT rights in Zimbabwe. In September 1995, Zimbabwe's parliament introduced legislation banning homosexual acts. In 1997, a court found Canaan Banana, Mugabe's predecessor and the first President of Zimbabwe, guilty of 11 counts of sodomy and indecent assault. Mugabe has previously referred to LGBT people as being "worse than dogs and pigs".
In the Gambia, former President Yahya Jammeh led the call for legislation that would set laws against homosexuals that would be "stricter than those in Iran", and that he would "cut off the head" of any gay or lesbian person discovered in the country. News reports indicated his government intended to execute all homosexuals in the country. In the speech given in Tallinding, Jammeh gave a "final ultimatum" to any gays or lesbians in the Gambia to leave the country. In a speech to the United Nations on 27 September 2013, Jammeh said that "[h]omosexuality in all its forms and manifestations which, though very evil, antihuman as well as anti-Allah, is being promoted as a human right by some powers", and that those who do so "want to put an end to human existence". In 2014, Jammeh called homosexuals "vermins" by saying that "We will fight these vermins called homosexuals or gays the same way we are fighting malaria-causing mosquitoes, if not more aggressively". He also went on to disparage LGBT people by saying that "As far as I am concerned, LGBT can only stand for Leprosy, Gonorrhoea, Bacteria and Tuberculosis; all of which are detrimental to human existence". In 2015, in defiance of western criticism Jammeh intensified his anti-gay rhetoric, telling a crowd during an agricultural tour: "If you do it [in the Gambia] I will slit your throat—if you are a man and want to marry another man in this country and we catch you, no one will ever set eyes on you again, and no white person can do anything about it."
In Uganda there were recent efforts to institute the death penalty for homosexuality until March 22, 2023 where gay sex is punishable by the death penalty or life imprisonment. British newspaper The Guardian reported that President Yoweri Museveni "appeared to add his backing" to the legislative effort by, among other things, claiming "European homosexuals are recruiting in Africa", and saying gay relationships were against God's will. In a 2014 interview with CNN, Museveni described homosexuals as "disgusting", saying that their acts are "unnatural" and that he would be able to ignore them if it was proven that "[he] is born that way". He also said that he had appointed a group of scientists in Uganda to determine if homosexuality was a learned orientation. This led to widespread criticism from the scientific community, with an academic of the National Institutes of Health calling on his Ugandan counterparts to reconsider their findings. And as of March 22, 2023, Uganda passed a law to make it illegal to identify as LGBT and made it punishable with life imprisonment and the death penalty for aggravated gay sex.
Abune Paulos, the late Patriarch of the ancient Ethiopian Orthodox Church, which has a very strong influence in Christian Ethiopia, stated homosexuality is an animal-like behavior that must be punished.
Chad in 2017 passed a law criminalizing sodomy. Previously, the country never had any laws against consensual same-sex activity. Conversely, some African states like Lesotho, São Tomé and Príncipe, Mozambique, the Seychelles, Angola, and Botswana have abolished sodomy laws in recent years. Legalization is proposed in some African states like Eswatini, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Namibia, Togo, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Gabon passed a law criminalizing sodomy in 2019 and reversed its decision by once again decriminalizing homosexuality a year later in 2020.
|Mozambique (3 cities)||Lambda||2017||28%
|12% some rights, 14% not sure||±4.8% [+ more urban/educated than representative]|||
|Country||Pollster||Year||For||Against||Don't Know/Neutral/No answer/Other|
Homosexuals as neighbours
|Acceptance of homosexuals as neighbours|
|Country||Would tolerate (%)||Would not tolerate (%)|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||40%||59%|
|Source: Afrobarometer (2016-2018)|
- Recognition of same-sex unions in Africa
- Human rights in Africa
- Coalition of African Lesbians
- LGBT rights by country or territory
- LGBT rights in Europe
- LGBT rights in the Americas
- LGBT rights in Asia
- LGBT rights in Oceania
- ^ Also comprises: Don't know; No answer; Other; Refused.
