LGBT rights in Africa

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LGBT rights in Africa
Africa
Africa
Same-sex sexual activity legal? Legal in 22 out of 56 countries
Legal in all 4 territories
Gender identity/expression Legal in 1 out of 56 countries
Legal in all 4 territories
Military service Allowed to serve openly in 1 out of 56 countries
Legal in all 4 territories
Discrimination protections Legal in 7 out of 56 counties
Legal in all 4 territories
Family rights
Recognition of
relationships
Legal in 1 out of 56 countries
Legal in 3 out of 4 territories
Restrictions:
Same-sex marriage constitutionally banned in 8 out of 56 states
Adoption Legal in 1 out of 56 countries
Legal in 3 out of 4 territories

With the exception of South Africa, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights in Africa are very limited in comparison to many other areas of the world.

Homosexuality is found throughout the African continent.[1] Out of the 55 states recognised by the United Nations or African Union or both, the International Gay and Lesbian Association stated in 2015 that homosexuality is outlawed in 34 African countries.[2] Human Rights Watch notes that another two countries, Benin and the Central African Republic, do not outlaw homosexuality, but have certain laws which apply differently to heterosexual and homosexual individuals.[3]

Homosexual activity between adults has never been criminalised in Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Madagascar, Mali, Niger, and Rwanda.

Since 2011, some developed countries have been considering or implementing laws that limit or prohibit general budget support to countries that restrict the rights of homosexuals.[4] In spite of this, many African countries have refused to consider increasing LGBT rights,[5] and in some cases have drafted laws to increase sanctions against LGBT people.[6] Many African leaders[who?] claim that it was brought into the continent from other parts of the world. Most scholars nevertheless believe that homosexuality has long been a part of various African cultures.[1][7][8][9]

In Sudan, southern Somalia and northern Nigeria homosexuality is punishable by death.[2] In Uganda, Tanzania, and Sierra Leone, offenders can receive life imprisonment for homosexual acts. In addition to criminalizing homosexuality, Nigeria has enacted legislation that would make it illegal for heterosexual family members, allies and friends of the LGBT to be supportive. According to Nigerian law, a heterosexual ally "who administers, witnesses, abets or aids" any form of gender non-conforming and homosexual activity could receive a 10-year jail sentence.[10] South Africa has the most liberal attitudes toward gays and lesbians, with a constitution which guarantees gay and lesbian rights and legal same-sex marriage. The Spanish and French territories also permit same-sex marriages.[11][12]

Gay and lesbian travellers to Africa should use discretion. Public displays of affection should generally be avoided, advice which applies to both homosexual and heterosexual couples.[13]

History of homosexuality in Africa[edit]

Ancient history[edit]

Egypt[edit]

It remains unclear, what exact view the Ancient Egyptians fostered about homosexuality. Any document and literature that actually contains sexual orientated stories, never name the nature of the sexual deeds, but instead uses stilted and flowery paraphrases. Ancient Egyptian documents never clearly say that same-sex relationships were seen as reprehensible or despicable. And no Ancient Egyptian document mentions that homosexual acts were set under penalty. Thus, a straight evaluation remains problematic.[14][15]

Nyankh-khnum and Khnum-hotep kissing.

The best known case of possible homosexuality in Ancient Egypt is that of the two high officials Nyankh-Khnum and Khnum-hotep. Both men lived and served under pharaoh Niuserre during the 5th Dynasty (c. 2494–2345 BC).[14] Nyankh-Khnum and Khnum-hotep each had families of their own with children and wives, but when they died their families apparently decided to bury them together in one and the same mastaba tomb. In this mastaba, several paintings depict both men embracing each other and touching their faces nose-on-nose. These depictions leave plenty of room for speculation, because in Ancient Egypt the nose-on-nose touching normally represented a kiss.[14]

Egyptologists and historians disagree about how to interpret the paintings of Nyankh-khnum and Khnum-hotep. Some scholars believe that the paintings reflect an example of homosexuality between two married men and prove that the Ancient Egyptians accepted same-sex relationships.[16] Other scholars disagree and interpret the scenes as an evidence that Nyankh-khnum and Khnum-hotep were twins, even possibly conjoined twins. No matter what interpretation is correct, the paintings show at the very least that Nyankh-khnum and Khnum-hotep must have been very close to each other in life as in death.[14]

The Roman Emperor Constantine in the 4th century AD is said to have exterminated a large number of "effeminate priests" based in Alexandria.[1]

Southern Africa[edit]

Evidence of homosexuality has also been found in 2000-year-old rock paintings in southern Africa depicting men having sex with other men.[1]

Modern history[edit]

