LGBT rights in Australia
|LGBT rights in Australia|
|Same-sex sexual activity legal?||Legal nationwide since December 1994|
|Military service||Gays and lesbians allowed to serve openly since 1992|
|Discrimination protections||Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act 2013|
|De facto unions under federal law
Civil Unions in ACT
Civil Partnerships in QLD†
Domestic partnerships in NSW, VIC, TAS, SA
Unregistered de facto unions in WA, NT
|Adoption||Yes in TAS, ACT, NSW, WA and VIC†
No in NT, SA and QLD
† Laws not yet in effect in these jurisdictions
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) rights in Australia have gradually progressed since the late-20th century, to the point where anti-discrimination laws protect LGBT people in many areas of employment and service access, and same sex couples enjoy many of the same rights and benefits as non-same sex couples – with the notable exception of marriage.
Australia is a federation of several states and territories, meaning many of its laws with respect to LGBT and intersex rights originate from a sub-jurisdictional level. States and territories began granting domestic partnership benefits and civil unions to same-sex couples from the mid 2000s and federal law recognises same-sex couples as de facto unions. Same-sex marriage has been proposed to the Commonwealth Parliament multiple times, but the parliament has rejected the bills on all occasions. Marriage, for federal law purposes, is defined as the union of a man and woman. The Australian Capital Territory legalisation of same-sex marriage was annulled by the High Court of Australia on the grounds that only the federal parliament has the constitutional and legal authority to legalise same-sex marriage. Same-sex adoption varies across each state and territory, with a slight majority of states allowing both joint and step adoption whilst others have not legislated for same-sex adoption altogether. Discrimination protections on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity or expression are strongly protected in each state and territory, and federal protection laws have been in place since 1 August 2013.
Transgender Australians are able to change their legal gender in all states and territories and are recognised as their gender. The process of changing legal gender can come with legal and surgical boundaries, as is the case in New South Wales. Androgynous and genderqueer Australians are legally able to register their gender as 'non-specific' on personal legal documents related to sex.
Australia has been referred to by publications as one of the most gay friendly countries in the world, with recent polls indicating that a majority of Australians support same-sex marriage. A 2013 poll conducted by Pew Research indicated that 79% of Australians viewed that homosexuality should be accepted by society, making it the fifth most supportive country in the world behind Spain (88%), Germany (87%), Canada and Czech Republic (both 80%). Because of its long history in regard to LGBT rights and its annual three-week-long Mardi Gras festival, Sydney has been named one of the most gay friendly cities in the country and in the world.
- 1 Background
- 2 Laws regarding homosexuality
- 3 Sex and gender recognition
- 4 Medical treatment of transgender people
- 5 Medical treatment of intersex people
- 6 Recognition of same-sex relationships
- 7 Discrimination protections
- 8 Adoption and parenting rights
- 9 Social conditions
- 10 LGBT rights and religion in Australia
- 11 Summary table
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The term LGBTI is now used in Australia, rather than LGBT, with the I denoting intersex people. Organisations that include intersex people as well as LGBT people include the National LGBTI Health Alliance and community media. Also used are the more-inclusive terms LGBTQI and LGBTQIA, with the A including Asexual people.
Laws regarding homosexuality
During the British-colonial era in the 18th century, laws regarding same-sex sexual activity between men were influenced by British law and considered a capital crime, resulting in the execution of convicted sodomites. The death penalty for convicted sodomites was reduced to life imprisonment in 1899. During the mid to late-20th century, states and territories slowly began repealing their sodomy laws as awareness surrounding homosexuality began to flourish. Years of homosexual sex decriminalisation are as follows:
- Australian Capital Territory: October 1973
- South Australia: August 1975
- Victoria: March 1981
- Northern Territory: October 1983
- New South Wales: June 1984
- Western Australia: March 1990
- Queensland: November 1990
- Commonwealth of Australia: December 1994
- Tasmania: May 1997
Age of consent
All states and territories of Australia (except for Queensland), have age of consent laws that apply equally regardless of the gender and sexual orientation of participants. The age of consent in all states, territories and on the federal level is 16, except for Tasmania and South Australia where it is 17. The age of consent in Queensland is 16 for vaginal and oral sex, however the age of consent to sodomy (i.e., anal sex) is 18 for everyone. This law dates to 1990, when sodomy was decriminalised for both heterosexuals and gay men. The penalty for such sex in Queensland is up to 14 years jail, and it is not a defence that a person believed that the other participant was over 18.
Historical conviction expungement
Four out of eight jurisdictions within Australia (South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory) allow those convicted of historical consensual adult gay male same-sex sexual activity to apply for it to be expunged.