- ^ a b "State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition" (PDF). International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. 17 May 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 September 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- ^ Ferreira, Louise (28 July 2015). "How many African states outlaw same-sex relations? (At least 34)". Archived from the original on 22 April 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- ^ "How Britain's colonial legacy still affects LGBT politics around the world". theconversation.com. Retrieved 19 April 2023.
- ^ Dreier, Sarah K.; Long, James D.; Winkler, Stephen J. (June 2020). "African, Religious, and Tolerant? How Religious Diversity Shapes Attitudes Toward Sexual Minorities in Africa". Politics and Religion. 13 (2): 273–303. doi:10.1017/S1755048319000348.
- ^ ""Cameron threat to dock some UK aid to anti-gay nations", BBC News, 30 October 2011". BBC News. Archived from the original on 18 June 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- ^ ""Ghana refuses to grant gays' rights despite aid threat", BBC News, 2 November 2011". BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 April 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- ^ ""Uganda fury at David Cameron aid threat over gay rights", BBC News, 31 October 2011". BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 April 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- ^ a b c d e f Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 2 OUP, USA, 2010
- ^ "South Africa: LGBT Groups Respond To Contralesa's Stance on Same Sex Marriage | OutRight Action International". Outrightinternational.org. 26 October 2006. Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- ^ Shaw, Angus (21 May 2012). "Zimbabwe Rejects UN Appeal for Gay Rights, Denies Torture Claims". The Huffington Post. Harare. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- ^ ""Gambian President Says No to Aid Money Tied to Gay Rights", Voice of America, reported by Ricci Shryock, 22 April 2012". VOA. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- ^ Boni, di Federico. "Sudan, cancellata la pena di morte per le persone omosessuali - Gay.it". www.gay.it (in Italian). Archived from the original on 16 July 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
- ^ "African Anti-Gay Laws". Laprogressive.com. 20 February 2014. Archived from the original on 5 November 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- ^ "Una boda homosexual en el centro de inmigrantes de Melilla para "acabar con el miedo"". eldiario.es. 10 May 2016. Archived from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- ^ Badrudin, Assani. "Mayotte: First gay wedding soon celebrated on the island of perfumes". Indian Ocean Times – only positive news on indian ocean. Archived from the original on 29 April 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- ^ Planet, Lonely. "Gay and Lesbian travel in Africa – Lonely Planet". Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- ^ "Africa's most and least homophobic countries". Afrobarometer. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
- ^ a b c d Parkinson, R. B. (1995). "'Homosexual' Desire and Middle Kingdom Literature". The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 81 (1): 57–76. doi:10.1177/030751339508100111. S2CID 192073466.
- ^ Emma Brunner-Traut: Altägyptische Märchen. Mythen und andere volkstümliche Erzählungen. 10th Edition. Diederichs, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-424-01011-1, pp. 178–179.
- ^ "Archaeological Sites". 20 October 2010. Archived from the original on 20 October 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- ^ Nadel, S. F. "The Nuba; an anthropological study of the hill tribes in Kordofan" – via Internet Archive.
- ^ Rodney Needham, Right and Left: Essays on Dual Symbol Classification, University of Chicago Press, 1973.
- ^ "UNPO: Ethiopia: Sexual Minorities Under Threat". unpo.org. Archived from the original on 9 May 2021. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
- ^ Belcher, Wendy Laura (2016). "Same-Sex Intimacies in the Early African Text Gädlä Wälättä P̣eṭros (1672): Queer Reading an Ethiopian Woman Saint". Research in African Literatures. 47 (2): 20–45. doi:10.2979/reseafrilite.47.2.03. ISSN 0034-5210. JSTOR 10.2979/reseafrilite.47.2.03. S2CID 148427759.
- ^ Itaborahy, Lucas Paoli (May 2012). "State Sponsored Homophobia: A world survey of laws criminalising same-sex sexual acts between consenting adults" (PDF). The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
- ^ "Long-Distance Trade and Foreign Contact". Uganda. Library of Congress Country Studies. December 1990. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- ^ Williams, James S. (21 March 2019). Ethics and Aesthetics in Contemporary African Cinema: The Politics of Beauty. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 9781784533359.