North Africa[edit]

North Africa contained some of the most visible and well-documented traditions of homosexuality in the world - particularly during the period of Mamluk rule. Arabic poetry emerging from cosmopolitan and literate societies frequently described the pleasures of pederastic relationships. There are accounts of Christian boys being sent from Europe to become sex workers in Egypt. In Cairo, cross-dressing men called "khawal" would entertain audiences with song and dance (potentially of pre-Islamic origin).[1]

The Siwa Oasis in Egypt was described by several early twentieth century travellers as a place where same-sex sexual relationships were quite common. A group of warriors in this area were known for paying reverse dowries to younger men; a practice that was outlawed in the 1940s.[1]

Siegfried Frederick Nadel wrote about the Nuba tribes in Sudan the late 1930s.[17] He noted that among the Otoro, a special transvestitic role existed whereby men dressed and lived as women. Transvestitic homosexuality also existed amongst the Moru, Nyima, and Tira people, and reported marriages of Korongo londo and Mesakin tubele for the bride price of one goat. In the Korongo and Mesakin tribes, Nadel reported a common reluctance among men to abandon the pleasure of all-male camp life for the fetters of permanent settlement.

East Africa[edit]

Cross-gender homosexuality not tied to possession cults has been reported in a number of East African societies. In pre-colonial East Africa there have been examples of male priests in traditional religions dressing as women. Needham has described such a religious leadership role called "mugawe" among the Meru people and Kikuyu people of Kenya which included wearing women’s clothes and hairstyle.[18] Mugawe are frequently homosexual, and sometimes are formally married to a man.

Such men were known as "ikihindu" among the Hutu and Tutsi peoples of Burundi and Rwanda. A similar role is played by some men within the Swahili-speaking Mashoga - who often take on women's names and cook and clean for their husbands.[1]

Bryk (1964) reported active (i.e., insertive) Kikuyu pederasts called onek, and also mentioned "homo-erotic bachelors" among the pastoralist Nandi and Maragoli (Wanga). The Nandi as well as the Maasai would sometimes cross-dress as women during initiation ceremonies.

Among the Maale people of southern Ethiopia, Donald Donham documented "a small minority [of men] crossed over to feminine roles. Called "ashtime", these (biological) males dressed like women, performed female tasks, cared for their own houses, and apparently had sexual relations with men,". They were also protected by the king.[19] Also in Ethiopia Bieber encountered "Uranism" among the Semitic Harari people and noted that "sodomy is not foreign to the Harari. Albeit not as commonly, it also occurs among the Galla and Somali." He also noted mutual masturbation by both sexes and all ages for all three peoples, and specified that among the Harari, "Uranism" was practiced as often between adult men as between men and boys.[20] More recently, Gamst reported homosexual relations among shepherd boys of the Cushitic-speaking Qemant (Kemant) of central Ethiopia.[21] Among Amhara peasants, Messing found (better-accepted) male transvestites, who were viewd as "God’s mistakes." Wändarwäräd (literally "male-female") with visible male sexual characteristics, but whose structure was popularly believed to be defective.[22]

In Uganda, religious roles for cross-dressing men (homosexual priests) were historically found among the Bunyoro people. Similarly, the kingdom of Buganda (part of modern-day Uganda) institutionalised certain forms of same-sex relations. Young men served in the royal courts and provided sexual services for visitors and elites. King Mwanga had several such pages executed when they converted to Christianity and refused to carry out their assigned duties (the "Uganda Martyrs".[1][23] The Teso people of Uganda also have a category of men who dress as women.

West Africa[edit]

In West Africa there is extensive historical evidence of homosexuality. In the 18th and 19th century Asante courts (modern day Ghana) male slaves served as concubines. They dressed like women and were killed when their master died. In the kingdom of Dahomey, eunuchs were known as royal wives and played an important part at court.

The Dagaaba people, who lived in Burkina Faso believed that homosexual men were able to mediate between the spirit and human worlds.