Sex and gender recognition
Birth certificates are within the jurisdiction of the states, whereas marriage and passports are matters for the Commonwealth.
Birth certificates are issued by States and Territories. In many States, sterilisation is (or has been) required for trans people to obtain recognition of their preferred gender in cardinal identification documents. For example, New South Wales Registry of Births Deaths & Marriages requires that trans people must have "undergone a sex affirmation procedure" In 2014, the Australian Capital Territory also passed legislation that removed the surgery requirement for changing the sex marker on birth certificates.
Organisation Intersex International Australia asserts that identification changes are managed differently for intersex people who wish to change documentation. They describe this as an administrative correction.
High Court ruling on "non-specific" gender
Norrie May-Welby is a Scottish-Australian who became the first transsexual person in Australia to publicly pursue a legal status of neither a man nor a woman. That status was subject to appeals by the State of New South Wales.
In April 2014, the High Court of Australia unanimously ruled in a case titled NSW Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages v Norrie  HCA 11 that, having undergone sex affirmation surgery, androgynous person Norrie was to be registered as neither a man nor a woman with the NSW Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages. The decision follows previous regulations and legislation that recognises a third gender classification, and establishes that Australia's legal system recognises and permits the gender registration of 'non-specific', as the judges found in the Norrie case.
Commonwealth guidelines issued in May 2013, and taking effect from 1 July 2013, enable any adult to choose to identify as male, female or X. Documentary evidence must be witnessed by a doctor or psychologist, but medical intervention is not required.
Alex MacFarlane was reported as receiving a passport with an 'X' sex descriptor in early 2003. This was stated by the West Australian to be on the basis of a challenge by MacFarlane, using an indeterminate birth certificate issued by the State of Victoria. It is stated on Councillor Tony Briffa's website that "my birth certificate is silent as to my sex". having previously been acknowledged as the world's first openly intersex mayor.
In 2011, the Australian Passport Office introduced new guidelines for issuing of passports with a new gender, and broadened availability of an X descriptor to all individuals with documented "indeterminate" sex. The revised policy stated that "sex reassignment surgery is not a prerequisite to issue a passport in a new gender. Birth or citizenship certificates do not need to be amended."
Medical treatment of transgender people
High Court ruling against sterilisation requirements for gender recognition
In 2012, AB v Western Australia, the High Court ruled that two transgender men who had undergone mastectomies and hormone treatment did not need to undergo sterilisation to obtain a gender recognition certificate.
Access to puberty blockers
In 2013, a twelve-year-old girl who had been assigned male at birth was granted access to reversible puberty blockers by a Family Court of Australia order. Justice Christine Dawe found that the "evidence is compelling and clearly indicates that the child is likely to suffer significant, detrimental, psychological and emotional effects" if she could not use drugs that would prevent the onset of male-typical puberty, such as a deepened voice and facial hair growth. The child had been diagnosed with gender dysphoria in 2008 and was acknowledged as a girl by her mother, step-father, extended family, teachers and doctors.
Medical treatment of intersex people
In October 2013, the Australian Senate published a report entitled 'Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of intersex people in Australia'. The Senate found that "normalising" surgeries are taking place in Australia, often on infants and young children. They commented, "normalisation surgery is more than physical reconstruction. The surgery is intended to deconstruct an intersex physiology and, in turn, construct an identity that conforms with stereotypical male and female gender categories" and, "Enormous effort has gone into assigning and ‘normalising’ sex: none has gone into asking whether this is necessary or beneficial. Given the extremely complex and risky medical treatments that are sometimes involved, this appears extremely unfortunate". The report makes 15 recommendations, including ending cosmetic genital surgeries on infants and children and providing for legal oversight of individual cases. The president of Organisation Intersex International Australia states that "The Senate Committee has changed the debate on the correct treatment of intersex differences. If adopted, its recommendations will effectively protect the rights of intersex children and future adults."
On 11 November 2014, the New South Wales Legislative Council in Australia passed a motion recognising stigma and human rights abuses, and calling on that State government to "work with the Australian Government to implement the recommendations" of the 2013 Senate committee report.