- ^ Ahmed, Hannah (29 July 2020). "The British Empire and the Criminalisation of Homosexuality". New Histories. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
- ^ Buckle, Leah (1 October 2020). "African Sexuality and the Legacy of Imported Homophobia". Stonewall. Archived from the original on 9 June 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
- ^ David Livingstone, The Last Journals of David Livingstone, in Central Africa, From 1865 to His Death, 1866–1873 Continued by a Narrative of His Last Moments and Sufferings
- ^ a b Will Roscoe and Stephen O. Murray(Author, Editor, Boy-wives and Female Husbands: Studies of African Homosexualities, 2001
- ^ Carroll, Aengus; Mendos, Lucas Ramón (May 2017). "State Sponsored Homophobia 2017: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition" (PDF). ILGA.
- ^ "Algeria". Human Dignity Trust. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
- ^ "Algeria: Treatment of homosexuals by society and government authorities; protection available including recourse to the law for homosexuals who have been subject to ill-treatment (2005-2007)". Refworld. Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. 30 July 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc "State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition" (PDF). International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- ^ Galán, José Ignacio Pichardo. "Same-sex couples in Spain. Historical, contextual and symbolic factors" (PDF). Institut national d'études démographiques. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- ^ a b c "Spain approves liberal gay marriage law". St. Petersburg Times. 1 July 2005. Archived from the original on 28 December 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2007.
- ^ a b c "Spain Intercountry Adoption Information". U. S. Department of State — Bureau of Consular Affairs. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- ^ "Ley 14/2006, de 26 de mayo, sobre técnicas de reproducción humana asistida". Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). 27 May 2006. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- ^ a b "Rainbow Europe: legal situation for lesbian, gay and bisexual people in Europe" (PDF). ILGA-Europe. May 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2014.
- ^ a b c "Ley 3/2007, de 15 de marzo, reguladora de la rectificación registral de la mención relativa al sexo de las personas". Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). 16 March 2007.
- ^ "Reglamento regulador del Registro de Uniones de Hecho, de 11 de septiembre de 1998". Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta (in Spanish). 11 September 1998.
- ^ "Egypt (Law)". ILGA. Archived from the original on 11 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- ^ "Libyan 'Gay' Men Face Torture, Death By Militia: Report (GRAPHIC)". HuffPost. 26 November 2012.
- ^ Fhelboom, Reda (22 June 2015). "Less than human". Development and Cooperation.
- ^ "Lei n.ᵒ 7/2001" (PDF). Diário da República Eletrónico (in Portuguese). 11 May 2001. Article 1, no. 1.
- ^ "AR altera lei das uniões de facto".
- ^ Law no. 9/2010, from 30th May.
- ^ "Lei 17/2016 de 20 de junho".
- ^ "Lei que alarga a procriação medicamente assistida publicada em Diário da República". tvi24. 20 June 2016.
- ^ "Todas as mulheres com acesso à PMA a 1 de Agosto". PÚBLICO.
- ^ "MEPs welcome new gender change law in Portugal; concerned about Lithuania - The European Parliament Intergroup on LGBTI Rights". www.lgbt-ep.eu.
- ^ "REGLAMENTO REGULADOR DEL REGISTRO DE PAREJAS DE HECHO DE LA CIUDAD AUTÓNOMA DE MELILLA" [REGULATORY REGULATION OF THE REGISTER OF COUPLES IN FACT OF THE CIUDAD AUTÓNOMA DE MELILLA] (PDF) (in Spanish). 1 February 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- ^ "ILGA-Europe". ilga-europe.org.
- ^ "Morocco (Law)". ilga.org. ILGA. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- ^ Encyclopedia of Lesbian and Gay Histories and Cultures: An Encyclopedia. Gay histories and cultures. Vol. 2. Taylor & Francis. 8 November 2017. ISBN 9780815333548 – via Google Books.