Southern Africa[edit]

Writing in the 19th century about the area of today's southwestern Zimbabwe, David Livingstone asserted that the monopolization of women by elderly chiefs was essentially responsible for the "immorality" practised by younger men.[24] Smith and Dale mention one Ila-speaking man who dressed as a woman, did women’s work, lived and slept among, but not with, women. The Ila label "mwaami" they translated as "prophet." They also mentioned that pederasty was not rare, "but was considered dangerous because of the risk that the boy will become pregnant.[25]

Epprecht’s review of 250 court cases from 1892 to 1923 found cases from the beginnings of the records. The five 1892 cases all involved black Africans. A defense offered was that "sodomy" was part of local "custom." In one case a chief was summoned to testify about customary penalties and reported that the penalty was a fine of one cow, which was less than the penalty for adultery. Over the entire period, Epprecht found the balance of black and white defendants proportional to that in the population. He notes, however, only what came to the attention of the courts - most consensual relations in private did not necessarily provoke notice. Some cases were brought by partners who had been dropped or who had not received promised compensation from their former sexual partner. And although the norm was for the younger male to lie supine and not show any enjoyment, let alone expect any sexual mutuality, Epprecht found a case in which a pair of black males had stopped their sexual relationship out of fear of pregnancy, but one wanted to resume taking turns penetrating each other.[25]

Same-sex sexual activity legal
  Same-sex marriage
  No recognition of same-sex couples
Same-sex sexual activity illegal
  Not Enforced or unclear
  Penalty
  Life in prison
  Death penalty

Legislation by country or territory

This table:

Northern Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Algeria Algeria No Illegal since 1966
Penalty: Fine and up to 2 years imprisonment.[2][26]
No No No No No No
Ceuta Ceuta (Autonomous city of Spain) Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes De facto union since 1998[27] Yes Legal since 2005[28] Yes Legal since 2005[29] Yes Spain responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[30] Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[31]
Egypt Egypt No Male de facto illegal
Penalty: Up to 17 years imprisonment with or without hard labour and with or without torture and fines under broadly written morality laws
Emblem-question.svg Female uncertain.[2][32]
No No No No No No
Libya Libya No Illegal
Penalty: Up to death [33]
No No No No No No
Melilla Melilla (Autonomous city of Spain) Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes De facto union since 2008[34] Yes Legal since 2005[28] Yes Legal since 2005[29] Yes Spain responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[30] Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[31]
Morocco Morocco
(Including Southern Provinces)
No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment.[2][35]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
South Sudan South Sudan No Illegal since 1899 (as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)
Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment.[2][26]
No No Constitutional ban since 2011. No No No No
Sudan Sudan No Illegal since 1899 (as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)
Penalty: Death penalty on third offense for men and on fourth offense for women.[2]
No No No No No No
Tunisia Tunisia No Illegal
Penalty: 3 years imprisonment.[2][36]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No

Western Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Benin Benin Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[2][37] (Age of consent discrepancy)[2] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[2] No No Constitutional ban since 1991. No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Cape Verde Cape Verde Yes Legal since 2004
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[2] Emblem-question.svg
Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). (Age of consent discrepancy)[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
The Gambia Gambia No Illegal since 1888 (as Gambia Colony and Protectorate)
Penalty: Up to Iife imprisonment.[2][38][26]
No No No No No No
Ghana Ghana No Male illegal since 1860s (as Gold Coast)
Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more
Yes Female always legal.[2][39][26]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Guinea Guinea No
Penalty: 6 months to 3 years imprisonment.[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Yes Legal since 1993[2]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Liberia Liberia No Illegal
Penalty: 1 year imprisonment.[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Mali Mali Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[2] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Mauritania Mauritania No Illegal
Penalty: Death penalty (No public executions for any crime since 1987).[2]
No No No No No No
Niger Niger Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). (Age of consent discrepancy)[2] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Nigeria Nigeria No Illegal under federal law since 1901 (as Northern Nigeria Protectorate and Southern Nigeria Protectorate)
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment
No Illegal in the states of Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto, Yobe, and Zamfara
Penalty: Death penalty for men. Whipping and/or imprisonment for women.[2][40][26]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Senegal Senegal No Illegal
Penalty: 1 to 5 years imprisonment.[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone No Male illegal since 1861 (as the colony of Sierra Leone)
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment (Not enforced)
Yes Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Togo Togo No Illegal since 1884 (as Togoland)
Penalty: Fine and 3 years imprisonment.[2][26]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No

Central Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Cameroon Cameroon No Illegal since 1972
Penalty: Fines to 5 years imprisonment.[2][26]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Central African Republic Central African Republic Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Chad Chad Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).
(Age of consent discrepancy)[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[2] No No Constitutional ban since 2005. No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Yes Legal.[2] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Gabon Gabon Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign. (Age of consent discrepancy)[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). (Age of consent discrepancy)[2] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Saint Helena Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Emblem-question.svg Yes/No (In Ascension from 2016)[41] Emblem-question.svg Yes Since 2000. UK responsible for defence. Yes Constitutional ban all anti-gay on discrimination. Yes Since 2013.
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe Yes Legal since 2012
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg

Southeast Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Burundi Burundi No Illegal since 2009
Penalty: 3 months to 2 years imprisonment.[2][42]
No No Constitutional ban since 2005. No Emblem-question.svg No No
Kenya Kenya No Illegal since 1897 (as East Africa Protectorate)
Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment.[2][26]
No No Constitutional ban since 2010.[43] No No No No
Rwanda Rwanda Yes Legal since 1916 (Age of consent discrepancy)[26][2]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No Constitutional ban since 2003. No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Uganda Uganda No No Male illegal since 1894
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment
Female illegal since 2000
Penalty: Up to 7 years imprisonment.[2][26]
No Constitutional ban since 2005. No No No No
Tanzania Tanzania No Illegal since 1864 (only Zanzibar)
Illegal since 1899
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment.[2][26]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No

Horn of Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Djibouti Djibouti Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Eritrea Eritrea No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Ethiopia Ethiopia No Illegal
Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Somalia Somalia No Illegal
Penalty: Up to Death [44]
No No No No No No

Indian Ocean States[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Comoros Comoros No Illegal
Penalty: 5 years imprisonment & fines[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
French Southern and Antarctic Lands French Southern and Antarctic Lands
(Overseas territory of France)
Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the territory).[2]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes However, it requires sterilization for sex change.
Madagascar Madagascar Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). (Age of consent discrepancy)[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Mauritius Mauritius Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity; however, anal sex is illegal, punishable with 5 years' prison)
Yes Female always legal[45]
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[46][47] Emblem-question.svg
Mayotte Mayotte
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the department).[2]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes However, it requires sterilization for sex change.
Réunion Réunion
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791[2] Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes However, it requires sterilization for sex change.
Seychelles Seychelles Yes Legal since 2016[48]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[2] Emblem-question.svg

Southern Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Angola Angola No De facto illegal
Penalty: Fines, restrictions or penal labor (Not enforced)[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
Botswana Botswana No Illegal since 1885 (as Bechuanaland Protectorate)
Penalty: Fine to up to 7 years imprisonment (Not enforced)[2][26]
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
Lesotho Lesotho Yes Male legal since 2012
Female always legal[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Malawi Malawi No Illegal since 1891
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment & whippings (Law suspended from usage since 2012)[2][49][26]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Mozambique Mozambique Yes Legal since 2015[50][51] No No No No Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[2][46] Emblem-question.svg
Namibia Namibia No Male illegal since 1920 (Not enforced)[26]
Yes Female always legal[2][52][53]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
South Africa South Africa Yes Male legal since 1998
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes Limited recognition of unregistered partnerships since 1998; Same-sex marriage since 2006. Yes Legal since 2006 Yes Legal since 2002 Yes Since 1998 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Anti-discrimination laws are interpreted to include gender identity; legal gender may be changed after surgical or medical treatment.
Swaziland Swaziland No Male illegal since the 1880s
Yes Female always legal[2][26]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Zambia Zambia No Illegal since 1911
Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment[2][26]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe No Male illegal since 1891
Yes Female legal[2][26]
No No Constitutional ban since 2013 No Emblem-question.svg No No

Partially recognized or unrecognized states[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
(Excluding Southern Provinces)
No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment[2]
No No No No No No
Somaliland Somaliland No Illegal since 1941 (as British Somaliland Protectorate)
Penalty: Up to death [54]
No No No No No No


Views of African leaders on homosexuality[edit]

The president of Zimbabwe, Robert Mugabe, has been uncompromising in his opposition to LGBT rights in Zimbabwe. In September 1995, Zimbabwe's parliament introduced legislation banning homosexual acts.[55] In 1997, a court found Canaan Banana, Mugabe's predecessor and the first President of Zimbabwe, guilty of 11 counts of sodomy and indecent assault.[56] He has previously referred to lesbians and gays as being "worse than dogs and pigs".[57]

In Gambia, President Yahya Jammeh has led the call for legislation that would set laws against homosexuals that would be "stricter than those in Iran", and that he would "cut off the head" of any gay or lesbian person discovered in the country.[58] News reports indicated his government intended to execute all homosexuals in the country.[58] In the speech given in Tallinding, Jammeh gave a "final ultimatum" to any gays or lesbians in the Gambia to leave the country.[58] In a speech to the United Nations on 27 September 2013, Jammeh said that "[h]omosexuality in all its forms and manifestations which, though very evil, antihuman as well as anti-Allah, is being promoted as a human right by some powers," and that those who do so "want to put an end to human existence."[59] In 2014, Jammeh called homosexuals "vermins" by saying that "We will fight these vermins called homosexuals or gays the same way we are fighting malaria-causing mosquitoes, if not more aggressively,". He also went on to disparage the LGBT by saying that "As far as I am concerned, LGBT can only stand for Leprosy, Gonorrhoea, Bacteria and Tuberculosis; all of which are detrimental to human existence".[60][61] In 2015, in defiance of western criticism Jammeh intensified his anti-gay rhetoric, telling a crowd during an agricultural tour: "If you do it [in the Gambia] I will slit your throat — if you are a man and want to marry another man in this country and we catch you, no one will ever set eyes on you again, and no white person can do anything about it."[62]