Recognition of same-sex relationships
Recognition of de facto relationships
Australia recognises same-sex relationships - including same-sex couples married in foreign jurisdictions or sub-jurisdictions - as de facto unions. Following the Australian Human Rights Commission's report Same-Sex: Same Entitlements and an audit of Commonwealth legislation, in 2009 the Australian Government introduced several reforms designed to equalise treatment for same-sex couples and same-sex couple families. The reforms amended 85 Commonwealth laws to eliminate discrimination against same-sex couples and their children in a wide range of areas. The reforms came in the form of two pieces of legislation, the Same-Sex Relationships (Equal Treatment in Commonwealth Laws-General Law Reform) Act 2008 and the Same-Sex Relationships (Equal Treatment in Commonwealth Laws-Superannuation) Act 2008. These laws amended several other existing Commonwealth Acts to equalise treatment for same-sex couples and any children such couples may be raising with respect to the following areas:
*Aged care and child support
For instance, with relation to social security and general family law, same-sex couples were not previously recognised as a couple for social security or family assistance purposes. A person who had a same-sex de facto partner was treated as a single person. The reforms ensured that same-sex couples were (for the first time under Australian law) recognised as a couple akin to opposite-sex partners. Consequently, a same-sex couple receives the same rate of social security and family assistance payments as an opposite-sex couple. Such reforms however, do not completely equalise treatment for same-sex couples, who for instance, do not have the same rights and entitlements as married heterosexual couples do with respect to workers' compensation death benefits, pensions for the partners of Defence Force veterans and access to carer's leave. Despite large equality of rights, Australia does not have a national registered partnership, civil union or same-sex relationship scheme.
From 1 July 2009 amendments to the Social Security Act 1991 meant that customers in a same-sex de facto relationship are recognised as partnered for Centrelink and Family Assistance Office purposes. All customers who are assessed as being a member of a couple have their rate of payment calculated in the same way.
Relationship recognition in states and territories
Most states and territories in Australia have civil union or domestic partnership laws, aside from Western Australia, Norfolk Island and the Northern Territory. Of the States that do have domestic partnerships, South Australia is the only one that lacks legislation for domestic partnership registries.
Same-sex couples may enter into civil unions in the Australian Capital Territory and civil partnerships in Queensland (this law is yet to come into effect). Both unions allow couples to have state-sanctioned ceremonies and Queensland's law is commonly referred to as civil unions. In New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania and Victoria, same-sex couples can enter into domestic registered partnerships. These provide conclusive proof of the existence of the relationship, thereby gaining the same rights afforded to de facto couples under state and federal law without having to prove any further factual evidence of the relationship. In this way, a registered relationship is similar to a registered partnership or civil union in other parts of the world. South Australia also allows domesic registered partnerships, though they must prove their relationship through a legal agreement known as a Domestic Partnership Agreement, a slightly more cumbersome process than in the other states. In Western Australia and the Northern Territory, same-sex couples must often seek juridical approval to prove a de facto relationship exists. Norfolk Island from 1 July 2016, will be incorporated into NSW legislation, under the Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Bill 2015.
As of December 2015, four Australian states (Tasmania, New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria), comprising 80% of Australia's population, recognise same-sex marriages and civil partnerships performed overseas, providing automatic recognition of such unions in their respective state registers.
|State/Territory||Official relationship status||Anti-discrimination legislation||Pending legislation|
|New South Wales||Domestic Partnership (Registry)||-|
|Norfolk Island||Domestic Partnership (Registry)||-|
|Northern Territory||Defined as 'De facto', no registry||-|
|South Australia||Domestic Partnership (Agreement - No Registry)||-|
|Tasmania||Domestic Partnership (Registry)||-|
|Victoria||Domestic Partnership (Registry)||Relationships Amendment Bill 2015 pending|
|Western Australia||Defined as 'De facto', no registry||-|
A general note about state same-sex marriage bills:
In December 2013, the Australian Capital Territory's Same Sex Marriage legislation was declared unconstitutional by the High Court of Australia due to inconsistency with the federal Marriage Act 1961. This may mean that the state parliaments do not have the legal capacity to legislate for same-sex marriage, even if they wanted to.
As a result of the Howard Government's amendment to the Marriage Act 1961 in 2004, federal law in Australia officially bans same-sex marriage. Recent attempts to legalise same-sex marriage nationwide have failed in the Australian Parliament. The current Turnbull Government has a policy opposing same-sex marriage though proposing a plebiscite on the issue be held sometime after the 2016 federal election. The opposition Australian Labor Party supports same-sex marriage in its party platform, though allows its parliamentary members to exercise their consciences on same-sex marriage legislation.
The Australian Capital Territory passed laws instituting territory-based same-sex marriage, which was rejected by the High Court of Australia. The High Court ruled against the law on 12 December 2013 contending that only federal parliament has the constitutional authority to legislate on the subject.
The High Court ruled in December 2013 that the Australian Capital Territory's same-sex marriage law was invalid, as s51(xxi) grants the Commonwealth Parliament the power to legislate with regard to marriage, and the federal definition of marriage overrides any state or territory definition under s109. The court did find, however, that "marriage" for the purposes of s51(xxi) includes same-sex marriage, thus clarifying that there is no constitutional impediment to the Commonwealth legislating for same-sex marriage in the future.