- ^ "La junta de protección a la infancia de Barcelona: Aproximación histórica y guía de su archivo" (PDF). Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- ^ "Reforms In Sudan Result In Removal Of Death Penalty And Flogging For Same-Sex Relations". curvemag.com. 16 July 2020.
- ^ "Tunisia (Law)". ilga.org. ILGA. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- ^ "Tunisian presidential committee recommends decriminalizing homosexuality". NBC News. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
- ^ "Benin (Law)". ilga.org. ILGA. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- ^ "The Gambia passes bill imposing life sentences for some homosexual acts | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Where is it illegal to be gay? - BBC News". Bbc.com. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- ^ "Gambia outlaws cross-dressing". news.com.au. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
- ^ Darkwa, Jacqueline. "Ghana's anti-LGBTIQ bill: Activists are preparing to fight". openDemocracy. Retrieved 10 January 2023./
- ^ "Ghana (Law)". ilga.org. ILGA. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- ^ "Sexual Minorities: Their Treatment Across the World". Xpats.io. 11 January 2010.
- ^ "LGBT Rights in Liberia - Equaldex". www.equaldex.com.
- ^ "LGBT Rights in Mauritania - Equaldex". www.equaldex.com.
- ^ "Nigeria (Law)". ilga.org. ILGA. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- ^ "Marriage (Ascension) Ordinance, 2016" (PDF).
- ^ Jackman, Josh (20 December 2017). "This tiny island just passed same-sex marriage". PinkNews.
- ^ "LGBT Rights in Senegal". Equaldex.
- ^ Salerno, Rob. "2022 in worldwide LGBT rights progress – Part 6: Global Trends". Erasing 76 Crimes. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
- ^ "Cameroonian LGBTI activist found tortured to death in home". glaad.org. 17 July 2013.
- ^ "Décret n° 160218 du 30 mars 2016 portant promulgation de la Constitution de la République centrafricaine" (PDF). ilo.org.
- ^ "Code Pénal du 8 mai 2017" (PDF). droit-afrique.com.
- ^ "Gabon lawmakers vote to decriminalise homosexuality". Reuters. Reuters. 24 June 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
- ^ "Everything you need to know about human rights. | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. 25 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- ^ "DJIBOUTI 2015 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT" (PDF).
- ^ "LGBT Rights in Eritrea - Equaldex". www.equaldex.com.
- ^ Asokan, Ishan (16 November 2012). "A bludgeoned horn: Eritrea's abuses and 'guilt by association' policy.'". Consultancy Africa Intelligence. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- ^ 2009-2017.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/af/154345.html
- ^ "Laws of Kenya ; The Constitution of Kenya" (PDF). Kenyaembassy.com. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- ^ "OutRight Action International: Kenya".
- ^ "'Don't come back, they'll kill you for being gay'". BBC NEWS. 2020.
- ^ "2013 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT" (PDF). Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. 2013. p. 33.
- ^ "Tanzania: Mixed Messages on Anti-Gay Persecution". hrw.org. 6 November 2018.
- ^ Gettleman, Jeffrey (8 November 2017). "David Kato, Gay Rights Activist, Is Killed in Uganda" – via www.nytimes.com.
- ^ "Uganda anti-homosexuality bill sets death penalty as punishment". 21 March 2023.
- ^ "LGBT Rights in Comoros - Equaldex". www.equaldex.com.
- ^ Salerno, Rob. "2022 in worldwide LGBT rights progress – Part 6: Global Trends". Erasing 76 Crimes. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
- ^ "The Sexual Offences Bill" (PDF). mauritiusassembly.govmu.org. Government of Mauritius. 6 April 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- ^ "LGBT Rights in Mauritius - Equaldex". www.equaldex.com.
- ^ a b "Africa: Outspoken activists defend continent's sexual diversity - Norwegian Council for Africa". Afrika.no. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- ^ "Equal Opportunities Act 2008" (PDF). Ilo.org. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- ^ "Tiny African victory: Seychelles repeals ban on gay sex". 18 May 2016.
- ^ "Diario da Republica" (PDF) (in Portuguese).