In Uganda there have been recent efforts to institute the death penalty for homosexuality.[63][64] British newspaper The Guardian reported that President Yoweri Museveni "appeared to add his backing" to the legislative effort by, among other things, claiming "European homosexuals are recruiting in Africa", and saying gay relationships were against God's will.[65]

Abune Paulos, the late Patriarch of the ancient Ethiopian Orthodox Church, which has a very strong influence in Christian Ethiopia, stated homosexuality is an animal-like behaviour that must be punished.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 2 OUP, USA, 2010
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk "State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition" (PDF). International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  3. ^ Ferreira, Louise (28 July 2015). "How many African states outlaw same-sex relations? (At least 34)". Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  4. ^ ""Cameron threat to dock some UK aid to anti-gay nations", BBC News, 30 October 2011". BBC News. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  5. ^ ""Ghana refuses to grant gays' rights despite aid threat", BBC News, 2 November 2011". BBC News. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  6. ^ ""Uganda fury at David Cameron aid threat over gay rights", BBC News, 31 October 2011". BBC News. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  7. ^ "South Africa: LGBT Groups Respond To Contralesa's Stance On Same Sex Marriage | OutRight Action International". Outrightinternational.org. 2006-10-26. Retrieved 2015-09-29. 
  8. ^ Shaw, Angus (21 May 2012). "Zimbabwe Rejects UN Appeal for Gay Rights, Denies Torture Claims". The Huffington Post. Harare. Retrieved 29 September 2015. 
  9. ^ ""Gambian President Says No to Aid Money Tied to Gay Rights", Voice of America, reported by Ricci Shryock, 22 April 2012". VOA. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  10. ^ "African Anti-Gay Laws". Laprogressive.com. 2014-02-20. Retrieved 2015-02-24. 
  11. ^ "Una boda homosexual en el centro de inmigrantes de Melilla para "acabar con el miedo"". eldiario.es. Retrieved 2016-05-31. 
  12. ^ Badrudin, Assani. "Mayotte: First gay wedding soon celebrated on the island of perfumes". Indian Ocean Times - only positive news on indian ocean. Retrieved 2016-05-31. 
  13. ^ Planet, Lonely. "Gay and Lesbian travel in Africa - Lonely Planet". Retrieved 13 July 2016. 
  14. ^ a b c d Richard Parkinson: Homosexual Desire and Middle Kingdom Literature. In: The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology (JEA), vol. 81, 1995, pp. 57–76.
  15. ^ Emma Brunner-Traut: Altägyptische Märchen. Mythen und andere volkstümliche Erzählungen. 10th Edition. Diederichs, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-424-01011-1, pp. 178–179.
  16. ^ "Archaeological Sites". Wayback.archive.org. 2010-10-20. Archived from the original on 20 October 2010. Retrieved 2015-09-29. 
  17. ^ The Nuba: An Anthropological Study of the Hill Tribes in Kordofan, Siegfried Frederick Nadel, Oxford University Press, London, 1947
  18. ^ Rodney Needham, Right and Left: Essays on Dual Symbol Classification, University of Chicago Press, 1973.
  19. ^ Donald Donham, Work and Power in Maale, Ethiopia, 1994
  20. ^ Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study of Male Homosexuals, 1962
  21. ^ Gamst, Frederic C. (1969) The Qemant. A Pagan-Hebraic Peasantry of Ethiopia. New York: Holt, Rinehart And Winston.
  22. ^ Simon Messing, The Highland-Plateau Amhara of Ethiopia, 1957
  23. ^ "Long-Distance Trade and Foreign Contact". Uganda. Library of Congress Country Studies. December 1990. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
  24. ^ David Livingstone, The Last Journals of David Livingstone, in Central Africa, From 1865 to His Death, 1866-1873 Continued by a Narrative of His Last Moments and Sufferings
  25. ^ a b Will Roscoe and Stephen O. Murray(Author, Editor, Boy-wives and Female Husbands: Studies of African Homosexualities, 2001
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Where is it illegal to be gay? - BBC News". Bbc.com. Retrieved 2015-09-29. 
  27. ^ (Spanish) Reglamento regulador del Registro de Uniones de Hecho
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