Immigration and sponsorship
In 1985, changes were made to the Migration Act 1958 (Cth) due to pressure from the Gay and Lesbian Immigration Task Force (GLITF). An interdependency visa was specifically created for same-sex couples, allowing Australian Citizens and Permanent Residents to sponsor their same-sex partners to Australia. Unlike married couples, de facto and interdependent partners must be able to prove a twelve-month committed relationship, but it can be waved if the couple is registered by the Department of Births, Marriage and Death, as per immigration guidelines. The temporary and permanent visas (Subclasses 310 and 110) allow the applicant to live, work, study and receive Medicare benefits in Australia.
Inheritance and property rights
Without the automatic legal protections that married couples receive under the law with regard to inheriting assets from their partners, same sex couples have had to take specific legal actions. Individuals are not entitled to a partial pension if their same-sex partner dies. Gay and de facto couples who separate did not have the same property rights as married couples under federal law and were required to use more expensive state courts, rather than the Family Court, to resolve disputes. The plan to grant equivalent rights to gays and de factos had been up for discussion since 2002, and all states eventually agreed, but the change was blocked because the Howard government insisted on excluding same-sex couples.
In June 2008, the Rudd Government introduced the Family Law Amendment (De Facto Financial Matters and Other Measures) Bill 2008 to allow same-sex and de facto couples access to the federal Family Court on property and maintenance matters, rather than the state Supreme Court. This reform was not part of the 100 equality measures promised by the Government but stem from a 2002 agreement between the states and territories that the previous Howard Government did not fulfill. Coalition amendments to the bill failed and it was passed in November 2008.
Prior to 1 August 2013 Australia did not comprehensively outlaw discrimination based on sexual orientation at the federal level. However, in response to Australia's agreement to implement the principle of non-discrimination in employment and occupation pursuant to the International Labour Organisation Convention No.111 (ILO 111), the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) Act established the HREOC in 1986, and empowers it to investigate complaints of discrimination in employment and occupation on various grounds, including sexual orientation, and to resolve such complaints by conciliation. If it cannot be conciliated, the Commission prepares a report to the federal Attorney-General who then tables the report in Parliament. Employment discrimination on the ground of "sexual orientation" is also rendered unlawful in the Fair Work Act 2009, allowing complaints to be made to the Fair Work Ombudsman.
The Human Rights (Sexual Conduct) Act 1994 provided that sexual conduct involving only consenting adults (18 years or over) acting in private would not be subject to arbitrary interference by law enforcement. This applies to any law of the Commonwealth, State or Territory.
In late 2010, the Gillard Labor Government announced that it is undertaking a review of federal anti-discrimination laws, with the aim of introducing a single equality act that would include sexual orientation and gender identity. This was abandoned and instead the Gillard Labor Government introduced another bill - which is mentioned below.
On 25 June 2013, the Australian Federal Parliament passed the Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Bill 2013 with overwhelming support in both houses and became law from Royal Assent three days later by the Governor-General. The amendment then became effective from 1 August 2013, making discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex people illegal for the first time in the world at a national level. Aged care providers who are owned by religious groups will no longer be able to exclude people from aged care services based on their LGBTI or same-sex relationship status. However, religious owned private schools and religious owned hospitals are exempt from gender identity and sexual orientation provisions in the Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Bill 2013. No religious exemptions exist on the basis of intersex status.
Aside from Commonwealth anti-discrimination laws, each of the states and territories have their own laws which protect LGBTI people from discrimination.
Adoption and parenting rights
States and territories make laws with respect to adoption and child-rearing. The laws with respect to same-sex parenting and adoption rights vary in each state and territory. Same-sex couples can jointly adopt in New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory, Western Australia, Tasmania and Victoria (eff. 1 September 2016) whilst, Queensland, the Northern Territory and South Australia bar same-sex couples from adopting jointly. The 2011 Australian census counted 6,300 children living in same-sex couple families, up from 3,400 in 2001, make up only one in a thousand of all children in couple families (0.1%). Altruistic surrogacy is legal in all Australian states and territories except Western Australia and South Australia, though commercial surrogacy is banned nationwide. In recent years, a dramatic increase in the use of overseas surrogacy programs has occurred amongst both same-sex and opposite-sex couples, creating some unique legal concerns with respect to citizenship and parenting rights. It is believed that only 1 in 20 surrogacy arrangements occur in Australia, with almost all involving foreign surrogates mainly from South-East Asia and the United States.