- ^ "Employment & labour law in Angola". Lexology. 15 September 2015.
- ^ "Transgender Rights in Angola" (PDF).
- ^ Fox, Kara. "Botswana scraps gay sex laws in big victory for LGBTQ rights in Africa". CNN.
- ^ "NEWS RELEASE: BOTSWANA HIGH COURT RULES IN LANDMARK GENDER IDENTITY CASE – SALC".
- ^ "Transgender Rights in Lesotho" (PDF).
- ^ "Malawi suspends anti-gay laws as MPs debate repeal | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- ^ "Mozambique Gay Rights Group Wants Explicit Constitutional Protections | Care2 Causes". Care2.com. 3 March 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- ^ "Homosexuality Decriminalised in Mozambique". Kuchu Times. 1 June 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- ^ Marketing, Intouch Interactive. "Sodomy law's days numbered - Geingos - Local News - Namibian Sun". www.namibiansun.com.
- ^ "Namibia". State.gov. 4 March 2002. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- ^ "Namibia". Lgbtnet.dk. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- ^ "Transgender Rights in Namibia" (PDF).
- ^ "Is There Space For The LGBTQI Community In Zimbabwe?". 21 March 2023.
- ^ Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment, (No. 20) Act. 2013
- ^ Page 180 Archived 26 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine Hungochani: The History of a Dissident Sexuality in Southern Africa
- ^ Page 93 Archived 26 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine Body, Sexuality, and Gender v. 1
- ^ Brocklebank, Christopher (14 August 2012). "Police raid headquarters of LGBT rights group". PinkNews. Archived from the original on 12 June 2019. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- ^ a b c President Jammeh Gives Ultimatum for Homosexuals to Leave Archived 15 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Gambia News, 19 May 2008.
- ^ Gambian president says gays a threat to human existence-20130928 Archived 5 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters, 28 September 2013.
- ^ "Gambia's Jammeh calls gays 'vermin', says to fight like mosquitoes". Reuters. 18 February 2014. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- ^ "Tainting love". The Economist. 11 October 2014. Archived from the original on 26 August 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- ^ "Gambian President Says He Will Slit Gay Men's Throats in Public Speech – VICE News". Archived from the original on 9 September 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- ^ "Harper lobbies Uganda on anti-gay bill" Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Globe and Mail (Toronto), 29 November 2009.
- ^ "British PM against anti-gay legislation" Archived 2 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Monitor Online, 29 November 2009
- ^ "Uganda considers death sentence for gay sex in bill before parliament" Archived 31 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Guardian, 29 November 2009.
- ^ Landau, Elizabeth; Verjee, Zain; Mortensen, Antonia (25 February 2014). "Uganda president: Homosexuals are 'disgusting'". CNN. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
- ^ Nicholls, Larry Madowo,Catherine (21 March 2023). "Uganda parliament passes bill criminalizing identifying as LGBTQ, imposes death penalty for some offenses". CNN. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
- ^ Atuhaire, Patience (21 March 2023). "Uganda Anti-Homosexuality bill: Life in prison for saying you're gay". BBC News. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
- ^ "Most Mozambicans against homosexual violence, study finds". MambaOnline - Gay South Africa online. 4 June 2018., (full report)
- ^ "LGBT+ Pride 2021 Global Survey" (PDF). Retrieved 23 June 2021.
- ^ https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2021-06/LGBT%20Pride%202021%20Global%20Survey%20Report_6.pdf
- Nyoni, Zanele (2020). "The Struggle for Equality: LGBT Rights Activism in Sub-Saharan Africa". Human Rights Law Review. 20 (3): 582–601. doi:10.1093/hrlr/ngaa019.
- Gloppen, Siri; Rakner, Lise (2020). "LGBT rights in Africa". Research Handbook on Gender, Sexuality and the Law. ISBN 9781788111157.
- African Veil – African LGBT site with news articles
- Africans and Arabs come out online, Reuters via Television New Zealand
Signare Bi Sukugn Afroqueer Reporter