|State/Territory||Same-sex couple joint petition||LGBT individual adoption||Same-sex stepparent adoption|
|New South Wales||Yes (since 2010)||Yes (since 2000)||Yes (since 2010)|
|ACT||Yes (since 2004)||Yes (since 1993)||Yes (since 2004)|
|Western Australia||Yes (since 2002)||Yes||Yes (since 2002)|
|Tasmania||Yes (since 2013)||Yes||Yes (since 2004)|
|Victoria||Yes (from 1 September 2016)||Yes||Yes (since 2007)|
|Queensland||No||Yes (since 2009)||No|
|Northern Territory||No||Only in exceptional circumstances||No|
|South Australia||No (under review since 2014)||No singles, must only be an opposite-sex couple (married or cohabitating)||No|
In early 1992 a female reservist in the Australian Army made a complaint to the Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission on the basis that she was dismissed on the grounds of homosexuality. The Commission called for a review of the longstanding ban on LGBT personnel in the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and in June 1992, Defence Minister Senator Robert Ray instead took the step of strengthening the existing ban on LGBT personnel by including the definition of "unacceptable sexual acts" as inclusive of sexual harassment and offences under civil and military law. This led to significant outrage and in response Prime Minister Paul Keating established a special Labor Caucus Committee to examine the possibility of removing the ban on LGBT personnel in the military. By September 1992 the committee returned with a recommendation to remove the ban four votes to two, including the committee chairman Terry Aulich. Despite opposition of reform from within certain military groups and the RSL, this recommendation received support from Human Rights Commissioner Brian Burdekin and Attorney General Michael Duffy. The subsequent cabinet discussion on the issue resulted in the Keating government overturning the ban, despite the opposition of Ray within the cabinet. Following the decision, Prime Minister Keating, who had supported overturning the ban, announced that the decision "reflected community support for the removal of employment discrimination and brings the ADF into line with tolerant attitudes of Australians generally ... The ADF acknowledges there are male and female homosexuals among its members and has advised the Government that these members are no longer actively sought out or disciplined because of their sexual orientation."
Currently the ADF also recognises "interdependent relationships", which include same-sex relationships, regarding benefits available to active duty members. This means equal benefits in housing, moving stipends, education assistance and leave entitlements. To be recognised as interdependent, same-sex partners will have to show they have a "close personal relationship" that involves domestic and financial support. The ADF also gives equal access to superannuation and death benefits for same-sex partnerships. Under the Human Rights Commission Act 1986, discrimination or harassment on the grounds of sexual orientation, be it heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality, is prohibited. ADF members or APS employees are not to be asked about their sexual orientation, nor is sexual orientation, or alleged sexual orientation, to be adversely taken into consideration in promotion, posting or career development decisions.
The DEFGLIS (Defence Force Gay and Lesbian Information Service) is an unofficial organisation of Regular, Reserve and Civilian members of the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, intersex and transgender (GLBIT) and allies.
Blood donor ban
The Australian Red Cross Blood Service bans blood donations from men who have had sex with men (MSM) in the previous twelve months. Several other countries also have MSM bans ranging from one year to lifetime or permanent deferral. The policy was challenged in 2005 with the Tasmanian Anti-Discrimination Tribunal. Four years later in May 2009, the tribunal dismissed the complaint saying that it was "unsubstantiated".
LGBT rights and religion in Australia
Religious groups who oppose LGBT rights
Peter Jensen, former Archbishop of the Evangelical Anglican Diocese of Sydney, has vigorously opposed homosexuality, stating that accepting homosexuality is "calling holy what God called sin." Leaders of the Anglican Church of Australia have called for the removal of the proposed ACT Civil Union legislation, because they "believe this proposal actually threatens and compromises the traditional Christian view of marriage between a man and a woman."
Former Catholic Archbishop of Sydney Cardinal George Pell, the Catholic Church according to George Pell believes and teaches that sexual activity should be confined to married couples, a man and a woman, and opposes all extra-marital sexual activity. The Catholic Church will continue to oppose legitimizing any extra-marital sexual activity, including homosexual activity. It will also continue to oppose homosexual propaganda especially among young people, he states.
The Australian Federation of Islamic Councils, considered Australia's most important Islamic organisation, came out strongly against removing discrimination against same-sex partners in federal law. Chairman Ikebal Patel said such moves would threaten the "holy relationship" of marriage between a man and woman/a man and several women and the core values of supporting families.
The Salt Shakers is a Christian Ethics Action Group based in Melbourne, Victoria. It includes people from a number of Christian denominations and provides resources to Christians and churches. They also operate in the public arena by consulting, lobbying and presenting a Christian perspective on issues affecting society. This includes sending press releases, giving interviews for current affairs and other programs, making submissions to government, monitoring TV standards. They believe homosexuality is a sin.
The Christian organization Exclusive Brethren ran full page advertisements in various newspapers to criticise Tasmanian Greens' pro-Gay policies such as same-sex marriage, LGBTgay adoption and fostering (something already partially recognized by Tasmanian law) in the lead up to the 2006 Tasmanian State Election.
Gender Matters is a coalition of seventeen groups and organisations formed in October 2008, including the Australian Family Association, the National Alliance for Christian Leaders, Exodus Global Alliance, the Fatherhood Foundation and Salt Shakers, promoting traditional gender roles. Some of their demands include: That marriage be "forever preserved as the voluntary exclusive union of one man and one woman"; That adoption be restricted to heterosexual couples; That IVF and other reproductive technologies are reserved exclusively for heterosexuals; And a ban on same-sex civil unions and registers.
Religious groups who support LGBT rights
Since 2003, the Uniting Church in Australia has allowed sexually active gay and lesbian people to be ordained as ministers, with each individual presbyteries given discretion to decide the matter on a case-by-case basis.
A number of individual ministers of religion have publicised their support for LGBT rights and same sex marriage without their denomination taking an official position. Father Frank Brennan has published an essay in Eureka Street arguing that while religious institutions should be legally exempt from "any requirement to change their historic position and practice that marriage is exclusively between a man and a woman" drawing a distinction between civil law and the Catholic sacrament of marriage, and argued that recognition of civil unions or same sex marriages in civil law may become necessary if the overwhelming majority of the population supported such a change.
The Progressive Jewish community in Australia broadly supports LGBT rights, whereas the Orthodox branches are less accommodating, taking a staunchly conservative approach. On 5 June 2007 the Council of Progressive Rabbis of Australia, New Zealand, and Asia overturned their ban on same-gender commitment ceremonies. Nearly 4 years later, on 19 May 2011 the Rabbinic Council of Progressive Rabbis of Australia, Asia and New Zealand announced their support for marriage equality under Australian law. This news was broadly publicised via a media release issued by Australian Marriage Equality on 25 May 2011.
|Federal||Same-sex marriage||De facto relationships status||Registered relationships status||Equal age of consent||Anti-discrimination legislation||Adoption and foster parenting||Recognition of parents on birth certificate||Access to fertility (such as ART, IVF, surrogacy, AI, etc.)||Right to change legal gender|
|Australia||(Marriage Amendment Act 2004)||(family law)||(family law)||(covered by state/territory law)||(Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act 2013)||(family law)||(family law)||(family law)||(covered by state/territory law)|
|State/Territory||Expungement scheme implemented||Gay panic defense abolished||De facto relationships status||Registered relationships status||Equal age of consent||Anti-discrimination legislation||Adoption and foster parenting||Recognition of parents on birth certificate||Access to fertility (such as ART, IVF, surrogacy, AI, etc.)||Right to change legal gender|
|Australian Capital Territory|
|New South Wales|
|Queensland||(under review)||(pending)||(18 for anal sex)||(foster parents only)|
|South Australia||(under common law only)||(domestic partnership agreement)||(under review since 2014)||(ART & surrogacy banned)|
|Victoria||(from 1 September 2016)|
|Western Australia||/ (ART and IVF legal,
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to LGBT in Australia.|
- Recognition of same-sex unions in Australia
- LGBT adoption and parenting in Australia
- Human rights in Australia
- Category:LGBT rights activists from Australia
- Category:Intersex rights activists
- LGBT history in Australia
LGBT rights in Australian states and territories:
- LGBT rights in the Australian Capital Territory
- LGBT rights in New South Wales
- LGBT rights in the Northern Territory
- LGBT rights in Queensland
- LGBT rights in South Australia
- LGBT rights in Tasmania
- LGBT rights in Victoria
- LGBT rights in Western Australia
- "Human Rights (Sexual Conduct) Act 1994 - Sect 4". Commonwealth Consolidated Acts. Retrieved 2007-09-03.
- "Human Rights (Sexual Conduct) Act 1994". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act 2013". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Marriage aside, what laws still discriminate against gays? - Crikey". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- Star Observer, Star Observer, "Australia's most respected LGBTI news source", retrieved 18 April 2014
- "ACT legalises same-sex marriage". NEWS.com.au. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- "Change of sex".
- "House of Representatives Committees". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "The Global Divide on Homosexuality". Pew Research. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- "The 20 most and least gay-friendly countries in the world". GlobalPost. 26 June 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- "Sydney Things have changed enormously since the first Mardi Gras march was". The Independent. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- Star Observer, a community newspaper with the strapline "Australia's most respected LGBTI news source", retrieved 18 April 2014
- LGBTI people to watch in 2014, Gay News Network, 1 January 2014.
- "Sydney Mardi Gras Festival – Our Picks for 2014". Aussie Theatre. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Gay Law Reform in Australian States and Territories
- "Age of consent laws". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "CRIMINAL CODE 1899 - SECT 208 208 Unlawful sodomy". Retrieved 26 July 2015. line feed character in
|title=at position 30 (help)
- "ACT government move to strike out homosexual convictions and discrimination". Canberra Times.
- "ACT to make it easier for transgender people to alter birth certificate". ABC News. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- "On intersex birth registrations | OII Australia - Intersex Australia", OII Australia. 13 November 2009
- "Norrie May-Welby's battle to regain status as the world's first legally genderless person", Daily Life Australia. 8 November 2013
- High Court of Australia: Summary of ruling
- "NSW Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages v Norrie  HCA 11 (2 April 2014)". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Neither man nor woman: Norrie wins gender appeal". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Australian Government Guidelines on the Recognition of Sex and Gender". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "X marks the spot for intersex Alex", West Australian, via bodieslikeours.org. 11 January 2003
- "An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Neither man nor woman", Sydney Morning Herald. 27 June 2010
- "About Tony ... | cr Tony Briffa", Briffa.org, 2012
- "OII VP Tony Briffa to wed partner in NZ ceremony - Gay News Network", Gay News Network, 27 September 2013
- "Intersex Mayor Elected in Australia", Advocate.com, 9 December 2011
- "Tony Briffa Of Australia's City Of Hobsons Bay Becomes World's First Intersex Mayor", HuffingtonPost.com, 10 December 2011
- Sex Files: the legal recognition of sex in documents and government records. Concluding paper of the sex and gender diversity project (2009), Australian Human Rights Commission, March 2009.
- Ten years of ‘X’ passports, and no protection from discrimination, Organisation Intersex International (OII) Australia, 19 January 2013
- "Getting a passport made easier for sex and gender diverse people". The Hon Kevin Rudd MP. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- On Australian passports and "X" for sex, Organisation Intersex International (OII) Australia, 9 October 2011
- "Sex and Gender Diverse Passport Applicants". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Australian Government. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- Human Rights Commission, AB v Western Australia
- Andrew Pavey (21 October 2013). "Gender identity ruling allows child, 12, to start puberty-blocking drug therapy". The Courier-Mail. News Limited. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Second Report". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Statement on the Senate report 'Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of intersex people in Australia' - OII Australia - Intersex Australia". OII Australia - Intersex Australia. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Senate committee wants end to intersex sterilisation". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Australian Parliament committee releases intersex rights report". Gay Star News.
- "Intersex advocates address findings of Senate Committee into involuntary sterilisation". Gay News Network. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- Morgan Carpenter: It's time to defend intersex rights, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, The Drum, 15 November 2013
- "Legislative Council, Minutes Of Proceedings, No. 16, Tuesday 11 November 2014". New South Wales Legislative Council. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- NSW Legislative Council motion marking Intersex Awareness Day, 2014, Organisation Intersex International Australia, 11 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "Same Sex: Same Entitlements". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Same-sex reforms". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "NSW bill is about marriage, just not equality". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- ":Centrelink recognises same-sex relationships". Centrelink. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
- "NSW to get relationship register". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Bill 2015".
- "Norfolk Island reforms".
- "Media Release: Call for Feds to recognise overseas same-sex marriages-Victoria praised for marriage initiative". Australian Marriage Equality. 12 December 2015.
- "Commonwealth v Australian Capital Territory  HCA 55". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Marriage Amendment Act 2004". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Lower House votes down same-sex marriage bill". ABC News. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- Byrne, Elizabeth. "High Court rejects ACT same-sex marriage laws". ABC News. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- "The Commonwealth v Australian Capital Territory  HCA 55 (12 December 2013)". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Interdependency Visa: Offshore Temporary and Permanent (Subclasses 310 and 110)". Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- "Changes to Same-Sex Relationships from 1 July 2009". Immi.gov.au. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- Wallace, Rick (3 January 2008). "Push for equal gay and de facto couples' rights". The Australian. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- Dennett, Harley (26 June 2008). "Family Court Changes Afoot". SSOnet. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2008.
- Nader, Carol (2 September 2008). "Same-sex parenting rights push". The Age (Melbourne, Australia). Retrieved 2 September 2008.
- "Family Law Amendment (De Facto Financial Matters and Other Measures) Act 2008". Comlaw.gov.au. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- Discrimination, Fair Work Ombudsman
- "Human Rights (Sexual Conduct) Act 1994". Austlii. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- Red Book plan a step towards gay marriage, The Australian, 15 December 2010
- Australian Parliament, Explanatory Memorandum to the Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Bill 2013, 2013
- Australia outlaws LGBT discrimination under national laws for first time, 25 June 2013
- "4102.0 - Australian Social Trends, July 2013". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- Two dads and a surrogate create legal landmark
- "Concern as Australians turn to Thailand for surrogates". ABC News. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Surrogacy for cash on rise". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Surrogacy laws may leave Australian babies stateless". ABC News. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Australian state votes for adoption by same-sex couples". The Hindu (India). Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 2 September 2010. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
- "ADOPTION ACT 2000". Austlii.edu.au. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "ADOPTION ACT 1993". Austlii.edu.au. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "ADOPTION ACT 1994". Austlii.edu.au. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Adoption Act 1988 (Tas) – Sect 20. Persons in whose favour adoption orders may be made". Austlii. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- Adoption Amendment (Adoption by Same-Sex Couples) Act 2015
- "ADOPTION ACT 2009 No. 29". Austlii.edu.au. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Adoption of Children Act (NT)". Austlii. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- "Adoption Act review". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Adoption Act 1988 (SA)". South Australia Attorney-General's Department. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- "Ray backs force chiefs on gays.". The Canberra Times (ACT: National Library of Australia). 19 June 1992. p. 1. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Cabinet to lift services' ban on gays 'within weeks'.". The Canberra Times (ACT: National Library of Australia). 19 September 1992. p. 3. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- the recommendation was supported by committee members Aulich, Stephen Loosley, Olive Zakharov and Duncan Kerr, and was opposed by Ted Grace and Brian Courtice.
- "IN BRIEF.". The Canberra Times (ACT: National Library of Australia). 23 November 1992. p. 4. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Uproar as Govt ends forces' ban on gays.". The Canberra Times (ACT: National Library of Australia). 24 November 1992. p. 1. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- Navy News Volume 48 No. 21, 17 November 2005, page 06
- "Gays test Red Cross blood ban, by Erin O'Dwyer (October 9, 2005)". The Sun Herald. 9 October 2005. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
- "Kissing Qualifies as Sex". Sydney Star Observer. 23 August 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
- Carter, Paul (27 May 2009). "Gay blood donor's complaint against Red Cross dismissed". News.com.au. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- "Red Cross Donation Policy". Donateblood.com.au. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- Zwartz, Barney (3 February 2006). "Church imperilled by gays: archbishop". The Age (Melbourne, Australia). Retrieved 22 July 2007.
- "Church call to scrap gay union". News.com.au. 3 April 2006. Archived from the original on 21 February 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
- "Pell backs discrimination against gays". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
- Schubert, Misha (1 May 2008). "Battle lines drawn on gay unions". Brisbane Times. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- "The Salt Shakers And Homosexuality". The Salt Shakers. Archived from the original on 3 May 2008. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- Paine, Michelle (16 March 2006). "Church group challenged over 'negative' ads". News.com.au. Archived from the original on 20 February 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
- Hackney, Peter (22 October 2008). "New anti-gay threat emerges". SX News. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
- "HOMOSEXUALITY AND THE CHURCH" (PDF). Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "100 Revs". Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- Frank Brennan (11 July 2013). "It's time to recognise secular same sex marriage". Eureka Street. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- "Rabbis Permitted to Officiate at Same-Gender Commitment Ceremonies" (PDF). Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- "Rabbis Marriage Equality Statement" (PDF). Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- "Rabbis give strong support to same-sex marriage". Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- "Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Bill 2013". Retrieved 26 July 2015.
Reviews of Laws
- Australian Human Rights Commission – Resilient Individuals: Sexual Orientation Gender Identity & Intersex Rights 2015
History and Activism
- Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives
- Living Out Loud: A History of Gay and Lesbian Activism in Australia by Graham Willett, ISBN 1-86448-949-9, 2000.
- Mapping Homophobia In Australia Study
- Queen City of the South Melbourne Queer History radio series
Adoption and Parenting
- Gay Dads Australia Surrogacy Guide
- Same Sex Couple Adoption: The Situation in Canada and Australia Parliament of Australia
- NSW Law Reform Commission Report, 1988 – Artificial Conception: In Vitro Fertilization
- Same Sex Parenting by Paul Boers, Senior Associate of Dimocks Family Lawyers. FindLaw.com (April 2005)
- Marriage aside, what laws still discriminate against gays?
- Australia National Laws
- Federal and State Anti-Discrimination Law
- Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships Briefing Paper 9/2006 New South Wales Parliament
- World conference on LGBT rights
- Interdependency Visa: Offshore Temporary and Permanent (Subclasses 310 and 110)
- Sinnes, G.R. Australia Encyclopaedia of Homosexuality. Dynes, Wayne R. (ed.), Garland Publishing, 1990. pp. 93–97